Clasificación por Disciplina
Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística
Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística
Bell, Lanny David
This study is a thorough philological investigation of the ancient Egyptian word íc3w (usually transliterated c in Old and Middle Egyptian texts and 3 c c in Late Egyptian). The approach is diachronic, with consideration of the various manifestations of the word over more than three thousand years; all known occurrences are examined. The etymology is determined, its meaning is discussed, and its semantic development traced. Historical linguistic technique is employed to reconstruct the vocalization of the word and demonstrate its phonetic development. Evidence for differential development in the pre-Coptic dialectal forms is adduced. Phonetically similar words are introduced for...
Hanna, David B
Ahern, Christopher A
The interaction between learning at the individual level and the trajectory of a population over time is fundamental to our understanding of linguistic change. Here we use game theory as a mathematical framework for formulating and testing hypotheses about this interaction. We formalize two hypotheses regarding the spread of vowel mergers and use them to derive the proportion of merged in-migrants that would precipitate a merger in a previously non-merged speech community. We test these predictions against the documented spread of the low-back merger. In light of these results, we consider the impact of social network structures on both models.
In modern linguistics where natural spoken language has been the main, if not the sole, target of research inquiry, one area in which orthography becomes as yet at issue is phonology. This should be the case because (a) writing systems encode phonological structure, syllables in particular, as shown in Gnanadesikan (2011), accordingly (b) the orthographical knowledge of a language may merge into the knowledge of that spoken language, and finally (c) once the knowledge at the two levels merge in the language user’s brain, it is hard to separate the two levels. Strictly speaking, then, it is not possible to...
Ferrari, Franca; Kacinik, Natalie
In this paper we address the theoretical debate about the representation and processing of derived words, presenting the results of a lexical decision task experiment aiming to investigate the visual recognition of Italian prefixed and suffixed words and nonwords. The study was specifically designed to test hypotheses stemming from the manipulation of two linguistic factors: (1) linearity (i.e., sequential order of morphemes), and (2) various degrees of complexity of the internal structure of particular types of Italian derived words. Our findings show that suffixed and prefixed words and nonwords are not generally processed in the same way because they are not...
Stanford, James N
Lane, Lisa Ann
Dinkin, Aaron J
Madigan, Sean; Yamada, Masahiro
Melançon, Megan E
Lim, Laureen T.; Guy, Gregory R
Harrington, Richard Alexander
This study deals with students' acquisition of a metalanguage for writing through the constant interplay of conversational processes, thus achieving a starting point for evaluative authority over their own written communication. Forty-seven representative eleventh and twelfth grade students, ranging from honors to remedial levels, participated in a writing center elective designed to engage students in metalinguistic activities in spoken and written communicative events. Students' written dialogue with the teacher about strategies used to compose and revise their written texts provides the principal data for the study.^ The analysis of dialogic communication reveals students' potential for monitoring language processes that are...
Curl, Heather D
Social mobility is often viewed as a way to alleviate poverty and create equality; it represents the basis upon which the United States is viewed as a meritocratic nation of opportunity. Missing from this persistent narrative, however, is analysis of the actual experience of social mobility. This qualitative study explores the narratives of individuals as they reflect on their experiences of upward mobility through education. Data include in-depth interviews with 25 individuals with an advanced degree whose parents did not attend college, and 10 individuals who have an advanced degree similar to their parents. This study considers three dimensions of...
This dissertation examines two information-structural phenomena, Givenness and Focus, from the perspective of both syntax and pragmatics. Evidence from English, German and other languages suggests a “split” analysis of information structure—the notions of Focus and Givenness, often thought to be closely related, exist independently at two different levels of linguistic representation. Givenness is encoded as a syntactic feature which presupposes salience in prior discourse and either (1) prevents prosodic prominence (in languages like English and German), or (2) drives syntactic movement (in languages like Italian). On the other hand, Focus, which introduces strong prosodic prominence and a contrastive interpretation, exhibits...
Kim, Son Ho
Public opinion is an elusive communicative phenomenon. The American people believe that their voice uttered in conversation constitutes public opinion, whereas they must read newspapers, especially poll reports, to know the current of public opinion. Moreover, although public opinion polling is widely received as the most unbiased measure of public opinion, the language reported by polling is quite different from the ordinary people’s utterance. ^ The dissociation of social reality from the commonsense understanding mainly stems from the fact that public opinion exists, inasmuch as poll questions are asked. To understand the roles played by poll questions, we need to...
Farrall, Kenneth N
This dissertation problematizes the “state dossier system” (SDS): the production and accumulation of personal information on citizen subjects exceeding the reasonable bounds of risk management. SDS—comprising interconnecting subsystems of records and identification—damage individual autonomy and self-determination, impacting not only human rights, but also the viability of the social system. The research, a hybrid of case-study and cross-national comparison, was guided in part by a theoretical model of four primary SDS driving forces: technology, political economy, law and public sentiment. Data sources included government documents, academic texts, investigative journalism, NGO reports and industry white papers. The primary analytical instrument was the...
Santori, Diane M
Current federal education policy supports an autonomous model of literacy (Street, 1984) by focusing on the acquisition of decontextualized literacy skills and strategies without considering a sociocultural perspective on how students interact with texts. Within this narrow conception of literacy, reading comprehension is often reduced to a list of strategies students should employ while reading and discussing a text. However, students engage in various comprehension practices as they draw on their sociocultural resources during classroom-based literature discussions. ^ This dissertation is a year long study in a third grade classroom that documents and examines how students construct meaning in three...
This project explores translation and the figure of the translator on a trajectory from late eighteenth-century France and Ottoman Egypt, to what I consider to be a false-colonial relationship between the two: The Napoleonic invasion of Egypt (1798-1801), and the "Egyptian" schools of translation in Paris in the 1820s-30s. In Revolutionary France and Ottoman-Mamluk Egypt, the translator was conceptualized as a figure of political mediation, empowerment, and privilege. In the context of military invasion and of subsequent politics of repression and expansion, however, the translator's privilege was redefined as a depoliticized and subservient expertise—a process in which the translator was...