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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 161 - 180 de 52,133

161. Clitic reduplication constructions in Bulgarian* - Iliyana Krapova; Guglielmo Cinque
This paper discusses clitic reduplication constructions in Bulgarian. In contrast to traditional analyses, it distinguishes clitic doubling proper, which is restricted to clauses with psych and physical perception predicates, from other constructions that involve reduplication of an argument by a clitic, notably, left and right dislocation, focus movement, and hanging topic construction. Several properties of clitic doubling proper are identified, among which obligatory doubling of quantifiers, wh-phrases and focus phrases. These are argued to be the distinguishing features of this construction in Bulgarian, given the cross-linguistic evidence from Romance and other languages. 1.

162. Systems Group (IICS), - Ulrich Furbach A; Ingo Glöckner B; Björn Pelzer A
The LogAnswer system is an application of automated reasoning to the field of open domain question answer-ing. In order to find answers to natural language ques-tions regarding arbitrary topics, the system integrates an automated theorem prover in a framework of natu-ral language processing tools. The latter serve to con-struct an extensive knowledge base automatically from given textual sources, while the automated theorem prover makes it possible to derive answers by deductive reasoning. In the paper, we discuss the requirements to the prover that arise in this application, especially concerning efficiency and robustness. The proposed so-lution rests on incremental reasoning, relaxation...

163. Evaluating Corporate Loans via a Fuzzy MLMCDM Approach - A. Velásquez
Abstract: A defuzzification based fuzzy MLMCDM model is proposed for the evaluation of commercial loans, where the importance weights of the criteria in the criteria structure and the ratings of alternatives versus subjective criteria are assessed in linguistic values represented by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. These fuzzy numbers are defuzzified through the ranking approach of center of area (COA) before applying to the model in order to avoid the problem of multiplying more than two fuzzy numbers. The COA defuzzification for a trapezoidal fuzzy number has the following three situations: • If area abg> area bdhg. COA lies between a and...

164. SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS AND A THEORY OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION
Systemic functional linguistic (SFL) theory has never acknowledged a clearcut distinction between theoretical and applied interests. Instead, the theory has tended to develop often in response to applied needs and questions, while in turn the theoretical gains that are made have tended to provoke further questions from applied contexts. The emergence of language in education theory, one of the primary applied interests in SFL theory, reveals how successful has been the dialogue between theoretical questions and applied questions. Two important themes in SFL theory, having significance for the emergence of language in education theory in Australia since the 1960s, have...

165. The influence of lexical, conceptual and planning based factors on disfluency production - Michael J. Schnadt; Martin Corley
Two experiments were conducted to elicit naturalistic speech, while manipulating factors thought to influence disfluency production. Participants described the route taken by a marker through visually presented networks of objects linked via one or more paths. In Experiment 1, lexical frequency and name agreement of the object names were manipulated; in Experiment 2, linguistic properties were kept constant and accessibility was manipulated through visual blurring. An increase in disfluency was observed immediately preceding object names in cases where the objects named were either low frequency or blurred. In both experiments, prolongations were the most frequently occurring class of disfluency. Additionally,...

166. Articulatory Gestures and Focus Marking in German - Anne Hermes; Johannes Becker; Doris Mücke; Stefan Baumann; Martine Grice
This study reports on a production experiment investigating tonal and articulatory means of encoding different focus structures in German. Using an electromagnetic articulograph, we examined the movements of the upper and lower lips (related to sonority expansion) during the production of target words occurring in four different focus conditions. We found systematic differences not only between unaccented vs. accented target words (background vs. contrastive focus), but also within the category ‘accented’: the differences in articulatory expression for broad vs. contrastive focus were expressed by greater displacements and lower stiffness of lip aperture (opening and closing movements). Our results suggest that...

167. The impact of relational markers on expository text comprehension - Liesbeth Degand; Ted Sanders
Abstract. This article reports on an experiment investigating the impact of causal discourse markers (connectives and signaling phrases) on the comprehension of expository texts in L1 and L2. Although several psycholinguistic studies have investigated the impact of connectives and lexical markers of text structure on comprehension (i.e. off-line), there is no consensus on the exact effect of explicit discourse markers on text understanding; three different findings are reported in the literature: markers would have a facilitating effect, an interfering effect or no effect at all. The first goal of this article is to clarify this problem of contradicting results by...

168. The Influence of Capital Controls on Long Run Growth: Where and How Much - Areendam Chanda
The financial crisis in East Asia generated a revival of interest in the merits of financial openness. The ensuing debate on the benefits of openness has focused more on short and medium run issues than on the long run effects. Within the empirical literature on economic growth, little or no attention has been paid to the effects of financial openness. Contrary to the orthodox position, the few results that exist suggest that capital controls have no effect on economic growth. This paper argues that this conclusion emerges from a failure to account for underlying differences across countries with similar degrees...

169. The LacioWeb Project: Overview and issues in Brazilian Portuguese corpora creation - Ra M. Aluísio; Gisele M. Pinheiro; Marcelo Finger; Maria Graças; V. Nunes; Stella E. O. Tagnin
The pioneering balanced Brown Corpus launched in 1964, annotated reference corpora, such as Suzanne and the Penn Treebank and the balanced mega British National Corpus (BNC)1, to cite only a few, have helped both the development of English computational linguistic tools and English corpus linguistics. Portuguese, on

170. The Syntax and Prosody of Weak Pronouns in Chamorro - Sandra Chung
In the modular linguistic theory assumed by many generative linguists, phonology and syntax are interconnected but fundamentally indepen-dent components of grammar. The effects of syntax on phonology are mediated by prosodic structure, a representation of prosodic constitu-ents calculated from syntactic structure but not isomorphic to it. Within this overall architecture, I investigate the placement of weak pronouns in the Austronesian language Chamorro. Certain Chamorro pronomi-nals can be realized as prosodically deficient weak pronouns that typi-cally occur right after the predicate. I show that these pronouns are second-position clitics whose placement is determined not syntacti-cally, but prosodically: they occur after the...

171. 1RADICAL QUOTATION AND REAL REPETITION - David Roden
In this essay I argue for a constructivist account of the entities composing the object languagesof Davidsonian truth theories and a quotational account of the reference from metalinguistic expressions to interpreted utterances. I claim that ‘radical quotation’ requires an ontology of repeatable events with strong similarities to Derrida’s account of iterable events. In part I I summarise Davidson’s account of interpretation and Olav Gjelsivk’s arguments to the effect that the syntactic individuation of linguistic objects is only workable if interpreters make richer assumptions about semantic properties than Davidson can tolerate. In part II I show that the objectivist account of...

172. MultiAlign: Combining linguistic and statistical techniques to improve alignments for adaptable MT - Necip Fazil Ayan; Bonnie J. Dorr; Nizar Habash
Abstract. An adaptable statistical or hybrid MT system relies heav-ily on the quality of word-level alignments of real-world data. Statisti-cal alignment approaches provide a reasonable initial estimate for word alignment. However, they cannot handle certain types of linguistic phe-nomena such as long-distance dependencies and structural differences between languages. We address this issue in Multi-Align, a new frame-work for incremental testing of different alignment algorithms and their combinations. Our design allows users to tune their systems to the prop-erties of a particular genre/domain while still benefiting from general linguistic knowledge associated with a language pair. We demonstrate that a combination of...

173. -103- Markedness, Relevance and Acceptability in Translation - Niculina Nae
The article discusses the problem of faithfulness in translation, and focuses on the shift of coherence which occurs in the process of rendering a text from a source language(SL) into a target language(TL). Starting from Jakobson’s(1959)and Nida’s(1969) hypothesis that any text is, in principle, translatable, the paper stresses the role of the translator in translating a text in such a manner that it is intelligible and acceptable in the target language and by the targeted readership. Translation is basically seen as an offer of information made by a producer to a recipient(Reiss and Vermeer 1984/1991). Nevertheless, given the various ways...

174. The Confederate Effect in Human-Machine Textual Interaction - Huma Shah; Odette Henry
Abstract:- This paper presents a pilot study involving 99 participants analysing conversations between Judges 2, 4 and 7, hidden humans (Confederates), and Jabberwock, bronze prize winner for most human-like machine from Loebner’s 2003 Contest, instantiation of Turing’s Test for machine intelligence. The transcripts from these conversations were given to children (aged between 8 and 12), and adults (aged between 18-35). The machine was identified in its conversation with Judge 7, but the Confederate Effect featured in the decisions regarding the nature of the Judges and Confederates, who were both sometimes considered machine-like from their textual discourse. Designers of Jabberwock-type programmes...

175. On the acoustic correlates of high in American - Yen-liang Shue A; Stefanie Shattuck-hu; Nanette Veilleux D; Abeer Alwan A
melody of speech is the process used to alter the meaning (linguistic prosody) or emotional force (affective prosody) of a sentence. The components of prosody are rhythm, pitch, tone and stress and they are articulated by modulation of the acoustic correlates of prosody; frequency, duration and amplitude”. www.elsevier.com/locate/specom Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Speech Communication xxx (2009) xxx–xxx ARTICLE IN PRESSshow the importance of taking into account prosodic contexts and speaker variability when interpreting correlates to prosodic events such as pitch accents. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

176. Seeing and hearing meaning: ERP and fMRI evidence of word versus picture integration into a sentence context - Roel M. Willems; Peter Hagoort
& Understanding language always occurs within a situational context and, therefore, often implies combining streams of infor-mation from different domains and modalities. One such combi-nation is that of spoken language and visual information, which are perceived together in a variety of ways during everyday com-munication. Here we investigate whether and how words and pictures differ in terms of their neural correlates when they are integrated into a previously built-up sentence context. This is assessed in two experiments looking at the time course (measur-ing event-related potentials, ERPs) and the locus (using func-tional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) of this integration process. We...

177. THE EFFECT OF A GENRE-BASED WRITING COURSE ON ESL STUDENTS ’ WRITING OF COVER LETTERS THE EFFECT OF A GENRE-BASED WRITING COURSE ON ESL STUDENTS ’ WRITING OF COVER - Marília Ferreira
O estudo de gêneros textuais tem sido de grande importância para o ensino das línguas materna e estrangeira, sobretudo, para o ensino da escrita. Entretanto, avaliações do efeito de pedagogias baseadas em gênero na aprendizagem ainda são escassas (JUSWIK et al, 2006; TARDY,2006; CHENG, 2006). O presente estudo avalia o impacto de um curso baseado em gê-neros textuais para o ensino da escrita em inglês para alunos de inglês como segunda língua no contexto universitário norte-americano. O curso adotou a visão australiana de gênero textu-al (MARTIN, 1989; 1993) e a pedagogia do Movimento do Abs-trato para o Concreto (MAC) baseada...

178. Spatial language and geographic information systems: Cross-linguistic issues (El Lenguaje Espacial y Los Sistemas de Informacion Geograficos - David M. Mark; Michael D. Gould; Joan Nunes
The great majority of existing geographic information systems have been designed by English or German speakers. Since human natural languages impose structure on the cognition and perception of space, time, and other concepts, GIS data models, and especially GIS query languages and human interfaces, can be expected to contain artifacts of the language spoken by their designers, most commonly English. At a practical level, natural language studies, particularly those based on cognitive linguistics, are important issues for the designers of geographical information systems, because GISs of the future should be able to handle natural language in a number of situations....

179. Reduced sensitivity to linguistic context in schizophrenic thought disorder : evidence from online monitoring for words in linguisticallyanomalous sentences - Gina R. Kuperberg; Philip K. Mcguire; Anthony S. David
The use of linguistic ontext in positively thought-disordered (TD) schizophrenics was investigated through examination f their performance onan on-line word-monitoring task. Controls and non-TD schizophrenics took longer to recognize words preceded by linguistic anomalies compared with words in normal sentences. Compared with both other groups, TD schizophrenics showed signifi-cantly smaller differences in reaction time, suggesting that hey were relatively insensitive to linguistic violations. TD schizophrenics were also less sensitive to linguistic violations in an off-line version of the task, in which they judged whether the sentences "made sense. " Finally, these participants produced more errors on a verbal fluency task...

180. Neural correlates of British sign language comprehension: spatial processing demands of topographic language - Bencie Woll; Ruth Campbell; Gemma A. Calvert; Philip K. Mcguire; Anthony S. David; Andrew Simmons; Michael J. Brammer
& In all signed languages used by deaf people, signs are executed in ‘‘sign space’ ’ in front of the body. Some signed sentences use this space to map detailed ‘‘real-world’ ’ spatial relationships directly. Such sentences can be considered to exploit sign space ‘‘topographically.’ ’ Using functional mag-netic resonance imaging, we explored the extent to which increasing the topographic processing demands of signed sentences was reflected in the differential recruitment of brain regions in deaf and hearing native signers of the British Sign Language. When BSL signers performed a sentence anomaly judgement task, the occipito-temporal junction was activated bilaterally...

 

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