Mostrando recursos 181 - 200 de 16.937

  1. Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship and Legacy in Anthropology and Education

    Hornberger, Nancy H
    Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's life and scholarly contributions, especially his early and enduring influence in the anthropology of education; and goes on to comment briefly on this AEQ set of essays honoring Hymes.

  2. Exploring Linguistic Constraints in Nlp Applications

    Zhao, Qiuye
    The key argument of this dissertation is that the success of an Natural Language Processing (NLP) application depends on a proper representation of the corresponding linguistic problem. This theme is raised in the context that the recent progress made in our field is widely credited to the effective use of strong engineering techniques. However, the intriguing power of highly lexicalized models shown in many NLP applications is not only an achievement by the development in machine learning, but also impossible without the extensive hand-annotated data resources made available, which are originally built with very deep linguistic considerations. More specifically, we explore three...

  3. Persistence in the Production of Linguistic Variation

    Tamminga, Meredith Johanna
    This dissertation, which is situated in broad debates over the delineation of abstract grammatical knowledge from the use of language in context, argues for distinct but interacting contributions from grammatical, psychological, and social factors in the production of intraspeaker linguistic variability. The phenomenon under investigation is the tendency of speakers to repeat recently-used linguistic options in conversational speech, which I refer to as persistence. I take up three major themes: the use of persistence as evidence on the mental-representational unity of variable linguistic processes; the interaction of different loci of variation with different cognitively-rooted facilitatory effects; and the contextual sensitivity of...

  4. Spectral Estimation of Hidden Markov Models

    Rodu, Jordan
    This thesis extends and improves methods for estimating key quantities of hidden Markov models through spectral method-of-moments estimation. Unlike traditional estimation methods like EM and Gibbs sampling, the set of estimation methods, which we call spectral HMMs (sHMMs), are incredibly fast, do not require multiple restarts, and come with provable guarantees. Our first result improves upon the original spectral estimation of hidden Markov models algorithm by estimating the parameters from fully reduced data. We also show that the parameters developed in the fully reduced dimensional version can be estimated using various forms of regression, which can lead to major speed...

  5. Animacy in Morphosyntactic Variation

    McLaughlin, Brittany Dael
    In this dissertation, I demonstrate that animacy of subject referents strongly conditions verbal morphosyntactic variation in English varieties. Using three quantitative case studies, I investigate copula and subject verb agreement in two English varieties, Mainstream American English (MAE) and African American Vernacular English (AAVE). For each of the case studies -- (1) MAE auxiliary contraction, (2) AAVE copula contraction and dele- tion, and (3) AAVE verbal -s deletion -- human subjects like the boy significantly prefer the contracted or null form, while non-human subjects like the book prefer the full or overt form. The first two case studies, MAE contraction and...

  6. The St. Louis Corridor: Mixing, Competing, and Retreating Dialects

    Friedman, Lauren
    The St. Louis Corridor shows a number of Northern Cities Shift (NCS) features originating from the Inland North dialect area despite being geographically situated in the Midland region. Past studies have shown evidence of the Corridor's special status as an Inland North enclave (Labov 2007, Bigham 2010) but have not demonstrated how this dialectal relationship has grown and changed over time, showing mixed results when explaining or defining the Inland North influence (Kenny and Stanford 2013). In this dissertation, I demonstrate how the NCS rise and retreat in the Corridor is a result of population movements tied to both the...

  7. The Way That Our Catullus Walked: Grammar and Poetry in the Late Republic

    Beckelhymer, Samuel David
    This dissertation considers the poetry of Catullus and its often express concerns with matters of language through the lens of the Roman grammatical tradition. I argue that in Latin poetry, and in Latin literature more broadly, there existed a persistent interest in discussing linguistic matters--owing in large part to an early imitation of Greek authors who engaged openly with their language--and that this interest was articulated in ways that recall the figure of the professional grammaticus and the ars grammatica, the scientific study of the Latin language. I maintain that this interest becomes particularly widespread during the final decades of...

  8. Differential Academic Trajectories Among Latino Students in Los Angeles

    Arnone, Gina
    Widespread underachievement among students classified as English learners (ELs) indicates the United States education system is not serving them well. Although there has been increased attention directed toward the challenges these learners face in school, efforts to improve their academic outcomes often narrowly focus on English language abilities. Undoubtedly, English proficiency is a central component of academic achievement in the U.S. However, the emphasis on English language development in policy and practice also advances the idea that English is the only language for learning in school. Additionally, it obscures the contributions of non-linguistic influences on school success for language minority...

  9. Continuity and Change in English Morphology: The Variable (ING)

    Houston, Ann Celeste
    Past studies of the variable (ING) have demonstrated regular and stable social and stylistic conditions across English speech communities around the world, factors which shape the patterns of variation between the /n/ and /ŋ/ variants of (ING). This dissertation is an inquiry into the conditions, both linguistic and social, which gave rise to the evolution of modern (ING). The purpose is to demonstrate the existence of an observable continuity between the past morphological history of (ING) and its present-day status as a sociolinguistic variable, following Sturtevant's idea (1917) that the social evaluation of linguistic forms can be viewed as the...

  10. The Effect of Salience on Co-variation in Brazilian Portuguese

    Oushiro, Livia; Guy, Gregory R.
    This paper analyzes cross-correlations among six variables of Brazilian Portuguese (the pronunciation of nasal /e/, coda r-retroflexion, coda r-deletion, NP agreement, 3rd person plural subject-verb agreement, and 1st person plural subject-verb agreement), with the objective of identifying constraints that promote the co-occurrence of sociolinguistic variants in individual speakers’ speech. We focus on the perspective of structural cohesion, and show that co-variability is conditioned not only by structural similarities among dependent variables (such as agreement processes or coda weakening), but also by general linguistic constraints that operate across multiple variables, such as phonic salience (Naro 1981, Scherre 1988, Naro et al....

  11. Comparative Sociolinguistic Insights in the Evolution of Negation

    Childs, Claire; Harvey, Christopher; Corrigan, Karen P.; Tagliamonte, Sali A.
    There are three ways of expressing negation on indefinites in English: any-negation (I didn’t have any money), no-negation (I had no money) and negative concord (I didn’t have no money). These variants have been competing diachronically in a change in progress, where the newest variant any-negation is increasing at the expense of the oldest variant no-negation (Tottie 1991a, 1999b, Varela Pérez 2014). This raises the questions: What is the current state of this variability? Is the variation socially evaluated? What does this reveal about linguistic change? Our comparative quantitative sociolinguistic analysis of vernacular speech corpora from Northern England and Ontario,...

  12. Social Influences on the Degree of Stop Voicing in Inland California

    Podesva, Robert J.; Eckert, Penelope; Fine, Julia; Hilton, Katherine; Jeong, Sunwoo; King, Sharese; Pratt, Teresa
    This paper examines social influences on the realization of voiced stops in inland California. We analyzed sociolinguistic interviews with 62 white residents from Redding, Merced, and Bakersfield (which mark the northern, middle, and southern points of California’s Central Valley), balanced for sex, class, age, and whether a speaker earns their livelihood off the land. We follow Jaciewicz, Fox, and Lyle (2009) in examining the extent of voicing during stop closures (duration of voicing during closure relative to total duration of closure), and also adopt a novel measure of the magnitude of voicing, which captures the intensity of a stop closure...

  13. Ethnic Orientation without Quantification: How Life “On the Hyphen” Affects Sociolinguistic Variation

    Newlin-Łukowicz, Luiza
    The effect of ethnicity on sociolinguistic variation has been studied quantitatively from multiple angles. The existing methodological range has uncovered that ethnicity is reflected in various aspects of social life. However, the diversity of existing measures has i) prevented a direct comparison between studies and ii) relied on subjective quantification of social data. This paper introduces a novel methodology that unites previous measures and removes the need for subjective quantification. Specifically, I apply hierarchical cluster analysis to social data collected from an ethnographically-informed Polish-involvement survey to assess the impact of multiple social factors on regional variation for Polish New Yorkers....

  14. Public Legacies: Spanish-English (In)authenticity in the Linguistic Landscape of Pilsen, Chicago

    Lyons, Kate; Rodríguez-Ordóñez, Itxaso
    The present study examines the linguistic display of Spanish and English in Pilsen, Chicago, a predominantly Hispanic neighborhood. The space of Pilsen is characterized by its strong Latino diasporic presence (mostly from Mexico) since the 60s, but also for the increase of a white population in the last decade that has lead to a strong perception of gentrification in the neighborhood. With the aim of capturing potential gentrification effects and to empirically study the relationship between language, sign and space, we adopt Coupland’s (2012) adaptation of Goffman’s (1974) theory of frames and propose a replicable and scalar quantifiable method of...

  15. Partial Mergers and Near-Distinctions: Stylistic Layering in Dialect Acquisition

    Johnson, Daniel Ezra; Nycz, Jennifer
    Non-mobile individuals living in a community undergoing a linguistic change usually display a pattern of variation where citation styles are more advanced than naturalistic styles with respect to the change in progress. This suggests that speakers' intentions or norms, while they may shift only gradually, can do so more easily than their productions. Two groups of 'mobile' speakers—adults who grew up in one dialect area and moved to another, and children who acquired one dialect at home and another in the community—showed the opposite pattern: spontaneous speech approximated the dialect of the second community more closely than did word-list productions....

  16. A Convergence of Dialects in the St. Louis Corridor

    Friedman, Lauren A.
    In the study of dialect geography, boundaries of many types appear at the edges of dialects (ANAE, Dinkin 2013). However, the disruption of a dialect boundary at a single point by a non-linguistic change does not necessarily change the dialect boundary but creates a new type. The present study examines the influence of the Inland North dialect on the St. Louis Corridor, a geographically Midland area located between Chicago and St. Louis across the state of Illinois. The Corridor is also the home of Route 66, which in 1926 was the first paved highway in Illinois. In analyzing data from...

  17. Perceiving Personae: Effects of Social Information on Perceptions of TRAP-backing

    D'Onofrio, Annette
    Studies have shown that perceived macro-social categories like location of origin, age and class can influence listeners’ perceptions of linguistic variables. Other work in sociolinguistics has demonstrated that variables can index multiple social meanings, often associable with personae that are more specific and complex than macro-social categories. This paper brings together these lines of inquiry, testing how persona-based social information influences linguistic expectations in a vowel categorization task. The experiment examines multiple social meanings of one sociolinguistic variable: the backing of the TRAP vowel. By virtue of its patterning in California, TRAP-backing has social meanings related to macro-social Californian location...

  18. The Variable Grammar of Negative Concord in Montréal French

    Burnett, Heather; Tremblay, Mireille; Blondeau, Hélène
    This paper presents a new study of the grammatical and social factors conditioning variable negative concord in Québec French, with a particular focus on the French spoken in Montréal. It has been observed, since at least Daoust-Blais 1975, Lemieux 1985 and Muller 1991, that negative indefinites in certain varieties of French spoken in Canada and in Europe can optionally co-occur with the sentential negation operator pas ‘not’ without creating a difference in meaning: J’ai (pas) rien contre ça ‘I have nothing against that’. The study of patterns of variation in negative concord constructions in varieties of English has received an...

  19. Multiple Mergers: Production and Perception of Three Pre-/l/ Mergers in Youngstown, Ohio

    Arnold, Lacey
    Mergers have been a much-researched topic in sociolinguistics (e.g., Baranowski 2013, Thomas and Hay 2005, Hall-Lew 2013), including in pre-lateral contexts (Bowie 2000, Faber & Di Paolo 1995, Thomas 2001). However, aside from Thomas and Bailey’s (1992) study on “competing mergers” in Texas, little work has been done on the interaction among several mergers involving some of the same phonemes and occurring in the same contexts when they coexist in a given community. Even less research has addressed the role of perception in competing-merger contexts. This study examines the status of mergers among /ul/, /ol/, and /Ul/ in Youngstown, Ohio. Although...

  20. The language and literacy practices of English language learners (ELLs) in a Philadelphia high school: The hyphenated experiences of immigrant students in content area classrooms

    Ngo, Lan M
    This multiple case study results from an ethnographic immersion in a local public high school, focusing on English language learners (ELLs) in content area classrooms. The primary goals were to 1) explore the language and literacy practices of ELLs within this setting, 2) gain an understanding of the complexity and multiplicity of the learners' schooling experiences, and 3) discuss implications pertaining to practice and research. Four focal students, each from a different country and each with different home or first languages, are discussed to provide a nuanced perspective of immigrant and refugee students. Importantly, the theoretical framework of "hyphenated reality"...

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