Linguistic Indicators of Severity and Progress in Online Text-based Therapy for Depression∗
- Christine Howes; Matthew Purver; Rose Mccabe
Mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety are highly prevalent, and therapy is increasingly being offered online. This new setting is a departure from face-to-face therapy, and offers both a challenge and an opportunity – it is not yet known what features or approaches are likely to lead to successful outcomes in such a dif-ferent medium, but online text-based ther-apy provides large amounts of data for lin-guistic analysis. We present an initial in-vestigation into the application of compu-tational linguistic techniques, such as topic and sentiment modelling, to online ther-apy for depression and anxiety. We find that important measures such as...
Combining outputs from multiple machine translation systems
- Antti-veikko I. Rosti; Necip Fazil Ayan; Bing Xiang; Spyros Matsoukas; Richard Schwartz; Bonnie J. Dorr
Currently there are several approaches to machine translation (MT) based on differ-ent paradigms; e.g., phrasal, hierarchical and syntax-based. These three approaches yield similar translation accuracy despite using fairly different levels of linguistic knowledge. The availability of such a variety of systems has led to a growing interest toward finding better translations by combining outputs from multiple sys-tems. This paper describes three differ-ent approaches to MT system combina-tion. These combination methods oper-ate on sentence, phrase and word level exploiting information from -best lists, system scores and target-to-source phrase alignments. The word-level combination provides the most robust gains but the best results...
Firm-Level Heterogeneity of Clawback Provisions
- Michael H. R. Erkensa; Ying Ganb; B. Burcin Yurtogluc; Suggestions To Yakov Amihud; Lucio Carta; Hans B; Markus Justen; Christian Leuz; Wolf Michael Nietzer; Marc-roger Schlieper
We investigate the degree to which implementing a clawback policy, a special part of the executive's compensation contract, is an adequate governance mechanism to deter executives from misbehavior and to recover excess-pay. By focusing on the firm-level heterogeneity in the structure of clawbacks, we recognize that firms have considerable discretion in how they design their policies. We find that firms make heavily use of their discretion in adopting more or less deterrent policies and that most firms have weak clawback provisions. We analyze voluntary adopted clawbacks of all Russell 3,000 non-financial firms over 2007-2012. We conduct an extensive linguistic and...
Dynamic Parameters of Influence: Stylistic Variation during the Early Lifespan
- Jennifer Renn (unc-chapel Hill
While stylistic variation is characteristic of speakers regardless of age, the range of variation and the relative effect of different social and sociopsychological factors may shift over time. Unfortunately, little study has been done on the dynamic shifting of linguistic styles among children and early adolescents longitudinally. Many of the sources that affect the stylistic choices of adults (e.g., audience composition, personal identity, and the formality of the context) may also apply to children’s style as well, but the relative influence of these factors cannot assumed to be constant. Do particular social and sociopsychological effects have a greater or lesser...
Folk Mereology is Teleological
- David Rose; Jonathan Schaffer
When does mereological composition occur? For instance, if a paper plate is positioned on a table between a plastic knife and a metal fork, does this scattered plurality of diverse objects make up a single composite object (a “table setting”) or not? Or if two people shake hands, or even glue their hands together, does this connected or even bonded plurality of similar objects make up a single composite object (shaped like a sculpture of two people shaking hands) or not? Many metaphysicians have wanted a view of composition that fits with folk intuitions, and have charged leading views with...
Transforming linear context–free rewriting systems into minimalist grammars
- Jens Michaelis
Abstract. The type of a minimalist grammar (MG) as introduced by Stabler [11, 12] provides an attempt of a rigorous algebraic formaliza-tion of the new perspectives adopted within the linguistic framework of transformational grammar due to the change from GB–theory to mini-malism. Michaelis  has shown that MGs constitute a subclass of mildly context–sensitive grammars in the sense that for each MG there is a weakly equivalent linear context–free rewriting system (LCFRS). How-ever, it has been left open in , whether the respective classes of string languages derivable by MGs and LCFRSs coincide. This paper completes the picture by showing...
Fuzzy Methodology for Feasibility Analysis and System Requirement and Specification
- Vishal Chandra
Abstract--Fuzzy Logic is used in those type of problems in which the solution cannot be defined in rigid boundary either yes or no. Here membership functions given to that criteria and using various fuzzy operation the calculation is done. Any software is made by several processes. These processes are known as System Development Life Cycle. There are many well-known SDLC models like waterfall model, iterative waterfall model spiral model prototype model etc. They have their own pros and cons. These SDLC models have several stages. We always use yes or no in solution of any question. We stick with rigid...
Right Node Raising: Some Perspectives from Mandarin Chinese
- Hsu-te Johnny Cheng
Three dominant approaches have been proposed in the literature to account for the Right Node Raising (RNR) construction, in which a single constituent seems to be shared by two independent clauses. This paper looks at the relevant construction in Mandarin Chinese and proposes that the across-the-board movement analysis and the PF-deletion analysis might have difficulty in accounting for the facts, while the multi-dominance approach, with some assumptions, can properly capture the relevant linguistic data. The examples in Mandarin Chinese thus provide a window as to what an adequate theory of RNR might look like.
Building World Event Representations From Linguistic Representations
- Tore Bruland; For Kari; Marie Brul
iAbstract The goal of the research presented here is to build a natural language process-ing system for our future natural language applications. We believe that real applications will move our research in Computational Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence forward, and we prefer applications that are attractive to a large number of users. The engine in this system is the wide-coverage grammar Nor-Source, and the research topic is to build a prototype of the natural language processing system. The first part of our research topic is to build a pipeline for our grammar. We present two versions of the pipeline. The first...
Prosodic Feature Evaluation: Brute Force or Well Designed
- Anton Batliner; Jan Buckow; Richard Huber; Volker Warnke; Heinrich Niemann
In this paper we want to bridge the gap between pho-netic/phonological theory on the one hand and automatic speech processing on the other hand. As material, we use a subset of the German VERBMOBIL database that is annotated with prosodic boundary and accent information. We computed a large prosodic feature vector: 276 features for a context window of up to five words modelling , duration, energy, tempo, pauses, and linguistic infor-mation on the word level. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was used in order to minimize the number of features without too much loss in classification performance. This number could be...
Evaluating the Relationships Instantiated by Semantic Associates of Verbs
- Alissa Melinger; Sabine Schulte Im Walde
This work is concerned with an investigation of semantic associations. We performed an elicitation task where na-tive speakers were asked to spontaneously list semantic associations for German verbs. The elicited conceptual knowledge was then given ontological structure based on codes from the psycholinguistic taxonomy GermaNet as well as linguistic functions obtained from statistical cor-pus parses. The investigation is directed towards dis-covering and specifying the structural and conceptual types of verb associations, stemming from an interest in better characterizing semantic associates.
Learning to Talk with Style: A Longitudinal Study of Style-Shifting in Early AAE
Although there has been considerable sociolinguistic description and interpretive framing of stylistic shifting along the continuum of linguistic variation (Labov, 1972; Bell, 1984; Schilling-Estes, 2002; Coupland, 2008), there has been little attention to the development of stylistic variation in the early lifespan. When is stylistic shifting initiated in the lifespan and what kinds of linguistic variables are manipulated in earlier stylistic variation? Are there differential developmental trajectories of stylistic usage among children and adolescents during their early lifespan? This presentation attempts to address these issues by utilizing data collected as part of a longitudinal study of African American English (AAE)...
German Today: An Extensive Speech Data Collection in the German Speaking Area of Europe
- Ralf Knöbl; Stefan Kleiner; Caren Brinckmann; Nina Berend
The research project “German Today” aims to determine the amount of regional variation in (near-) standard German spoken by young and older educated adults, and to identify and locate the regional features. To this end, an extensive corpus of read and spontaneous speech is currently being compiled. German is a so-called pluricentric language. With our corpus we aim to determine whether national or regional standards really exist. Furthermore, the linguistic variation due to different contextual styles (read vs. spontaneous speech) shall be analysed. Finally, the corpus will enable us to investigate whether linguistic change has occurred in the domain of...
Relaciones culturales en el aprendizaje de lengua extranjera
- Cardona Castaño, Luz Elena
The Paper as it follows is presented as the result of a reflection on the implications of the process named acculturation in the development of linguistic competences, departing from the comprehension of the cultural phenomena affecting the learning of a second language. The reflection hereby presented is understood as an imminent complement of a previous research project on Neuroscience applied to foreign language acquisition, whenever the stage of the application of instruments designed with the purpose of creating a significant communication in both languages were applied. From this point, it was evidenced the necessity of revising the role of cultural...
Las metáforas deportivas de San Pablo y el fútbol moderno
- Arranz Albó, Xavier
The apostolic message of Paul of Tarsus was steeped in a manner similar to that we usually find in the language of modern football linguistic terminology.
For the Apostle Paul, life was a distance race which took place in a world symbolized by the stadium. The final award was the salvation, which termed as the crown of life. The success – achieving eternal life could only get through the ascetic path, constancy, determination and sacrifice. Christian was an athlete and a militant belonging actively in the team "Milites Christi” and metaphorically using the Pauline terminology, it was not just an athlete...
Las traducciones al chino de "El Quijote": La competencia extralingüística del traductor chino en la cultura religiosa occidental
- Liu Liu, Li Mei
This paper proposes a reflection on the extra-linguistic competence of the translator in religious culturemes by studying Chinese translations of Don Quijote. We will analyze some examples and the editing notes of the translators. And we will conclude the formation of the Chinese translator in the trans-cultural elements in texts about the Catholic Christian religion.
Perspectivas y contribuciones para la traducción de las lenguas románicas
- Calvo del Olmo, Francisco
This paper aims to describe an interdisciplinary area between Translation Studies and Romance linguistics and philology, an interface in the area-restricted theories of the map of Holmes (1972/1988/2000). To this purpose, first we present the Romania as multidimensional space, where different Romance languages are spoken, and we formulate a proposal of Intra-Romance-group translation. Then we analyze linguistic, literary, cultural and historical components that mark the process of translation between, to and from languages of that group. We evaluate the possibilities and limits of such a proposal and, finally, we offer potential research lines open for future studies.
Peligros, remedios y justificaciones en el arte de traducir en el siglo XVIII. El caso de Ignacio García Malo
- Rodríguez Morín, Felipe
The art of translation at the end of the 18th century generated quite a lot of suspicions among the most erudite layers of the society, particularly because of the frequent mistakes made in the linguistic field. For that reason, a writer who is very conscientious regarding his literary reputation, as was the case with Ignacio García Malo, will try to dissociate himself from that plague of incompetent corrupters of language, by proclaiming that his translations, which are a result of the qualification and the effort devoted to them, will be useful for the nation. However, we are not very convinced...
La identidad afropanameña en la literatura desde el siglo XX hasta el nuevo milenio
- Stephenson Watson, Sonja
Black Panamanian identity in Panama is both complex and problematic becauseof the coexistence of two groups of blacks in the country: afro-colonials and black West Indians. While afro-colonials are the product of race mixing and identify by their Panamanian nationality, West Indians are immigrants and follow the racial model of their native countries-Jamaica and Barbados- which are racially constructed around blackness. Therefore, they identify as black. As a result, in Panama it is difficult to talk about Afro-Panamanian identity because it is marked by fluidity and racial, cultural and linguistic hybridity. The afro-Panamanian writers, Juan Urriola, Gaspar Octavio Hernández, Carlos...
How to utilise students’ cultural and linguistic experiences to promote language learning : looking beyond the school
- Issa, Tözün
This article will first give an overview of multicultural, multilingual Britain and place it within the context of community literacy. It will then discuss education reforms and policies that have aimed to place multicultural and multiple literacy at their centre before considering theoretical basis for current understanding of additional language learning in the UK. Then the article describes a project, based on ethnographic case studies of an early years centre and its reception classes. Preliminary results and conclusions are discussed.