Distinguishing lexical- versus discourse-level processing using event-related potentials
- Huang, Yi Ting; Hopfinger, Joseph; Gordon, Peter C.
Two experiments examine the links between neural patterns in EEG (e.g., N400s, P600s) and their corresponding cognitive processes (e.g., lexical access, discourse integration) by varying the lexical and syntactic contexts of co-referential expressions. Experiment 1 examined coreferring expressions when they occurred within the same clause as their antecedents (John/Bill warmly dressed John). Experiment 2 examined between-clause co-referencing with expressions that also varied in lexical frequency (John/Weston went to the store so that John/Weston could buy milk). Evidence of facilitated lexical processing occurred after repeated names, which elicited smaller N400s, as compared with new names. N400s were also attenuated to a...
DISPARITIES IN PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY PATIENT EDUCATION AND LINGUISTIC RESOURCES: RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY OF PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGISTS
- Slone, Jeremy S; Self, Elizabeth; Friedman, Debra; Heiman, Harry
Neuropsychological, behavioral, and anatomical evolution in right temporal variant frontotemporal dementia: A longitudinal and post-mortem single case analysis
- Henry, Maya L.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Sidhu, Manu S.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Cattaruzza, Tatiana; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Seeley, William W.
We describe a patient with semantic variant of frontotemporal dementia who received longitudinal clinical evaluations and structural MRI scans and subsequently came to autopsy. She presented with early behavior changes and semantic loss for foods and people and ultimately developed a pervasive semantic impairment affecting social-emotional as well as linguistic domains. Imaging revealed predominant atrophy of the right temporal lobe, with later involvement of the left, and pathology confirmed bilateral temporal involvement. Findings support the view that left and right anterior temporal lobes serve as semantic hubs that may be affected differentially in semantic variant by early, relatively unilateral damage.
INTERFERENCE BETWEEN CONVERSATION AND A CONCURRENT VISUOMOTOR TASK
- Boiteau, Timothy W.; Malone, Patrick S.; Peters, Sara A.; Almor, Amit
We report two experiments during which participants conversed with either a confederate (Experiment 1) or a close friend (Experiment 2) while tracking a moving target on a computer screen. In both experiments, talking led to worse performance on the tracking task than listening. We attribute this finding to the increased cognitive demands of speech planning and monitoring. Growth Curve Analyses of task performance during the beginning and end of conversation segments revealed dynamical changes in the impact of conversation on visuomotor task performance, with increasing impact during the beginning of speaking segments and decreasing impact during the beginning of listening...
MARACHNA: Automated Creation of Knowledge Representations for Mathematics
- Sven Grottke; Sabina Jeschke; Nicole Natho; Sebastian Rittau; Ruedi Seiler
Automated extraction of knowledge from natural language texts is a major technical challenge that remains largely unsolved. Scientific texts in general, and mathematical texts in particular, are characterised by the use of complex language constructs with the intent to transfer knowledge. To a large extend, mathematical texts possess a strict internal structuring and can be separated into text elements such as definitions, theorems etc. These text elements are principal carriers of mathematical information. In addition, these elements show a characteristic linguistic structuring well suited for natural language processing techniques. In this paper we present MARACHNA, a system for extracting mathematical...
Psychotherapy Volume 38/Summer 2001/Number 2 FINDING THE SELF: A BEHAVIORAL MEASURE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
- Jonathan W. Kanter; Chauncey R. Parker; Robert J. Kohlenberg
We present a clinical model of the development of self. The model focuses on the early learning responsible for linguistic self-referents such as "I " and "me. " This model offers an account for why some patients, such as those with borderline personality disorder (BPD), feel that they "do not know who they are" or that their sense of self is controlled by other people, while other patients have a sense of a secure, stable self that is not prey to the whims of others. We administered a new self-report instrument, the Experiencing of Self Scale, which measures the degree...
***Curso de Pós-Graduação em Linguística Aplicada às Patologias da
- Ana Monção; Joaquim Quintino Aires
Processing in Aphasia) test battery has been translated or adapted into other languages entirely (viz. the Spanish, Dutch and Hebrew versions) or partially, depending on the assessment needs of specific groups and on the relevance of individual tests to special cases or to research. Underlying this paper is one of the main goals and the main assumptions of the Interdisciplinary Project on Aphasia Discourse (at Centro de Linguística da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal): adapting and/or creating tests for aphasia assessment in European Portuguese (henceforth EP), building on the provable assumption that translation is not desirable, useful or possible in...
On Plurals and Overlay
- Massimo Romanelli; Tilman Becker; Jan Alex
Using an ontology for the representation of user intentions in a multimodal dia-logue system is a proven,
exible and powerful approach used in many imple-mentations. Previous work has shown the advantages of representing instances of the ontology as typed feature struc-tures and then using default unication to model the changes of the current user intentions. However, some scenarios re-quire the use of sets to represent plurals and neither can typed feature structures naturally represent sets nor does standard default unication compute the intended results. To address this issue, we propose an extension of overlay by suggesting a representation of...
Pitch range variation in english tonal contrasts: Continuous or categorical? Phonetica
- Laura C. Dilley
The importance of pitch range variation for intonation theories is well-known, but whether pitch range variation gives rise to distinctive linguistic categories in English is unclear. To test this possibility, three intonation continua were constructed for use in an imitation experiment; all had endpoints with distinct tonal representations under autosegmental-metrical (AM) theory . Responses to all three stimulus sets showed continuous variation in pitch range. The results suggest that pitch range is a phonetic dimension which is gradient in English.
A linguistic decision model to suppliers selection in international purchasing
- Francisco Herrera; Enrique López; Cristina Mendaña; Miguel A. Rodríguez
The traditional approach to suppliers selection based on price is simplistic because the information held for the decision making model is more complex and without precision in some tasks. There are qualitative factors that demand some judgement to determine a suppliers selection. Therefore, the linguistic representation of the of the knowledge available allows the problem to be recognised as in real life. This paper aims to supply a linguistic decision model to purchasing management problems.
Contrastive rhetoric in context: A dynamic model of L2 writing
- Paul Kei Matsuda; Purdue Universi
The notion of controstive rhetoric was first proposed as a pedagogic01 solu-tion to the problem of L2 orgonization, and the subsequent development in research has generated, among other voluable insights, three explanations for the organizational structures of L2 texts, including linguistic, cultural, and educational explanations. However, the contribution of contrastive rhetoric to the teaching of ESL writing has been limited because of the underlying assumptions that has guided the early pedagogical approaches. This study identifies a static theory of L2 writing that has been widely used in teaching orgonizational structures and considers how the pedagogical application of insights from contrastive...
What Do Economists Talk About? A Linguistic Analysis of Published Writing in Economic Journals
- Nils Goldschmidt; Benedikt Szmrecsanyi
ABSTRACT. The present study aims to add to our knowledge about economic rhetoric by conducting a data-driven analysis of economic academic discourse, both synchronically in its contemporary form, and diachronically over the past four decades. We find (1) that linguistically, economics is clearly an academic genre of its own, (2) that there are at the same time clear differences in vocabulary and style usage across economic journals, and (3) that there have been major developments in economic prose during the past four decades. We argue that there is some, albeit tentative, evidence that the discipline may face an increasing methodological...
Empirical properties of multilingual phone-to-word transduction
- Geoffrey Zweig; Jon Nedel
This paper explores the error-robustness of phone-to-word trans-duction across a variety of languages. We implement a noisy channel model in which a phonetic input stream is corrupted by an error model, and then transduced back to words using the inverse error model and linguistic constraints. By con-trolling the error level, we are able to measure the sensitiv-ity of different languages to degradation in the phonetic input stream. This analysis is carried further to measure the impor-tance of each phone in each language individually. We study Arabic, Chinese, English, German and Spanish, and ¿nd that they behave similarly in this paradigm:...
Phono-semantically Motivated Lexical Patterns: Evidence from English and Modern Greek
- Elizabeth Mela-athanasopoulou
Generally, linguistic theory assumes that the association between sound and mean-ing is essentially arbitrary: a meaning can theoretically be represented by almost any set of sounds in a language. Th is study, however, will show that linguistic signs appear to be less arbitrary and their meaning highly motivated by their sound. In particular, of the sound-symbolic forms, as exposed in Hinton et al (1994), I will confi ne myself only to those referred to as phonaesthemes (Firth, 1930). In Mela-Athanasopoulou (2001), I argued that phonaesthemes do meet the criteria for being full morphemes, due to their ability to recur with...
The Multi-functional Instruction Strategy of teacher follow-up in EFL classroom
- Teh-suan Liou; National Chung Cheng
This paper gives theoretical speculation in teacher talk in general, and teacher follow-up in particular, as an instructional strategy in EFL classroom. The discussion and examination of the pedagogical application of teacher talk in EFL move along three directions seeing teacher follow-up: (1) as a linguistic source of comprehensible input, (2) as a sociolinguistic skill for the co-construction of knowledge, and (3) as a potentially multi-functional polysemy in classroom. Discourse data collected from two EFL teachers and two classes of 77 EFL students in the second grade of junior high schools indicated that all three dimensions of teacher talk continuously...
A Metric for Computational Analysis of Meaning: Toward an Applied Theory of Linguistic Semantics
- Sergei Nirenburg; Victor Raskin
A metric for assessing the e~mplemlty of mmmntic (and pragmatic) analysis in natural language processing is proposed as part of a general applied theory of linguistic semantics for NLP. The theory is intended as a complete projection of linguistic semantics onto NLP and is designed as sa exhaustive list of possible choices among strategies of aementlc analysis at each level, from the word to the entire text. The alternatives are summarized in a chart, w~ch can be ccmpleted for each existing or projected MLP system. The remaining components of the applied theory are also outlined. i. Goal The immediate goal...
The Fuzzy MCDM Algorithms for the M&A Due Diligence
- Chung-tsen Tsao
An M&A due diligence is the process in which one of the parties to the transaction undertakes to investigate the other in order to judge whether to go forward with the transaction on the terms proposed. It encompasses the missions in three phases: searching and preliminary screening potential candidates, evaluating the candidates and deciding the target, and assisting the after-transaction integration. This work suggests using a Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making approach (Fuzzy MCDM) and develops detailed algorithms to carry out the second-phase task. The approach of MCDM is able to facilitate the analysis and integration of information from different...
On Reducing Principles to Rules
- Marcus Kracht
According to the research principles of the tradition established by Noam Chomsky, one should always try to get rid of construction specific rules. In Bare Phrase Structure he has carried this out to the extreme for the basic generative component now known as X-bar-syntax. Based on this example, we will examine the dialectics between specific rules and conditions on rules or principles. We will show that there is a two-way reduction, one from rules to conditions on rules, and the other from conditions on rules to specific rules. As an effect of this reduction, a particular linguistic theory can be...
1 The Empty Root in Cebuano and Kavalan: A Counterexample to
- Fuhui Hsieh; Michael Tanangkingsing
In his study of the synchronic role of morphology in Ilocano discourse, Rubino (1996) reports a rather interesting linguistic phenomenon, i.e., the many uses of the versatile empty root kua. This particular linguistic form is in itself semantically empty outside of the discourse context; yet in the context, it can be fitted into any syntactic slot and inflected or derived with appropriate morphological affixations accordingly. In other words, attached with affixation, it can be used as a verb, noun, adjective, or adverb. Rubino interprets such an empty root with appropriate morphological frame as a means for word searching and thus...
Getting to know Moses: Initial experiments on German–English factored translation
- Maria Holmqvist; Sara Stymne; Lars Ahrenberg
We present results and experiences from our experiments with phrase-based statisti-cal machine translation using Moses. The paper is based on the idea of using an off-the-shelf parser to supply linguistic infor-mation to a factored translation model and compare the results of German–English translation to the shared task baseline sys-tem based on word form. We report partial results for this model and results for two simplified setups. Our best setup takes ad-vantage of the parser’s lemmatization and decompounding. A qualitative analysis of compound translation shows that decom-pounding improves translation quality. 1