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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 161 - 180 de 48,167

161. Estetica come scienza dell'espressione e linguistica generale : teoria e storia / - Croce, Benedetto, 1866-1952.
Includes index.

[pt] Apresentamos um material didático construído a partir da análise contrastiva entre variedades do português brasileiro. Esse material abordou a identidade linguística do aluno, levando-o a se conscientizar do valor da sua norma em comparação com a da escola, e a descobrir os espaços de utilização de cada uma dessas normas.

[pt] Este trabalho objetiva analisar as razões que levaram os alunos de um curso de Letras a distância a recusarem o tablet e, consequentemente, a exigirem o retorno do material didático impresso. As respostas aos questionários foram analisadas sob uma perspectiva discursiva, com base na Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional.

164. Linguistic areas in Europe: their boundaries and political significance, - Dominian, Leon, 1880-
"Reprinted ... Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, vol. 47, June, 1915."

165. Trübner's oriental & linguistic publications. A catalogue of books, periodicals, and serials, on the history, languages, religions, antiquities, literature, and geography of the East, and kindred subjects. - Trübner & Co.
Running title: Linguistic publications of Trübner & Co.

166. The bridge of iconicity: from a world of experience to the experience of language. - Perniss, P; Vigliocco, G
Iconicity, a resemblance between properties of linguistic form (both in spoken and signed languages) and meaning, has traditionally been considered to be a marginal, irrelevant phenomenon for our understanding of language processing, development and evolution. Rather, the arbitrary and symbolic nature of language has long been taken as a design feature of the human linguistic system. In this paper, we propose an alternative framework in which iconicity in face-to-face communication (spoken and signed) is a powerful vehicle for bridging between language and human sensori-motor experience, and, as such, iconicity provides a key to understanding language evolution, development and processing. In...

167. Russian botanical terms: towards their lexicographic description - Shmelev, Alexei; Shmeleva, Elena
The paper discusses the Russian names of plants and their parts as they are used in everyday language and in two scientific disciplines: biology and crop husbandry. In many Russian texts (e.g., in different types of "gardener's handbooks") these three terminological systems interact in quite an intricate way. The explications of botanical terms in existing Russian explanatory dictionaries are inadequate in many respects. The paper proposes a theoretical basis for the lexicographic description of the terms under consideration and also illustrates its principles with several examples. Analysis of the use of botanical terms in Russian texts along with linguistic experiments have shown that everyday (standard) word usage...

168. Semantic resources for textual content compression - Leontyeva, Nina N.
We discuss an information-linguistic model designed to extract the most essential parts of the content from any text, being at the same time a model of "soft" understanding of texts. The linguistic aspects of the model and the properties of the semantic dictionary ensuring the content analysis with compression of the text structure are considered. Our dictionary resources serve an instrument for building a multilevel textual semantic structure. The primary semantic representation of a whole text may be used as the starting point for generating complex linguistic units ("Situation" and "Textual Fact") as candidates for Events.

169. On Describing Similarity and Measuring Equivalence in English-Spanish Translation - Izquierdo Fernández, Marlén
This article reports on a descriptive translation study that attempts to examine the notion of equivalence in translation in an empirical manner. In order to do that, the analysis focuses on the similarities and differences, considered as the components of any relation of equivalence, between the source texts and the target texts. In this particular case, the source texts are English Gerund-Participle (G-P) Adjuncts, and their target texts, the Spanish translational options found in so-called "ACTRES parallel corpus." The study is interdisciplinary as it draws from contrastive functional analysis and descriptive translation studies, from a corpus-based approach. The study reveals...

170. Idéologie et traduction : la réception des traductions de Lu Xun en France - Gao, Fang
Lu Xun (1881-1936), the greatest writer in Chinese literature of the twentieth century, has a lasting and living influence in China due to his eminent works and his incisive thoughts. His major works have been translated into more than twenty languages, which greatly helped to expand the influence of the Chinese writer worldwide. However, the act of translating is not an isolated and merely linguistic act. Its function and operation vary in time and space. As the historical and social contexts of recipient countries change, the selection and translation of works by Lu Xun are necessarily marked by the difference...

171. Vers une critique du sens : sémiose en traduction - D�Asprer, Núria
The problem of meaning has been debated for a long time in Translation Studies, but it seems necessary to reconsider it again in order to display the underlying complexity of the concept and its consequences in the realm of translation practice. Recounting some of its main formalizations and confronting them to related concepts, we hope to foster some useful thinking about text, interpretation, and a fortiori, translation. In fact, the concepts of meaning and signification - that ordinary language tends to collapse into one -, subtend diverse implications, as their many approaches (whether linguistic, semantic, semiotic or psychoanalytic) and the...

172. Identidade: uma construcao social e linguística - Alves de Carvalho, Luzia
O texto objetiva mostrar a relacao indivíduo-sociedade, como pano de fundo para a construcao da identidade.

173. Defining the deep syntactic structure: how the signifying units combine - Kahane, Sylvain
Considering that the DSyntS has been described in detail but never really defined, we propose to define it as the structure recording how the signifying units combine when an utterance is produced. Signifying units are defined as the indivisible choices made by the speaker as (s)he produces an utterance; they include full lexical units but also grammatical, derivational and constructional units. The traditional DSyntS is a simplified view on the structure we define here. We show that many choices made for the traditional DSyntS are arbitrary and sometimes irrelevant. We also discuss the status of the DSyntS in a complete linguistic model.

174. Linguistic well-formedness of semantic structures - Iordanskaja, Lidija; Mel'Cuk, Igor
The paper formulates the problem of language-specific constraints on linguistically well-formed Semantic Structures: how can we draw a borderline between semantically well-formed and illformed sentences, and how can we tell lexical incongruence from semantic ill-formedness? The constraints that determine semantic ill-formedness in a given language are based on a simple criterion: If the meaning of a linguistically anomalous sentence can be expressed by a linguistically correct paraphrase, then the anomaly is not semantic; otherwise, it is semantic. Several relevant examples (in English, French and Russian) are analyzed; a sketch of a typology of semantic constraints within the Meaning-Text framework is proposed. We also define the distinction between extralinguistic...

175. YES and NO: universal ideas in language specific configurations - Dmitrij; Levontina, Irina
Even the most general and seemingly universal ideas have a unique representation in every single language. In this paper, we analyze the Russian words da "yes" and hem "no", as well as their English and German correlates. We show that these words behave differently from language to language. As empirical basis, we took two Harry Potter books by J. K. Rowling (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone and Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets) and their German and Russian translations. Many of the cross-linguistic differences discussed in the paper go back to the language specific properties of the discourse structure.

176. What exactly do numbers mean? - Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse
Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the...

177. Quantifying the Impact and Extent of Undocumented Biomedical Synonymy - Blair, David R.; Wang, Kanix; Nestorov, Svetlozar; Evans, James A.; Rzhetsky, Andrey
Synonymous relationships among biomedical terms are extensively annotated within specialized terminologies, implying that synonymy is important for practical computational applications within this field. It remains unclear, however, whether text mining actually benefits from documented synonymy and whether existing biomedical thesauri provide adequate coverage of these linguistic relationships. In this study, we examine the impact and extent of undocumented synonymy within a very large compendium of biomedical thesauri. First, we demonstrate that missing synonymy has a significant negative impact on named entity normalization, an important problem within the field of biomedical text mining. To estimate the amount synonymy currently missing from...

178. Common variation near ROBO2 is associated with expressive vocabulary in infancy - St Pourcain, Beate; Cents, Rolieke A.M.; Whitehouse, Andrew J.O.; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Davis, Oliver S.P.; O’Reilly, Paul F.; Roulstone, Susan; Wren, Yvonne; Ang, Qi W.; Velders, Fleur P.; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; Warrington, Nicole M.; Miller, Laura; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ring, Susan M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Meaburn, Emma L.; Price, Thomas S.; Dale, Philip S.; Pillas, Demetris; Yliherva, Anneli; Rodriguez, Alina; Golding, Jean; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Plomin, Robert; Pennell, Craig E.; Tiemeier, Henning; Davey Smith, George
Twin studies suggest that expressive vocabulary at ~24 months is modestly heritable. However, the genes influencing this early linguistic phenotype are unknown. Here we conduct a genome-wide screen and follow-up study of expressive vocabulary in toddlers of European descent from up to four studies of the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology consortium, analysing an early (15–18 months, ‘one-word stage’, NTotal=8,889) and a later (24–30 months, ‘two-word stage’, NTotal=10,819) phase of language acquisition. For the early phase, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs7642482) at 3p12.3 near ROBO2, encoding a conserved axon-binding receptor, reaches the genome-wide significance level (P=1.3 × 10−8) in the combined...

179. Grasping Hand Verbs: Oscillatory Beta and Alpha Correlates of Action-Word Processing - Niccolai, Valentina; Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja
The grounded cognition framework proposes that sensorimotor brain areas, which are typically involved in perception and action, also play a role in linguistic processing. We assessed oscillatory modulation during visual presentation of single verbs and localized cortical motor regions by means of isometric contraction of hand and foot muscles. Analogously to oscillatory activation patterns accompanying voluntary movements, we expected a somatotopically distributed suppression of beta and alpha frequencies in the motor cortex during processing of body-related action verbs. Magnetoencephalographic data were collected during presentation of verbs that express actions performed using the hands (H) or feet (F). Verbs denoting no...

180. A Commentary on the Speech of Demosthenes 'Against Androtion' (Dem.22) - Giannadaki, I
The oration Against Androtion (Dem.22) is one of the five extant speeches found in the Attic orators which involve graphe paranomon (a legal action against the introduction of illegal decrees), one of the two public actions (the other being graphe nomon me epitedeion theinai) related to illegal and inexpedient legislation, with significant implications for the Athenian legal system and the Athenian democracy in general. The speech was written by Demosthenes, probably the first of his public speeches, for Diodoros against a prominent political figure and Atthidographer, Androtion. The speech is a significant source for a number of legal and historical...


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