Towards the annotation of communicative structure in corpora
- Burga, Alicia; Mille, Simon; Wanner, Leo
Communicative structure is central to the linguistic representation at nearly all levels of the
Meaning-Text Models (MTMs). Its correlation with lexical and syntactic features makes it
also essential for such natural language processing applications as text generation, which is
about to undergo a significant shift from the symbolic, rule-based paradigm to the statistical
paradigm. In the statistical paradigm, the availability of sufficiently large corpora annotated
with linguistic information, and thus also with the communicative structure (CommStr), is
critical. However, to the best of our knowledge, so far no corpora annotated with CommStr in
the sense of the Meaning-Text Theory are available. We describe two experiments that
Semantic analysis based on linguistic and ontological resources
- Boguslavsky, Igor
We describe a recently launched project whose objective is to develop an advanced converter
of natural language text to semantic structures. The project basically consists in enriching the
ETAP-3 linguistic processor, developed by the Institute for Information Transmission
Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, with a new module - that of semantic analysis. An
important feature of this module is that it will use not only linguistic knowledge incorporated
in the grammar and the combinatorial dictionary, but also extralinguistic knowledge stored in
the ontology and contextual information accumulated in the fact repository. We developed a
small ontology that serves as the semantic metalanguage for Semantic Structures. Several
Il condominio di Via della Notte. Invito alla narrativa di Maria Attanasio
- Messina, Nicolò
Maria Attanasio is a skilful poet and novelist, that has been writing
since the seventies. She has published six books of poems (one
translated into Spanish, and two into English) and seven of prose
narrative. Her novels are historical, but in the line of novelized
history, and they range from the seventeenth century to the present
day. Her latest novel, The Building on Night St., moves to a
dystopian future that is already part of our present. The
protagonists of her books are all �nonaligned�, outcasts and rebels;
they are all women with one exception (The Forger of Caltagirone).
All of them take place in Eastern Sicily and the...
Impact of family language and testing language on reading performance in a bilingual educational context
- Elosua Oliden, Paula; Mujika Lizaso, Josu
Background: When different languages co-exist in one area, or when one person speaks more than one language, the impact of language on psychological and educational assessment processes can be considerable. The aim of this work was to study the impact of testing language in a community with two official languages: Spanish and Basque. Method: By taking the PISA 2009 Reading Comprehension Test as a basis for analysis, four linguistic groups were defined according to the language spoken at home and the test language. Psychometric equivalence between test forms and differences in results among the four language groups were analyzed. The...
Individual Differences in the Verification of Sentence-Picture Relationships
- Colin M. MacLeod; Earl B. Hunt; Nancy N. Mathews
In a modification of the familiar sentence-picture comprehension task (Chase & Clark, 1972), 70 university undergraduates verified simple sentence-picture pairs. Two reaction times were collected on each trial: (a) comprehension time, the time to study a sentence of the form PLUS IS (NOT) ABOVE STAR, and (b) verification time, the time to verify whether a picture of the form,+ was true with respect to the sentence. The verification reaction times of individual subjects were fit to the Carpenter and Just (1975) constituent comparison model and two groups of subjects were isolated. The larger group was well fit by the model,...
Prediction at all levels: forward model predictions can enhance comprehension
- Garrod, Simon; Gambi, Chiara; Pickering, Martin J.
We discuss two limitations of Hickok's account. First, we propose that ideas from motor control and planning should be brought wholesale into psycholinguistics so that processing at every level of the linguistic hierarchy (from concepts to sounds) should be recast in terms of forward model predictions and implementation. Second, we argue that motor involvement can sometimes enhance perception. We conclude that our account is consistent with a dual route model of comprehension in which different routes to prediction can interact.
Modelling Grammar Growth; Universal grammar without innate principles or parameters
- Georgia M. Green
This paper sketches a solution to the string-to-structure problem in first language acquisition within a set of emergentist assumptions that minimizes innate linguistic knowledge, minimizes demands for linguistic analysis by the language learner, and maximizes the projection of lexical properties of words. These conceptual constraints minimize the rules that have to be developed---in number, in complexity, and in diversity. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the compatibility of theories of grammar which describe grammars of natural languages in terms of inheritance hierarchies of constraints on linguistic object types such as word, phrase, (syntactic) category, semantic content, referential index,...
Understanding Narrative is Like Observing Agents
- Guido Boella; Rossana Damiano; Leonardo Lesmo
this paper, we suggest that AI techniques, especially the ones developed in the field of agent modeling and intelligent interfaces, can be exploited both to build systems for narrative understanding and to allow agents to describe their own behavior in a narrative style. In particular, we will show how it is possible to exploit a model of dialog interpretation for building a system that understands stories and produces a representation of the characters' plans and intentions. First of all, the notion of belief-desire-and-intention (BDI) agents seems to be relevant to dialog interpretation. The aim of BDI models is to build...
A System for Facilitating and Enhancing Web Search
- Steffen Staab; Christian Braun; Ilvio Bruder; Antje Düsterhöft; Andreas Heuer; Meike Klettke; Günter Neumann; Bernd Prager, et al.
We present a system that uses semantic methods and natural language processing capabilites in order to provide comprehensive and easy-to-use access to tourist information in the WWW. Thereby, the system is designed such that as background knowledge and linguistic coverage increase, the benefits of the system improve, while it guarantees state-of-the-art information and database retrieval capabilities as its bottom line.
Indirect Speech Acts and Politeness: A Computational Approach
- Liliana Ardissono; Guido Boella; Leonardo Lesmo
This paper describes a framework for the representation and interpretation of indirect speech acts, relating them to the politeness phenomenon, with particular attention to the case of requests. The speech acts are represented as actions of a plan library and are activated on the basis of the presence of syntactic and semantic information in the linguistic form of the input utterance. The speech act analyzer receives in input the semantic representation of the input sentence and uses the politeness indicators to climb up the decomposition and generalization hierarchies of acts encoded in the library. During this process, it eliminates the...
Recognizing Preliminary Sentences in Dialogue Interpretation
- Liliana Ardissono; Guido Boella; Dario Sestero
. In traditional plan-based dialogue interpretation systems, speech-acts are directly used for identifying the speaker's domain plans and little analysis is performed of the role of sentences in dialogue. This may lead to the activation of a large number of hypotheses on an agent's domain plans. In this paper, we describe how to interpret background sentences occurring in a dialogue by using knowledge coming from the linguistic and domain levels, and from a model of the user. We consider two kinds of utterances: the first one justifies the performance of subsequent speech-acts; the second represents information to be used for...
Shadows of Fuzzy Sets -- A Natural Way to Describe 2-D and Multi-D Fuzzy Uncertainty in Linguistic Terms
- Hung Nguyen Berlin; Vladik Kreinovich
Fuzzy information processing systems start with expert knowledge which is usually formulated in terms of words from natural language. This knowledge is then usually reformulated in computer-friendly terms of membership functions, and the system transform these input membership functions into the membership functions which describe the result of fuzzy data processing. It is then desirable to translate this fuzzy information back from the computer-friendly membership functions language to the humanfriendly natural language. In a 1-D case, when we are interested in a single quantity y, it is usually easy to describe the resulting membership function by a word from natural...
Expanding the Domain of a Multi-lingual Speech-to-Speech Translation System
- Alon Lavie; Lori Levin; Puming Zhan; Maite Taboada; Donna Gates; Mirella Lapata; Cortis Clark; Matthew Broadhead; Alex Waibel
JANUS is a multi-lingual speech-to-speech translation system, which has been designed to translate spontaneous spoken language in a limited domain. In this paper, we describe our recent preliminary efforts to expand the domain of coverage of the system from the rather limited Appointment Scheduling domain, to the much richer Travel Planning domain. We compare the two domains in terms of out-of-vocabulary rates and linguistic complexity. We discuss the challenges that these differences impose on our translation system and some planned changes in the design of the system. Initial evaluations on Travel Planning data are also presented.
Qualitative Modeling and Controller Design using Dynamic Fuzzy Systems
- Klaus Schmid; Volker Krebs
: Qualitative modeling may be applied when knowledge about a system is only available in linguistic form. The knowledge might be processed by a dynamic fuzzy system consisting of a rule base and an inference method modeling human reasoning. Conventional fuzzy inference methods do not consider this association to human reasoning and therefore are not suitable for the dynamic processing of linguistic knowledge. Inference has to provide both, quantitative and qualitative information about the model output. In this paper a new inference method based on the concept of interpolating rules is presented. It results in a mapping of fuzzy inputs...
What Conceptual Graph Workbenches Need for Natural Language Processing
- Graham A. Mann
. An important capability of the conceptual graph knowledge engineering tools now under development will be the transformation of natural language texts into graphs (conceptual parsing) and its reverse, the production of text from graphs (conceptual generation). Are the existing basic designs adequate for these tasks? Experience developing the BEELINE system's natural language capabilities suggests that good entry/editing tools, a generous but not unlimited storage capacity and efficient, bidirectional lexical access techniques are needed to support the supply of data structures at both the linguistic and conceptual knowledge levels. An active formalism capable of supporting declarative and procedural programs containing...
Recognition of Problem-solving Plans in Dialogue Interpretation
- Liliana Ardissono Guido; Guido Boella; Leonardo Lesmo
The paper addresses the role of problem solving plans in the interpretation of natural language dialogues. It introduces a library of actions which describes in a declarative way the different steps made in the process of planning and executing an action. The library is used to trace the activity of a speaker: the recognition of her plans and goals is driven by the problem solving library, which specifies how domain and linguistic actions have been connected to each other. Introduction This paper aims at clarifying the role of problemsolving plans in modeling the process of plan and goal recognition of...
Towards A Formal Framework For Linguistic Annotations
- Steven Bird; Mark Liberman
`Linguistic annotation' is a term covering any transcription, translation or annotation of textual data or recorded linguistic signals. While there are several ongoing efforts to provide formats and tools for such annotations and to publish annotated linguistic databases, the lack of widely accepted standards is becoming a critical problem. Proposed standards, to the extent they exist, have focussed on file formats. This paper focuses instead on the logical structure of linguistic annotations. We survey a wide variety of annotation formats and demonstrate a common conceptual core. This provides the foundation for an algebraic framework which encompasses the representation, archiving and...
COLOR-X: Validating Linguistically-based Conceptual Models
- J. F. M. Burg; R.P. van de Riet
This paper discusses a requirements engineerings method that makes heavy use of linguistic instruments. The paper focuses on the validation phase in which syntactically verified conceptual models are checked for their correspondence with the original intentions of the users. It is quite clear that the users themselves are the only ones who are capable of doing so. However, the users have severe problems reading and understanding the conceptual models created by software analysts. Therefore, two validation techniques have been incorporated in the requirements engineerings method, that transform the models in formats that are understandable for the users. The first technique...
Multidimensional Exploration of Online Linguistic Field Data
- Steven Bird
Advances in storage technology make it possible to house virtually unlimited quantities of recorded speech data online. Advances in character-encoding technology make it possible to create platform-independent transcriptions. Advances in web technology make it possible to publish this data for essentially no marginal cost. These developments have profound consequences for the accessibility, quality and quantity of linguistic field data. Recordings become accessible. Transcriptions become verifiable. Large corpora become manageable. In order to illustrate the potential for this mode of operation in field linguistics, I describe a piece of online fieldwork involving a tone language of Cameroon. A complex verb paradigm...
Modeling the Retrieval Process of an Information Retrieval System Using an Ordinal Fuzzy Linguistic Approach
- E. Herrera-viedma
A linguistic model of an Information Retrieval System (IRS) dened using an ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach is proposed. The ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach is presented and the use of it for modeling the imprecision and subjectivity that appears in the user-IRS interaction is studied. The user queries and IRS responses are modeled linguistically using the concept of fuzzy linguistic variable. The system accepts Boolean queries whose terms are weighted by means of ordinal linguistic values according to three semantics at a time: threshold semantic, quantitative semantic and importance semantic. The threshold and importance semantics are used by the users in...