GlossaNet 2: a linguistic search engine for RSS-based corpora
- Hubert Naets; Universite ́ Catholique De Louvain; Louvain-la-neuve Belgique
This paper presents GlossaNet 2, a free online concordance service that enables users to search into dynamic Web corpora. Two steps are involved in using GlossaNet. First, users define a corpus by selecting RSS feeds in a preselected pool of sources (they can also add their own RSS feeds). These sources will be visited on a regular basis by a crawler in order to generate a dynamic corpus. Second, the user can register one or more search queries on his/her dynamic corpus. Search queries will be re-applied on the corpus every time it is updated and new concordances will be...
Neurolinguistics of bilingualism and the teaching of languages
- Michel Paradis
Neurolinguists and language pathologists have traditionally concerned themselves with the language system, what some linguists now call implicit linguistic competence, or the grammar, which is what is typically impaired subsequent to lesions in the perisylvian classical language areas of the left cerebral hemisphere. This language system is also mainly what is taught in second lan-guage classes. But recently attention has been increasingly drawn to the fact that language, so defined, was only one component of verbal communication. Verbal communication is multimodal (i.e., involves different sensory modalities) and multimodular (i.e., each modality is comprised of a number of neurofunctional modules). At...
Form is easy, meaning is hard: resolving a paradox in early child language
- Letitia R. Naigles
A developmental paradox is discussed: studies of infant processing of language and language-like stimuli indicate considerable ability to abstract patterns over specific items and to distinguish natural from unnatural English sentences. In contrast, studies of toddler language production find little ability to generalize patterns over specific English words or constructions. Thus, infants appear to be abstract auditory or language processors whereas toddlers appear to be non-abstract, item-specific language users. Three resolutions are offered to this paradox. The first, that no resolution is necessary because only the toddler findings come from language use in a communicative context and so only the...
The Study of the Orally Transmitted Ballad: Past Paradigms and a New Poetics
- Teresa Catarella
The study of the orally transmitted narrative and of the ballad in particular has been, up to now at least, relatively homeless, spoken of and treated by many—linguists, philologists, literary critics, folklorists, sociologists, anthropologists—but wholeheartedly adopted by none. What is the orally transmitted ballad? Is it folklore? Partly, but as Alan Dundes points out, not everything orally transmitted is folklore and some forms of folklore are not orally transmitted (1966a:7). Is it literature? Wellek and Warren defend oral poetry and narrative as indeed worthy of serious literary consideration: “clearly, any coherent conception [of literature] must include ‘oral literature’ ” (1973:22)....
Issues in Generating Text from Interlingua Representations
- Stephan Busemann
Multi-lingual generation starts from non-linguistic content representations for generating texts in different languages that are equivalent in meaning. In contrast, cross-lingual generation is based on a language-neutral content representation which is the result of a linguistic analysis process. Non-linguistic representations do not reflect the structure of the text. Quite differently, language-neutral representations express functor-argument relationships and other semantic properties found by the underlying analysis process. These differences imply diverse generation tasks. In this contribution, we relate multi-lingual to cross-lingual generation and discuss emergent problems for the definition of an interlingua. 1.
„A new Anthropological and Linguistic Portrait of Early 17th Century Polish Jewry in an unknown Eastern-Yiddish Remedy Book”
- Ewa Geller
In this paper, I wish to present a forgotten Eastern-Yiddish medical self-help book printed in Poland (?) in 1613 under the respectable Hebrew title: “Sejfer derex ets ha-xajim”1. In my opinion, this book may be of great importance to both Yiddish linguistics and Jewish cultural history in early modern Poland. It belongs to the tradition of “sgule- un refue bixer”2 and while representing one of the earliest printed Yiddish manuals for group-internal everyday use it is also the earliest documentation of written (literary) Eastern-Yiddish language known so far. The outcome of closer linguistic analysis of this early print may result...
How to Kill Time: Emily Dickinson and Comparative Indo-European Poetics
- Cynthia L. Hallen
at the time of a great philological renaissance that enriched the field of poetics and engendered the field of linguistics. In his book How to Kill a Dragon, Calvert Watkins documents how nineteenth-century scholars such as Franz Bopp (1791-1867) and Antoine Meillet (1866-1936) developed a new comparative philology. Watkins presents comparative Indo-European poetics as “a linguistic approach to the form, nature, and function of poetic language and archaic literature among a variety of ancient Indo-European peoples ” (Watkins, 1995: 6). He uses a philological approach to establish a comparative historical poetics for ancient texts in the Indo-European language family. His...
Language and thought online: Cognitive consequences of linguistic relativity
- Dan I. Slobin
The voluminous literature on linguistic relativity has concerned itself primarily with the search for influences of particular languages on nonlinguistic cognition in situations in which language is not being used, overtly or covertly. This represents a long tradition in which anthropologists, psychologists, and linguists have sought to relate grammatical and semantic systems of a language to the worldview or epistemology or culture of the community of speakers of the language. For example, Lucy has proposed a set of requirements for studies of linguistic relativity. He stipulates that such research “should assess the cognitive performance of individual speakers aside from explicitly...
Filling the emotion gap in linguistic theory: Commentary on Potts' expressive dimension. Theoretical Linguistics 33
- Timothy Jay; Kristin Janschewitz
the final word on the expressive dimension.’ ’ Certainly more work on ex-pressives is necessary if linguistic theory is to address the role of word emotionality in language. No theory will be complete until we do so, and Potts ’ e¤orts to move the field in this direction are commendable. A more comprehensive understanding of why and how people use emo-tional and o¤ensive language will make Potts ’ theory more complete. Scholars who study o¤ensive expressives need to be familiar with research about why people curse and why they choose the particular words they do. We first address how and...
Nordic Journal of African Studies 12(3): 277–295 (2003) ON LANGUAGE RIGHTS IN KENYA∗
- Nathan Oyori Ogechi
Studies on linguistic human rights in various parts of the globe are now in vogue. The present paper analyses the language policy and practice in Kenya so as to determine the extent to which language rights are observed. The analyses focus on language use both in private and public domains. It turns out that to a large extent the language rights are upheld. However, some degree of infringement is noted both in the private and public levels of language use. It is shown that what constitutes a breach of language rights at the private level is largely “voluntary”. The article...
Expanding the Domain of a Multi-l ingual Speech-to-Speech Translation System
- Alon Lavie; Lori Levin; Puming Zhan; Maite Taboada; Donna Gates; Mirella Lapata; Cortis Clark; Matthew Broadhead; Alex Waibel
JANUS is a multi-lingual speech-to-speech translation system, which has been designed to translate sponta-neous spoken language in a limited domain. In this paper, we describe our recent preliminary efforts to ex-pand the domain of coverage of the system from the rather limited Appointment Scheduling domain, to the much richer Travel Planning domain. We compare the two domains in terms of out-of-vocabulary rates and linguistic omplexity. We discuss the challenges that these differences impose on our translation system and some planned changes in the design of the system. Ini-tial evaluations on Travel Planning data are also pre-sented.
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia,
- Nurit Melnik; Linguistic Modelling Laboratory; Held In Varna
Lecturer Liliana TODOR, PhD Candidate Commercial Academy, Satu-Mare WORKING OUT FORECASTS ON THE BASIS OF STATISTICAL EXTRAPOLATION PRINCIPLE
- La Prévision
The paper presents a series of new statistical methods which can be used in order to working out some extrapolation-based forecasts. The study begins with the deterministic, discrete and probabilistic methods. At the same time, two new antithetical concepts, the expanding and constricting of mean are introduced. The linguistic and algebraic models allow the use of fuzzy sets. The methods proposed to this end are simple but provides an accuracy iε, according to the number of significant decimals, whereby the numbers of the used informatic system are represented. The idea of researching the model where the sequence is approaching to...
- Influences Of Age; Jae Woo Kim
Background and PurposeaaCognitive impairments are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD), although the severity of these impairments does not significantly impair the patient’s daily ac-tivities. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of Parkinson’s disease (PDMCI) and its subtypes in nondemented PD patients. We also evaluated the influence of age on the pattern of subtypes of PDMCI. MethodsaaA total of 141 consecutive, nondemented PD patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment covering the five cognitive domains: attention, language, visu-ospatial, memory, and executive functions. PDMCI was defined as impaired performance in at least one of...
De Paisano a Paisano: Mexican Immigrant Students and their Transnational Perceptions of U.S. Schools
- Carmina Brittain
Mexican origin continue to warrant the attention of the American educational community. The experiences of Mexican students in the United States have been well-documented thoughtout the years, but the bulk of the studies have failed to recognize the importance of the sustained links some of these students have with Mexico. Most of the current research on immigrant students has focused on the experiences that are directly related to the cultural and linguistic discontinuities they experience with the American mainstream culture (Suarez-Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 1995; Valdes, 1997; Olsen & Jaramillo, 2000). This article provides an alternative yet important view on the...
Computational Modeling on Language Emergence: A Coevolution Model
- Tao Gong; William S-y. Wang; Academia Sinica
In this paper, after a brief review of current computational models on language emergence, a multi-agent model is introduced to simulate the emergence of a compositional language from a holistic signaling system, through iterative interactions among heterogeneous agents. A coevolution of lexicon and syntax (in the form of simple word order) is tracked during communications with indirect meaning transference, in which the listener’s comprehension is based on interactions of linguistic and nonlinguistic information, and the feedback is not a direct meaning check. In this model, homonymous and synonymous rules emerge inevitably, and a sufficiently developed communication system is available only...
Diagnostic Evaluation of Machine Translation Systems Using Auto- matically Constructed Linguistic Check-Points
- Ming Zhou; Bo Wang; Shujie Liu; Mu Li; Dongdong Zhang; Tiejun Zhao
We present a diagnostic evaluation plat-form which provides multi-factored eval-uation based on automatically con-structed check-points. A check-point is a linguistically motivated unit (e.g. an am-biguous word, a noun phrase, a verb~obj collocation, a prepositional phrase etc.), which are pre-defined in a linguistic tax-onomy. We present a method that auto-matically extracts check-points from pa-rallel sentences. By means of check-points, our method can monitor a MT system in translating important linguistic phenomena to provide diagnostic evalua-tion. The effectiveness of our approach for diagnostic evaluation is verified through experiments on various types of MT systems.
HUMAN DIVERSITY AND LANGUAGE DIVERSITY
- William So-yo Wang
Since language is the derIDing trait of our species, human evolution and linguistic evolution are obviously closely intertwined. Recent studies in genetics suggest that anatomically modem humans emerged at a very late date, perhaps 50 kys (Bertrapetit 2000; Thompson 2000). This dating is consistent with the onset of an unprecedented egree of cultural innovations, in both quality and quantity, as revealed in the archaeological record (Klein 1999). We share the belief with many students of human prehistory that the evolution of anatomically modem humans, the emergence of language, and the burst of cultural innovations, including extensive cave art and sailing...
EVIDENCE FOR LANGUAGE-MEDIATED THOUGHT IN THE PERCEPTION OF
- Non-gendered Figures; Caleb Everett
I. Relevant work on linguistic determinism A. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, most famously expressed in Whorf (1956). Influenced by Boas, as well as Humboldt, Verner, Vico, and others. (cf.
Aristotle, Menger, Mises: an essay in the metaphysics of economics
- Barry Smith; I. Preamble
There are, familiarly, a range of distinct and competing accounts of the methodological underpinnings of Menger's work. These include Leib-nizian, Kantian, Millian, and even Popperian readings; but they include also readings of an Aristotelian sort, and I have myself made a number of contributions in clarification and defense of the latter. I Not only, I have argued, does the historical situation in which Menger found him-self point to the inevitability of the Aristotelian reading;2 this reading fits also very naturally to the text of Menger's works. 3 The diversity of interpretations is not, however, entirely surprising. It is on the...