Motion seen and understood: interactions between language comprehension and visual perception.
- Meteyard, L.
Embodied theories of cognition state that the body plays a central role in cognitive representation. Under this description semantic representations, which constitute the meaning of words and sentences, are simulations of real experience that directly engage sensory and motor systems. This predicts interactions between comprehension and perception at low levels, since both engage the same systems, but the majority of evidence comes from picture judgements or visuo-spatial attention therefore it is not clear which visual processes are implicated. In addition, most of the work has concentrated on sentences rather than single words although theories predict that the semantics of both...
A Model for Software Selection with Fuzzy Linguistic Information
- Juchi Hou; Juchi Hou
doi:10.4156/jcit.vol5. issue10.24 With respect to multiple attribute decision making problem with triangular fuzzy linguistic information, in which the attribute weights and expert weights take the form of real numbers, and the preference values take the form of triangular fuzzy linguistic variables, a operator for aggregating triangular fuzzy linguistic variables, such as the fuzzy linguistic weighted harmonic mean (FLWHM) operator is introduced. Based on the FLWHM operators, a practical method is developed for group decision making with triangular fuzzy linguistic variables. Finally, an illustrative example about software selection is given to verify the developed approach.
Intrinsic pitch-differences between German vowels /i:/, /I/ and /y:/ in a cross-linguistic perception experiment
- Daniel Pape; Christine Mooshammer; Susanne Fuchs; Phil Hoole
Perceived pitch differences between high vs. low vowels with identical F0 have been reported in the literature. On the speech production side, in German a specific phenomenon is found: Tense and lax vowels differ in their tongue height but tend to have a similar F0. On the speech perception side, our aim was to test whether German listeners judge the tongue height or real F0 of tense and lax vowel pairs. Therefore a vowel pitch comparison experiment was conducted for three different German vowels /i y / showing a similar phonological vowel height, but differing in their tense/lax distinction and...
- Early Education; Elizabeth Krider Traub; Michael Conn-powers
his commercial reflects a French utility company’s commitment to recognizing the diverse needs of its employees and customers—“May the world be made for you. Access for everyone ” (EDF Group 2005). Images like this spur thoughtful reflection. How well have we conceived early education programs to support and respond to all young children? Do they welcome and include every child? Are activity areas and materials physi-cally accessible to each child? Do all families have opportunities to be involved in their children’s education? Is every child engaged and learning? Answering yes to these questions has become more challenging as the population...
Similarity and Logic Based Ontology Mapping for Security Management
- Alfred Ka; Yiu Wong; An Paramesh; Pradeep Kumar Ray
Ontological issues have been widely researched, especially in the semantic web where ontologies are developed to strengthen the semantic layer of web information. As a result, the proliferation of ontologies necessitates a mapping approach. The existing mapping approaches are generally developed for generic ontologies such as linguistic ontologies. We envisage ontologies as formal knowledge bases basing on which mobile intelligent agents will communicate and reason with in order to perform collaborative and distributive problem resolution in a dynamic environment. Furthermore, the volatility of the environment often requires approximation in reasoning. We present a similarity-based approach to ontology mapping for ontologies...
Corpus-driven Lexical Analysis: Norms and Exploitations in Word Use
- Patrick Hanks
It is a truism that meaning depends on context. Corpus evidence now shows us that normal contexts can be summarised and indeed quantified, while the creative exploitations of normal contexts by ordinary language users far exceed anything dreamed up in speculative linguistic theory. Human linguistic behaviour is indeed rule-governed, but in recent years, corpus analysis (e.g. Hanks 2013) has shown that there is not just a single monolithic system of rules: instead, language use is governed by two interlinked systems: one set of rules governing normal, idiomatic uses of words and another set of rules governing how we exploit those...
Feature economy in sound systems
- G. N. Clements; G. N. Clements
Feature economy is a principle of sound systems according to which languages tend to maximise the ratio of sounds over features. The major goal of this study is to confirm the predictions of feature economy at the synchronic level, using an objective sampling technique applied to a genetically and areally balanced sample of the world’s languages. It also shows that feature economy can be used as a tool in phonological feature analysis, and offers voiced aspirates, voiceless sonorants and various types of glottalised sounds as illustrations. Feature economy applies not only to distinctive feature values, but to redundant values of...
- Tanja Gaustad
In this paper, we present a corpus-based super-vised word sense disambiguation (WSD) sys-tem for Dutch which combines statistical classi-fication (maximum entropy) with linguistic in-formation. Instead of building individual clas-sifiers per ambiguous wordform, we introduce a lemma-based approach. The advantage of this novel method is that it clusters all inflec-ted forms of an ambiguous word in one classi-fier, therefore augmenting the training material available to the algorithm. Testing the lemma-based model on the Dutch SENSEVAL-2 test data, we achieve a significant increase in accur-acy over the wordform model. Also, the WSD system based on lemmas is smaller and more robust.
Challenges in Automated Elicitation of a Controlled Bilingual Corpus
- Katharina Probst; Lori Levin
In this paper we will address an uncommon but important approach to auto-mated learning for MT, namely learning of translation rules from carefully elicited sentences. The approach is uncommon for good reason — anyone who has tried linguistic field work knows that elicitation will go awry if not carefully monitored by a human. We will address eight challenges of automated elicitation and discuss their solution in the AVENUE machine translation project. The elicited sentences in AVENUE are used to semi-automatically infer transfer rules for the desired language pair. 1
Lexical processing drives motor simulation
- Meylysa J. Tseng; Benjamin K. Bergen
While growing evidence suggests that sentence understanding engages perceptual and motor systems for the purpose of mentally imagining or simulating the content of utterances (Barsalou 1999) it is not known whether processing words alone does the same. We investigated whether making a decision about the form of a word would lead to activation of motor mechanisms, using a modified version of the Action-sentence Compatibility Effect (Glenberg and Kaschak 2002). Fluent signers of American Sign Language (ASL) were shown pairs of ASL signs which were either identical or not. Critical signs involved hand motion forward or backward, relative to the body....
Innovation and interdisciplinarity in the University / Inovação e interdisciplinaridade na Universidade 221 COGNITIVE SCIENCE AS PARADIGM OF INTERDISCIPLINARITY: THE CASE OF LEXICAL CONCEPTS
- Roberto G. De Almeida
This chapter reviews research on the nature of lexical conceptual representation as a successful case of an interdisciplinary approach to understanding how key cognitive brain systems work. My goal here, in particular, is to focus on how different cognitive science disciplines – mainly psychology, philosophy, linguistics, neuroscience, and computer science – contribute to uncover the basic elements of linguistic and higher cognitive representation. The chapter is organized as follows. First, I introduce the field of cognitive science – a prototypical interdisciplinary field – focusing on its research object and its purported autonomy. Then, I discuss the key theoretical issues regarding...
QUALITY FACTORS IN DOCUMENTARY TRANSLATION María Pinto
Parce que nous sommes conscientes de les dificultes por integrer modeles de traduction et sistemes de qualité, nous presentons une panoramique des developments plus relevants, avec special enfasis dans les connotations pragmatiques de la Traduction et dans les aspects methodologiques de la Qualité, une aproximation qui se centre a l'usager. Well aware of the difficulties involved in integrating translating models and quality systems, we offer an overview of relevant developments in the field. Particular emphasis is placed on the pragmatic connotations of translation and on the methodological aspects of the Quality Paradigm, an approach to documentary translation that focuses activity...
Real and Perceived Identification and Differentiation
- Of Language; Masatsugu Matsuo
A separate language unique to an ethnonational group has significant role to play in an ethnonational movement and/or conflict. The language can be a symbol of the separate identity of the group. The language can be an important issue of the movement or conflict when it is excluded from the status of an official language. If there is a certain objective criterion by which the separateness of a language can be determined, then the task of those interested in the function of language in ethnonational conflicts will be to explore how the language is used for political purpose. There is,...
Needs Assessment of Spanish Language Training for Psychologists and Other Professionals in a University Community
- Jamie E. Brass
Populations of native Spanish-speakers and Latinos in the United States are growing and moving into parts of the country that are not prepared to provide services to them. Little information is available for psychologists who are interested in increasing competence in working with linguistic minorities. Faculty members and graduate students at Indiana University of Pennsylvania were surveyed to determine if training in the areas of Spanish language and working with Latino popu-lations would benefit the university community. Responses indicated that many people were in-terested in obtaining training and that psychologists in particular seemed to see the importance and utility of...
1.2 Names 1.3 Location 1.4 Linguistic Classifications
- George W. Gregg
Categories and Subject Descriptors
- Josiane Mothe; Ludovic Tanguy
Query difficulty can be linked to a number of causes. Some of these causes can be related to the query expression itself, and can therefore be detected through a linguistic analysis of the query text. Using 16 different linguistic features, automatically computed on TREC queries, we looked for significant correlations between these features and the average recall and precision scores obtained by systems. Three of these features are shown to have a significant impact on either recall or precision scores for previous adhoc TREC campaigns. Each of these features can be viewed as a clue to a linguistically-specific characteristic, either...
Using simple recurrent networks to learn fixed-length representations of variable-length strings
- Christopher T. Kello; Daragh E. Sibley; Andrew Colombi
Four connectionist models are reported that learn static representations of variable-length strings using a novel autosequencer architecture. These representations were learned as plans for a simple recurrent network to regenerate a given input sequence. Results showed that the autosequencer can be used to address the dispersion problem because the positions and identities of letters in a string were integrated over learning into the plan representations. Results also revealed a moderate degree of componentiality in the plan representations. Linguistic structures vary in length. Paragraphs contain varying numbers of sentences, sentences contain varying numbers of words, and words contain varying numbers of...
Automatic Identification of Legal Terms in Czech Law Texts
- Karel Pala
Law texts including constitution, acts, public notices and court judgements form a huge database of texts. As many texts from small domains, the used sublanguage is partially restricted and also different from general language (Czech). As a starting collection of data the legal database Lexis containing approx. 50,000 Czech law documents has been chosen. Our attention is concentrated mostly on noun groups which are the main candidates for law terms. We were able to recognize 3992 such different noun groups in the selected text samples. The paper also presents results of the morphological analysis, lemmatization, tagging, disambiguation, and the basic...
Corpora and evaluation tools for multilingual named entity grammar development
- Christian Bering; Gregor Erbach; Clara Guasch; Petr Homola; Sabine Lehmann; Hong Li; Hans-ulrich Krieger; Jakub Piskorski; Ulrich Schäfer; Atsuko Shimada; Melanie Siegel; Feiyu Xu; Dorothee Ziegler-eisele
We present an effort for the development of multilingual named entity grammars in a unification-based finite-state formalism (SProUT). Following an extended version of the MUC7 standard, we have developed Named Entity Recognition grammars for German, Chinese, Japanese, French, Spanish, English, and Czech. The grammars recognize person names, organizations, geographical locations, currency, time and date expressions. Subgrammars and gazetteers are shared as much as possible for the grammars of the different languages. Multilingual corpora from the business domain are used for grammar development and evaluation. The annotation format (named entity and other linguistic information) is described. We present an evaluation tool...
Model Specifications of Transition Systems
- Bogdan A. Brumar; Emil M. Popa; Ioana C. Brumar; Florentina L. Cacovean
Abstract:- Computing objects manipulated in computer science bear a lot of similarities with the mathematical objects produced by the systems discussed so far they also are very different. Due to the dynamic nature of the computing objects represented, the semantics of the specification languages used to formalize systems will be a transition system performing computation actions, while the syntax will be the linguistic expression of the actions performed by the transition system.