Interpreting Changes In The Fuzzy Sets Of A Self-Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Controller
- Detlef Nauck; Rudolf Kruse
We describe a procedure for the adaptation of membership functions in a fuzzy control environment by using neural network learning principles. The changes in the fuzzy sets can be easily interpreted. By using a fuzzy error that is propagated back through the architecture of our fuzzy controller, we receive an unsupervised learning technique, where each rule tunes the membership functions of its antecedent and its consequence. INTRODUCTION Classical control theory is based on mathematical models that describe the behaviour of the plant under consideration. The main idea of fuzzy control [9, 10], which has proved to be a very successful...
- And The; Harald Trost; Deutsches Forschungszentrum; Kunstliche Intelligenz Gmbh; Wolfgang Heinz; Johannes Matiasek; Ernst Buchberger
This paper describes certain aspects of Datenbank-DIALOG 1 , a German language interface to relational databases developed at the Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence. Besides giving a short overview of the system architecture it emphasizes the issues of portability and habitability and how they are being tackled in the design of Datenbank-DIALOG. To demonstrate how design strategies support the development of a habitable system we take examples from the area of comparisons and measures, both of which are important for many application domains and nontrivial from a linguistic point of view. Datenbank-DIALOG has been fully implemented and is accessible...
A Geometric Approach to Mapping Bitext Correspondence
- I. Dan Melamed
The first step in most corpus-based multilingual NLP work is to construct a detailed map of the correspondence between a text and its translation. Several automatic methods for this task have been proposed in recent years. Yet even the best of these methods can err by several typeset pages. The Smooth Injective Map Recognizer (SIMR) is a new bitext mapping algorithm. SIMR's errors are smaller than those of the previous front-runner by more than a factor of 4. Its robustness has enabled new commercial-quality applications. The greedy nature of the algorithm makes it independent of memory resources. Unlike other bitext...
Integrating Reflection, Strong Typing and Static Checking
- D. Stemple; R. Morrison; G. N. C. Kirby; R. C. H. Connor; Mae+ Mccarthy; M. I. The Lisp
We define and present the computational structure of linguistic reflection as the ability of a running program to generate new program fragments and to integrate these into its own execution. The integration of this kind of reflection with compiler based, strongly typed programming languages is described. This integration is accomplished in a manner that preserves strong typing and does not unduly limit the amount of static type checking that can be performed. The benefits that accrue to linguistic reflection in the area of database and persistent programming languages are outlined and two examples are given.
Writing and Correcting Textual Scenarios for System Design
- Camille Ben Achour; Camille Ben Achour
Since a few years, scenarios have gained in popularity in Requirements Engineering. Textual scenarios are narrative descriptions of flows of actions between agents. They are often proposed to elicit, validate or document requirements. The CREWS experience has shown that the advantage of scenarios is their easiness of use, and that their disadvantage stands in the lack of guidelines for 'quality' authoring. In this article, we propose guidance for the authoring of scenarios. The guided scenario authoring process is divided into two main stages : the writing of scenarios, and the correcting of scenarios. To guide the writing of scenarios, we...
Distributed Parsing With HPSG Grammars
- Intelligenz Gmbh; Abdel Kader Diagne; Walter Kasper; Hans-Ulrich Krieger; Deutsches Forschungszentrum
Unification-based theories of grammar allow for an integration of different levels of linguistic descriptions in the common framework of typed feature structures. Dependencies among the levels are expressed by coreferences. Though highly attractive theoretically, using such codescriptions for analysis create problems of efficiency. We present an approach to a modular use of codescriptions on the syntactic and semantic level. Grammatical analysis is performed by tightly coupled parsers running in tandem, each using only designated parts of the grammatical description. In the paper we describe the partitioning of grammatical information for the parsers and present results about the performance. Acknowledgements. We...
A Fuzzy Perceptron as a Generic Model for Neuro-Fuzzy Approaches
- Detlef Nauck
This paper presents a fuzzy perceptron as a generic model of multilayer fuzzy neural networks, or neural fuzzy systems, respectively. This model is suggested to ease the comparision of different neuro--fuzzy approaches that are known from the literature. A fuzzy perceptron is not a fuzzification of a common neural network architecture, and it is not our intention to enhance neural learning algorithms by fuzzy methods. The idea of the fuzzy perceptron is to provide an architecture that can be initialized with prior knowledge, and that can be trained using neural learning methods. The training is carried out in such a...
A compositional treatment of polysemous arguments in Categorial Grammar
- Anne-Marie Mineur; Paul Buitelaar
We discuss an extension of the standard logical rules (functional application and abstraction) in Categorial Grammar (CG), in order to deal with some specific cases of polysemy. We borrow from Generative Lexicon theory which proposes the mechanism of coercion, next to a rich nominal lexical semantic structure called qualia structure. In a previous paper we introduced coercion into the framework of sign-based Categorial Grammar and investigated its impact on traditional Fregean compositionality. In this paper we will elaborate on this idea, mostly working towards the introduction of a new semantic dimension. Where in current versions of sign-based Categorial Grammar only...
Constructing Fuzzy Models with Linguistic Integrity - AFRELI Algorithm
- Jairo J. Espinosa; Joos Vandewalle; Joos V
We present an algorithm to extract rules relating input-output data. The rules are created in the environment of fuzzy systems. The concept of linguistic integrity is discussed and used as a framework to propose an algorithm for rule extraction (AFRELI). The algorithm is complemented with the use of the FuZion algorithm created to merge consecutive membership functions and guaranteed the distinguishability between fuzzy sets on each domain. Keywords Fuzzy Modeling, function approximation, knowledge extraction, data minning I. Introduction Mathematical models are powerful tools to natural phenomena represent in a systematic way . They open the possibility of studying the behavior...
A Database Interface for File Update
- Serge Abiteboul; Sophie Cluet; Tova Milo
this paper, we consider how structured data stored in files can be updated using database update languages. The interest of using database languages to manipulate files is twofold. First, it opens database systems to external data. This concerns data residing in files or data transiting on communication channels and possibly coming from other databases . Secondly, it provides high level query/update facilities to systems that usually rely on very primitive linguistic support. (See  for recent works in this direction). Similar motivations appear in [4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21] In a previous...
Semantic-Oriented Chart Parsing with Defaults
- Thomas Stürmer
We present a computational model of incremental, interactive text analysis. The model is based on an active chart and supports interleaved syntactic and semantic processing. It can handle intra- and intermodular constraints without forcing the use of the same formalism for the description of syntactic and semantic knowledge. An essential part of the model are defaults which guide an analysis algorithm based on our approach to compute the most plausible solution. We will argue that the resulting computation can be understood as semanticoriented parsing. We will also show how our model can be abstracted into a NL understanding system architecture,...
A Proposal for Improving the Accuracy of Linguistic Modeling
- O. Cordón; F. Herrera
Nowadays, Linguistic Modeling is considered to be one of the most important areas of application for Fuzzy Logic. Descriptive Mamdani-type Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems (FRBSs), the ones used to perform this task, provide a human-readable description of the model in the form of linguistic rules, which is a desirable characteristic in many problems. Unfortunately, interpretability and accuracy are contradictory requirements in the field of modeling. Due to this reason, in many cases the linguistic model designed is not accurate to a sufficient degree and has to be discarded and replaced by other less interpretable but more accurate models (fuzzy models generated...
Optimization Under Fuzzy Linguistic Rule Constraints
- Christer Carlsson; Robert Fullér; Silvio Giove
Suppose we are given a mathematical programming problem in which the functional relationship between the decision variables and the objective function is not completely known. Our knowledge-base consists of a block of fuzzy if-then rules, where the antecedent part of the rules contains some linguistic values of the decision variables, and the consequence part is a linear combination of the crisp values of the decision variables. We suggest the use of Takagi and Sugeno fuzzy reasoning method to determine the crisp functional relationship between the objective function and the decision variables, and solve the resulting (usually nonlinear) programming problem to...
Behavior-based Language Generation for Believable Agents
- A. Bryan Loyall; Joseph Bates
We are studying how to create believable agents that perform actions and use natural language in interactive, animated, real-time worlds. We have extended Hap, our behavior-based architecture for believable non-linguistic agents, to better support natural language text generation. These extensions allow us to tightly integrate generation with other aspects of the agent, including action, perception, inference and emotion. We describe our approach, and show how it leads to agents with properties we believe important for believability, such as: using language and action together to accomplish communication goals; using perception to help make linguistic choices; varying generated text according to emotional...
A Modular Calculus for Module Systems
- Davide Ancona; Elena Zucca; Via Dodecaneso
. We present a simple and powerful calculus of modules supporting mutual recursion and higher order features. The calculus allows to encode a large variety of existing mechanisms for combining software components, including parameterized modules like ML functors, extension with overriding of object-oriented programming, mixin modules and extra-linguistic mechanisms like those provided by a linker. As usual, we rst present an untyped version of our calculus and then a type system which is proved sound w.r.t. the reduction semantics; moreover we give a translation of other primitive calculi. Introduction Considerable eort has been recently invested in studying theoretical foundations and...
Objecthood: An event structure perspective
- Beth Levin
this paper. Since transitive verbs necessarily have objects, a challenge for theories of transitivity is how to deal with the just-mentioned problems involving the semantic correlates of objecthood. In this paper I revisit these issues from a novel perspective, showing that the notion `object' of a transitive verb can be fruitfully explored in the context of recent work on the structure and representation of verb meaning and the licensing of arguments. Much recent research has converged on the notion `event' as an important organizing notion in the linguistic representation of meaning, and the grammatically-relevant component of a representation of verb...
Extracting Semantic Features for Aspectual Meanings from a Syntactic Representation Using Neural Networks
- Gabriele Scheler
The main point of this paper is to show how we can extract semantic features, describing aspectual meanings, from a syntactic representation. The goal is to translate English to Russian aspectual categories. This is realized by a specialized language processing module, which is based on the concept of vertical modularity. The results of supervised learning of syntactic-semantic correspondences using standard back-propagation show that both learning and generalization to new patterns is successful. Furthermore, the correct generation of Russian aspect from the automatically created semantic representations is demonstrated. 1 Introduction A common goal of theoretical linguistic work as well as machine...
Engineering of KR-Based Support Systems for Conceptual Modelling & Analysis
- Ernesto Compatangelo; Francesco M. Donini; Giovanni Rumolo
Most of present intelligent knowledge management environments for conceptual modelling and analysis suffer, in our opinion, from mixing two representation levels: (1) a conceptual level, where domain-specific concepts are represented (e.g., data and processes in Data-Flow Diagrams); (2) an epistemological level, where inferences are drawn from domain-independent linguistic constructors (e.g., concepts and roles in Description Logics). We propose an engineering approach to the development of new systems, where the two levels are separately represented and are either linked by the protodl methodology or by concept emulators. We exemplify our approach by modelling Data-Flow Diagrams in level (1) and by using...
Speech Recognition Using Dynamical Model of Speech Production
- Ken-ichi Iso
We propose a speech recognition method based on the dynamical model of speech production. The model consists of an articulator and its control command sequences. The latter has linguistic information of speech and the former has the articulatory information which determines transformation from linguistic intentions to speech signals. This separation makes our speech recognition model more controllable. It provides new approaches to speaker adaptation and to coarticulation modeling. The effectiveness of the proposed model was examined by speaker-dependent letter recognition experiments. Visiting Scientist from C & C Information Technology Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 4-1-1 Miyazaki, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216, JAPAN Keywords:...
Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees
- Patrick Blackburn; Wilfried Meyer-viol
A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the `mother of', ` first daughter of' and `second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures. The relevant class of tree models is defined and three linguistic applications of this language are discussed: context free grammars, command relations, and trees decorated with feature structures. An axiomatic proof system is given for which completeness is shown with respect to the class of finite ordered binary trees. A number of decidability results follow....