Noam Chomsky: gramatikaren teoria eta hizkuntzaren filosofia
- Irurtzun Sviaguincheva, Aritz; Echepare Iguiñiz, Ricardo
This is a survey paper on so me of the relevant themes of Chomsky's línguistícs and philosophy of language. We provide some basic biographical information and a discussion of some of the most important aspects of his contribution to the theory of grammar. Chomsky's research program in the theory of grammar, started 50 years ago with the publication of Syntactic Structures (1957), and can be said to have revolutionized línguistic inquiry, at the same time that it launched what is today called the "cognitíve revolution" in the study of mind. We present in a succínct manner some basic concepts of...
Lexikoaren eta gramatikaren garapen arteko erlazioaz
- Almgren Spare, Inger Margareta; Arratibel Insausti, Nekane; García Fernandez, Iñaki; Barreña Agirrebeitia, Andoni
The gap produced between lexical and grammatical development is one of the basic psycholinguistic principies which govem the language acquisition process. lt is based on the fact tlzat the appearance of the first lexical units precedes the use of morphology and syntax in early child language.
In this investigation, the relationship between lexical and grammatical development in children acquiring Basque as L1 is observed. The hypothesis put forth is that children need to acquire a critical mas s of vocabulary betore morphology and syntax become productive. And, consequently, that vocabulary size provides a better basis than age for determining the...
Fuzzy models: Easier to understand and an easier way to handle uncertainties in climate change research
- Gay García, Carlos; Sánchez Meneses, Oscar; Martínez-López, Benjamín; Nebot Castells, M. Àngela; Estrada, Francisco
Greenhouse gas emission scenarios (through 2100) developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change when converted to concentrations and atmospheric temperatures through the use of climate models result in a wide range of concentrations and temperatures with a rather simple interpretation: the higher the emissions the higher the concentrations and temperatures. Therefore the uncertainty in the projected temperature due to the uncertainty in the emissions is large. Linguistic rules are obtained through the use of linear emission scenarios and the Magicc model. These rules describe the relations between the concentrations (input) and the temperature increase for the year 2100 (output)...
An intelligent health assistant for migrants
- Plumbaum, Till; Narr, Sascha; Schwartze, Veit; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin
Preventive health is becoming an increasingly important part of our society. In addition to improving people's personal well being, another positive effect is the reduction of costs for medical treatments that put a high burden on individuals and health care providers. Despite these advantages, preventive health services are still not used at a desired level. This is especially true for people with a migration background, since linguistic or cultural barriers prevent them from accessing preventive health services in their host countries. In this paper, we introduce a system which aims to break down these barriers and to give assistance to...
Consideraciones generales de la política lingüística de la Corona en Indias
- Gimeno Gómez, Ana
Política lingüística colonial hispánica, catequesis y castellanización
- Alfaro Lagorio, Consuelo
Translators, interpreters and cultural mediators in late medieval Eastern Iberia and western islamic diplomatic relationships
- Salicrú Lluch, Roser
The wealth of records of the former Crown of Aragon have for years allowed extensive
studies of its late medieval relationships with Granada and North Africa, mainly focused on commercial and diplomatic contacts. But hitherto no special attention has been paid to the individuals who made it possible to achieve these links, nor to their helpers and assistants as translators and interpreters. Many of these characters are anonymous, and their real involvement and commitment in contacts, as well as their language and inter-cultural skills
and the achievement of their linguistic competence, seem difficult or even impossible
Nevertheless, a careful analysis of already...
A aprendizagem do português em uma comunidade bilingüe do Rio Grande do Sul : um estudo de redes de comunicação em harmonia
- Altenhofen, Cleo Vilson
A presente Dissertação enquadra-se na linha de pesquisa Sociolinguística do bilinguismo. Sua preocupação central foi estudar o papel e significado da aprendizagem do português nas relações sociais dos membros de uma comunidade rural bilíngue de descendentes de migrantes alemães no Rio Grande do Sul, mais precisamente Harmonia, distante cerca de 80 km de Porto Alegre. Considerando as dificuldades enfrentadas pelos membros desses grupos minoritários na aprendizagem do código oficial da maioria, bem como os equívocos advindos desse fato, partiu-se do pressuposto básico de que a compreensão de como uma comunidade dessas se estrutura em torno do bilinguismo deve constituir o...
The Cognitive Science of Metaphor From Philosophy to Neuropsychology
- Tim Rohrer
In this paper I review some of the theoretical issues surrounding metaphor, and trace them through the context of the cognitive neuroscience debate. Metaphor, like all figurative language, has been usually explained as a secondary linguistic process which takes place as a function taking place on literal language. However this explanation does not fit well with some of the recent work on right hemisphere processing of language or recent cognitive studies, both of which suggest that the figurative and literal language are processed simultaneously and share much structure. In seeking ways to operationalize the Lakoff and Johnson view of metaphor...
Integration Of Visual Inter-word Constraints And Linguistic Knowledge In Degraded Text Recognition
- Tao Hong
Degraded text recognition is a difficult task. Given a noisy text image, a word recognizer can be applied to generate several candidates for each word image. Highlevel knowledge sources can then be used to select a decision from the candidate set for each word image. In this paper, we propose that visual inter-word constraints can be used to facilitate candidate selection. Visual inter-word constraints provide a way to link word images inside the text page, and to interpret them systematically. Introduction The objective of visual text recognition is to transform an arbitrary image of text into its symbolic equivalent correctly....
A fuzzy-based tool for spatial reasoning: A Case study on soil erosion hazard prediction
- Edited M. Caetano; M. Painho; Zuhal Akyurek; Kıvanç Okalp
Fuzzy set theory provides a formal system for representing and reasoning with uncertain information. Linguistic variable concept in a fuzzy logic system enables to handle numerical data and linguistic knowledge simultaneously. Even L. A. Zadeh (1965), formulated the initial statement of fuzzy set theory, at first never expected fuzzy sets to be used in consumer products or in geographic information. A collection of objects of any kind form a classical set and the objects themselves are called elements or members of the set. Since classical set theory is used in conventional decision making systems to model uncertain real world, the...
Neural plasticity in speech acquisition and learning∗
- Yang Zhang; Yue Wang
Neural plasticity in speech acquisition and learning is concerned with the timeline trajectory and the mechanisms of experience-driven changes in the neural circuits that support or disrupt linguistic function. In this selective review, we discuss the role of phonetic learning in language acquisition, the “critical period ” of learning, the agents of neural plasticity, and the distinctiveness of linguistic systems in the brain. In particular, we argue for the necessity to look at brain–behavior connections using modern brain imaging techniques, seek explanations based on measures of neural sensitivity, neural efficiency, neural specificity and neural connectivity at the cortical level, and...
INTERACTION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING: AN INVESTIGATION INTO MCCARTHY’S ‘THREE IS’ PEDAGOGICAL MODELLING
- Paola Bocale
In the field of language teaching popular with coursebooks writers, teachers and learners is the so called ‘Three Ps ’ approach, a methodology that organises the teaching of a linguistic item in three distinct stages: Presentation of the item, Practice of the item, and
Deriving Narrow Syntax through constraints on information structure: a parallel between linguistic models of displacement
- Mark De Vos
and database theory
The role of lexical frequency and phonetic context in the weakening of syllable-final lexical /s / in the Spanish of Barranquilla, Colombia
- Richard J File-muriel
The Spanish phoneme /s / has been of particular interest to Hispanic linguists and to Linguistics in general because it is produced in different ways across different varieties of Spanish, depending on linguistic, social, and stylistic factors (c.f. Poplack 1979, Terrell 1975, Cedergren 1973). In many varieties of Spanish, the sound undergoes a process of weakening. Only recently has research has been carried out regarding the role of lexical frequency in s-lenition (Brown 2006, Eddington 2002, Bybee 2002). Furthermore, the research regarding the phonetic context that surrounds /s / and its role (if any) on lenition has been limited to...
On Three Potential Sources of Comprehensible Input On Three Potential Sources of Comprehensible Input for Second Language Acquisition
- Eun Sung Park
Three potential sources of comprehensible input for second language acquisition are examined: Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input and Modified Output. To this end, an attempt is made to closely investigate how each type of linguistic environment facilitates learner comprehension, and subsequently, acquisition. Different theoretical claims as well as a number of empirical studies are discussed in order to explore the link between different sources of input and language development. The paper concludes with a critical discussion of how the perceived comprehension actually leads to the acquisition of the features of the target language, and with suggestions for future research in...
Aspectual Interpretation in Spanish of Adverb-Modified Verbal Forms
- María Martínez-atienza
García Fernández (2000a) showed that compound forms of Spanish verbs can express what in the literature is known as Continuative Perfect, and held that this aspectual variety focalises an event from its beginning until an internal point, without focalising its end. He further proposed a classification of aspectual varieties whose first and foremost division was that between conclusive and inconclusive events. Imperfect and Continuative were regrouped within the first division, Continuative being considered as an aspectual variety different from the Perfect. The aim of the present paper is, in the first place, to cover the possible morphological expressions of the...
Heidegger’s Essentialist Responses to the Challenge of Technology
- David Tabachnick
Almost every academic discipline has engaged in a structure versus agency debate. Articulated variously in terms of nature versus nurture; sex versus gender; or primordialism versus modernism, this debate finds a common foundation in the ancient dispute between determinism and free will (Wallerstein, 1997). That is to say, where structuralist argue that human thought and action are determined by such things as linguistic, biological, and psychological structures, advocates of agency argue that individual humans are free to decide on the future course of their lives unfettered by any underlying or given framework. Andrew Feenberg has dubbed the philosophy of technology...
Motivating Learning through Scaffolded
- Philip Maclellan
Creating authentic learning opportunities that motivate university students in EFL classrooms can be challenging. Cross-cultural ethnographic research projects meet this motivational challenge by promoting active student engagement in language learning through a teacher-facilitated process of inquiry that students design and implement. Students are motivated by the authentic and integrated use of English that emerges from their research and the autonomy to pursue a cognitively challenging topic of interest. Learners benefit by building skills to initiate interactions and carry on a “dialogue ” with native speakers, gaining confidence through their use of English and the realization that they possess the ability...
Language Fixation in Dryden's All for Love
remark on the relationship between his new play and its Shakespearean source: "In my Stile I have profess'd to imitate the Divine Shakespeare.... I hope I need not explain my self, that I have not Copy'd my Author servilely: Words and Phrases must of necessity receive a change in succeeding Ages: but 'tis almost a Miracle that much of his Language remains so pure... " (18). What is particularly interesting about this passage is how a standard invocation of the Renaissance ideal of imitatio— that is, a balance between respectful imitation and individual innovation— immediately turns into a divided remark...