Identifying the effects of right hemisphere damage on communication effectiveness and speech and language performance using a variety of tasks While the communication deficits concomitant with left cerebral hemisphere damage can be identified and categorized into aphasic disorders, changed patterns of communicative behavior following right hemisphere damage (RHD) are less definitive, often subtle, and may be misdiagnosed as confusion, personality changes, or emotional in origin. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may identify communicative deficits that other professionals attribute to a loss of memory, attention, or visual-perceptual skills (Blake, Duffy, Tompkins, & Myers, 2003). Formal assessment instruments used to evaluate communicative abilities following...
Linguistic Specific Treatment 1
Agrammatism is characterized by difficulty comprehending and producing grammatical structures (Berndt, 1987). Of specific difficulty is the utilization of complex, non-canocial
Research has shown that therapy can significantly improve the communicative success of patients with aphasia. In spite of progress made in the field of aphasia rehabilitation, questions remain regarding the influence of factors such as severity of aphasia and measures of cognitive and linguistic ability on language recovery. A major
Introduction Deficits in working memory (WM) are a critical subset of non-linguistic impairments in
role of WM in aphasia is important for improving understanding of non-linguistic aspects of
People with nonfluent aphasia have been reported to demonstrate relative verb to noun deficits. Verb production in agrammatic speech has also been reported to be completely omitted or relatively sparse when compared to nouns, with little diversity and semantic specificity when produced (Saffran, Berndt, & Schwartz, 1989). Unlike nouns, each verb appears to possess an underlying set of syntactic and semantic properties that influences the ease of its retrieval from the mental lexicon, such as argument structure complexity (Kim & Thompson, 2000). Therefore, it is necessary for researchers undertaking treatment studies for verb retrieval to take these variables into consideration...
The characterization of aphasia as a pure linguistic deficit has constrained intervention research to singularly target language dysfunction (Connor, Albert, Helm-Estabrooks, & Obler, 2000). Recently this assumption has been called into question with the realization that traditional language models do not account for the variability of performance within and across
of signal intensity level and noise-simulated hearing loss on auditory language processing persons with aphasia BACKGROUND By definition (McNeil & Pratt, 2001), all persons with aphasia (PWA) have difficulty processing acoustic speech and linguistic information. This definition also specifies that sensory deficits can co-exist, but cannot account for these auditory linguistic processing deficits. However, it is likely that many PWA also have sensory hearing loss because the prevalence of peripheral hearing loss is high in adults; especially among those with histories of vascular disease and stroke, and particularly among those of the age-cohort in which strokes most frequently occur. The...
It is well documented that there are many potential confounds in assessing linguistic abilities individuals with stroke and brain injury. Such individuals often have impairments of
1 Phonological Working Memory in Aphasia
Current literature supports linguistic-specific working memory (WM) subsystems, which are devoted to the processing of distinct types of linguistic information (Caplan & Waters, 1999; Caspari et al., 1998; Friedmann & Gvion, 2003; Stowe et al., 2002). For example, Friedmann and Gvion (2003) investigated how WM deficits manifested themselves in participants with
Background: Development of effective treatment approaches for language impairments in Wernicke’s aphasia have proved challenging because comprehension, production and self-monitoring functions are frequently all affected. Often, indirect treatment approaches were selected, including use of gestures and other compensatory strategies (Davis & Wilcox, 1985). Direct approaches emphasized the use of massed repetition that provided intense auditory stimulation, practice in production of words and monitoring of output (Scheull, Jenkins, & Jimenez-Pabon, 1964). Subsequent studies emphasized the importance of incorporating meaningful context into treatment methods, i.e., physical and social contexts, linguistic context, and paralinguistic context (Marshall, 1994; 2008). It has been recognized for...
People with aphasia generally experience better reading comprehension of material formatted in aphasia-friendly manners (e.g., Rose Worrall, & McKenna, 2003) than material formatted in other ways. Aphasia-friendly principles include linguistic-based text modifications (i.e., increased white space, simplified syntax and vocabulary) and visual supports (i.e., relevant
prepared the final draft of its long awaited ESL Policy and Guidelines statement after over twenty years of providing immigrant children and adolescents with ESL–specific school-based instruction. This policy identifies the often unacknowledged work of ESL teachers and the nature and presence of their students as intrinsic to the business of education in a culturally diverse state with an internationalisation agenda. This particular policy (to which no funding has been attached by the state) can be considered in the way in which Luke refers to many policy texts: “interesting pieces of work…not without flaws and problems, ruptures and contradictions, speculations...
Cognitive control in bilingual aphasia
- Teresa Gray; Swathi Kiran
The ability to suppress irrelevant information requires cognitive control. This process plays a key role when bilinguals are required to speak one language and inhibit the non-target language. Previous research evaluating linguistic and non-linguistic inhibition in bilingual and monolingual healthy adults has revealed a bilingual advantage on non-linguistic tasks (Bialystok, 2001; Costa et al., 2008; Luk et al., 2010). However, a
- Andrea Baronchelli; Nick Chater; Romualdo Pastor-satorras; Morten H. Christiansen
Copyright & reuse City University London has developed City Research Online so that its users may access the research outputs of City University London's staff. Copyright © and Moral Rights for this paper are retained by the individual author(s) and / or other copyright holders. All material in City Research Online is checked for eligibility for copyright before being made available in the live archive. URLs from City Research Online may be freely distributed and linked to from other web pages. Versions of research The version in City Research Online may differ from the final published version. Users are advised...
minority groups to migrate to the North America (US Census Bureau, 2007a; Embassy of India,
Developing cultural competence in interacting with people with aphasia representing varied racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds is an important goal for all clinical and research aphasiologists. Given that Asian Indians (a) are one of the largest and fastest-growing ethnic
This paper presents research that aimed to extend the available analyses of informativeness of aphasic discourse. A ‘proposition ’ can be defined as a linguistic relation and its associated arguments (Kintsch & Keenan, 1973; Turner & Greene, 1977), and has been used as an index of informativeness in research on language and aging. The proportion of propositions in a
This thesis takes the linguistic concept of metonymy and examines its potential as a creative structural principle both in poetry and in music. I explore the role of metonymy in the work of the poet J.H. Prynne, the improvising guitarist Derek Bailey, and the composer Helmut Lachenmann. I have also deployed some of the ideas arising from this exploration in a modular composition for improvisers entitled Representations, recordings of which accompany this thesis. My argument is that metonymy provides a means by which a work of poetry or of music can be highly sensitive to the world which it inhabits,...
Traditionally, much of individual aphasia therapy has been focused on attempts to remediate underlying linguistic deficits. While many treatments have been shown to improve discrete language functions (Robey et al, 1998), those newly learned skills do not always transfer readily to non-trained environments. Over the past two decades, a growing number of aphasiologists
For more than fifty years, repeated interactions with the amnesic patient H.M. have revealed that despite profound memory impairments, he successfully participates in sophisticated and complex conversations. Accordingly, linguistic abilities of individuals with amnesia have traditionally been considered to be fully intact, leading to the view of amnesia as a deficit
“Nos gritaron que nos fuéramos” (¿o que nos vayamos?)
- Speranza, Adriana
Nuestro objetivo es analizar el uso alternante del Presente y el Pretérito Imperfecto del Modo Subjuntivo en un corpus constituido por emisiones pertenecientes a artículos periodísticos.
El problema propuesto está vinculado a la evidencialidad
como sustancia semántica que subyace a la selección de las formas. Esto es, en este caso, la posibilidad de determinar la evaluación y el grado de compromiso que cada sujeto establece con la fuente de información y la evaluación que hace de esta última. Algunas lenguas poseen morfemas específicos con los que se indica dicha función, otras, en cambio, no disponen de tales morfemas –tal es el...