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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 181 - 200 de 48,042

181. Defining the deep syntactic structure: how the signifying units combine - Kahane, Sylvain
Considering that the DSyntS has been described in detail but never really defined, we propose to define it as the structure recording how the signifying units combine when an utterance is produced. Signifying units are defined as the indivisible choices made by the speaker as (s)he produces an utterance; they include full lexical units but also grammatical, derivational and constructional units. The traditional DSyntS is a simplified view on the structure we define here. We show that many choices made for the traditional DSyntS are arbitrary and sometimes irrelevant. We also discuss the status of the DSyntS in a complete linguistic model.

182. Linguistic well-formedness of semantic structures - Iordanskaja, Lidija; Mel'Cuk, Igor
The paper formulates the problem of language-specific constraints on linguistically well-formed Semantic Structures: how can we draw a borderline between semantically well-formed and illformed sentences, and how can we tell lexical incongruence from semantic ill-formedness? The constraints that determine semantic ill-formedness in a given language are based on a simple criterion: If the meaning of a linguistically anomalous sentence can be expressed by a linguistically correct paraphrase, then the anomaly is not semantic; otherwise, it is semantic. Several relevant examples (in English, French and Russian) are analyzed; a sketch of a typology of semantic constraints within the Meaning-Text framework is proposed. We also define the distinction between extralinguistic...

183. YES and NO: universal ideas in language specific configurations - Dmitrij; Levontina, Irina
Even the most general and seemingly universal ideas have a unique representation in every single language. In this paper, we analyze the Russian words da "yes" and hem "no", as well as their English and German correlates. We show that these words behave differently from language to language. As empirical basis, we took two Harry Potter books by J. K. Rowling (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone and Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets) and their German and Russian translations. Many of the cross-linguistic differences discussed in the paper go back to the language specific properties of the discourse structure.

184. What exactly do numbers mean? - Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse
Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the...

185. Quantifying the Impact and Extent of Undocumented Biomedical Synonymy - Blair, David R.; Wang, Kanix; Nestorov, Svetlozar; Evans, James A.; Rzhetsky, Andrey
Synonymous relationships among biomedical terms are extensively annotated within specialized terminologies, implying that synonymy is important for practical computational applications within this field. It remains unclear, however, whether text mining actually benefits from documented synonymy and whether existing biomedical thesauri provide adequate coverage of these linguistic relationships. In this study, we examine the impact and extent of undocumented synonymy within a very large compendium of biomedical thesauri. First, we demonstrate that missing synonymy has a significant negative impact on named entity normalization, an important problem within the field of biomedical text mining. To estimate the amount synonymy currently missing from...

186. Common variation near ROBO2 is associated with expressive vocabulary in infancy - St Pourcain, Beate; Cents, Rolieke A.M.; Whitehouse, Andrew J.O.; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Davis, Oliver S.P.; O’Reilly, Paul F.; Roulstone, Susan; Wren, Yvonne; Ang, Qi W.; Velders, Fleur P.; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; Warrington, Nicole M.; Miller, Laura; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ring, Susan M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Meaburn, Emma L.; Price, Thomas S.; Dale, Philip S.; Pillas, Demetris; Yliherva, Anneli; Rodriguez, Alina; Golding, Jean; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Plomin, Robert; Pennell, Craig E.; Tiemeier, Henning; Davey Smith, George
Twin studies suggest that expressive vocabulary at ~24 months is modestly heritable. However, the genes influencing this early linguistic phenotype are unknown. Here we conduct a genome-wide screen and follow-up study of expressive vocabulary in toddlers of European descent from up to four studies of the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology consortium, analysing an early (15–18 months, ‘one-word stage’, NTotal=8,889) and a later (24–30 months, ‘two-word stage’, NTotal=10,819) phase of language acquisition. For the early phase, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs7642482) at 3p12.3 near ROBO2, encoding a conserved axon-binding receptor, reaches the genome-wide significance level (P=1.3 × 10−8) in the combined...

187. Grasping Hand Verbs: Oscillatory Beta and Alpha Correlates of Action-Word Processing - Niccolai, Valentina; Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja
The grounded cognition framework proposes that sensorimotor brain areas, which are typically involved in perception and action, also play a role in linguistic processing. We assessed oscillatory modulation during visual presentation of single verbs and localized cortical motor regions by means of isometric contraction of hand and foot muscles. Analogously to oscillatory activation patterns accompanying voluntary movements, we expected a somatotopically distributed suppression of beta and alpha frequencies in the motor cortex during processing of body-related action verbs. Magnetoencephalographic data were collected during presentation of verbs that express actions performed using the hands (H) or feet (F). Verbs denoting no...

188. A Commentary on the Speech of Demosthenes 'Against Androtion' (Dem.22) - Giannadaki, I
The oration Against Androtion (Dem.22) is one of the five extant speeches found in the Attic orators which involve graphe paranomon (a legal action against the introduction of illegal decrees), one of the two public actions (the other being graphe nomon me epitedeion theinai) related to illegal and inexpedient legislation, with significant implications for the Athenian legal system and the Athenian democracy in general. The speech was written by Demosthenes, probably the first of his public speeches, for Diodoros against a prominent political figure and Atthidographer, Androtion. The speech is a significant source for a number of legal and historical...

189. Efeitos de sentidos nas imagens de mulher e de homem no discurso dicionarístico do Rio Grande do Sul - Schwuchow, Valéria
O presente artigo procura evidenciar os efeitos de sentidos constituídos nas imagens de mulher e de homem, no discurso dicionarístico do Rio Grande do Sul. Para isso, analisamos os verbetes Prenda, China, Gaúcho, e Guasca, na intenção de apreender as movimentações, alterações, deslizamentos, instaurações, ou não de sentidos. Nosso objeto de pesquisa é o “Dicionário de Regionalismos do Rio Grande do Sul”, de Zeno Cardoso Nunes e Rui Cardoso Nunes, publicado em 1996 na sua 8ª edição. O uso desse dicionário se justifica por registrar uma língua específica de uma região e apresentar um determinado período sócio-histórico. Nossa perspectiva teoria...

190. Avenida Tancredo Neves: Um estudo histórico-enunciativo - de Santana Silva, Rodrigo; Veronêz da Silva, Giseli; da Silva Zattar, Neuza Benedita
Na perspectiva teórica da Semântica do Acontecimento, desenvolvida por Eduardo Guimarães (2002), que toma a análise do sentido na linguagem no e pelo estudo da enunciação, que se “deve se dar num espaço que seja possível considerar a constituição histórica do sentido” (Ibidem, p.8), propomos desenvolver um estudo sobre o processo de nomeação da Avenida Tancredo Neves da cidade de Cáceres-MT, espaço público específico de ir e vir, de constante movimento em uma cidade.  Essa reflexão se dará a partir dos aspectos morfossintáticos, considerando como a forma linguística se apresenta como parte constitutiva do sentido de um enunciado, e do...

191. Histórias em quadrinhos: Leitura e produção de sentidos no 2º ano do ensino fundamental - Alves Moraes, Dione Márcia
Este escrito procura analisar o trabalho desenvolvido com alunos, do 2º ano do Ensino Fundamental da Escola de Aplicação da UFPA. Procuramos fazer aproximações entre a linguística e a psicanálise, desenvolvendo uma pesquisa qualitativo-interpretativa, que se delineia como uma pesquisa-ação. Objetivamos discutir como o trabalho com histórias em quadrinhos (HQs) pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da fluência e compreensão leitora dos alunos. Nesta apresentação discutiremos os dados de dois alunos em relação a duas atividades: uma de leitura e compreensão de uma história do Calvin e Haroldo e a outra de leitura em voz alta e recontagem da HQ “Apaixonada...”....

192. Variação linguística na aula de espanhol: ¿comprendés vos? ¿comprendéis vosotros? - Silva do Pinho, Louise
Este trabalho pretende discutir a importância de respeitar e abordar a variação lingüística na aula de espanhol no Brasil. A ênfase serão pronomes de segunda pessoa vos, tú e vosotros, que possuem um uso diverso nas regiões onde o idioma é falado e interferem diretamente na relação estabelecida entre locutor e interlocutor. Também trataremos sobre a forma como esses pronomes podem ser inseridos na sala de aula de aula, sem que um se sobreponha ao outro e sem prejuízos para o aluno.

193. Estructuras lingüísticas y literarias de los refranes chinos. - Mateos, Fernando

194. The functions of language and the understanding of mental disorders - Bucca, Antonino
The writings of the endless paranoiac interned in a Italian psychiatric and forensic hospital give us a picture of the facts and circumstances that project them in a hyperbolic narrative dimension. As fallacious, their speech remains shiny and able to attract the attention of the interlocutor until the moment in which the delusional truth isn�t revealed by obstinacy that ends to make it obvious. But, is it only this the expression of madness? And language with which it�s expressed always so clear, tended persuasive, paradoxically suggestive and captivating? In its intrinsic communicative thrust is psychotic linguistic use always so demanding, caring and direct to the presence of the other?...

195. "Vengeance" and "hono(u)r" in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" and Sumarokov's "Gamlet": a collocational aporoach - Keshabyan, Irina; Cantos Gómez, Pascual
The present paper is based on the extended piece of research which is aimed at carrying out structural and lexical analysis of two contrasting plays -Shakespeare's Hamlet and Sumarokov's Gamlet in a specific linguistic domain. In this contribution, we will attempt to gain some insight into two essential content words, particularly nouns -vengeance and hono(u)r, their derivatives and related wordsthrough quantitative analysis of these words and qualitative analysis of their collocates and concordances. Collocational approach will be used to analyse and compare the ways the authors perceive the concepts of vengeance and hono(u)r. In general, the findings will indicate important similarities and/or differences between the structures of...

196. Utilidad y limitaciones de los corpora informáticos en la elaboración de un tesauro fraseológico (alemán-español) - Mellado Blanco, Carmen
Objeto de este trabajo es la presentación de algunas de las cuestiones que -en el marco de la Lingüística de corpus- nos han ido surgiendo en los últimos meses en el proceso de elaboración de un corpus fraseológico onomasiológico del alemán y el español. Este corpus conforma una parte fundamental de las tareas de proyecto de investigación FRASESPAL (La estructura idiomática del alemán y el español. Un estudio cognitivo a partir de un corpus onomasiológico. Code HUM2007-62198/FILO) y en esta comunicación nos centraremos en algunos de los aspectos que consideramos más importantes por su trascendencia en la práctica lexicográfica y fraseográfica. Tras un capítulo introductorio sobre la...

197. Teaching idiomatic expressions to learners of EFL through a corpus based on Disney movies - López Rodríguez, Irene; García Moreno, Elena María
This paper attempts to provide a strategy for the teaching of idioms to learners of EFL through a corpus based on Disney movies. Adopting a cognitive approach, idioms are seen as being motivated by conceptual metaphors which tend to be grounded in our embodied experiences and which very often involve mental imagery. This imagistic component, in turn, is brought to the fore by means of Disney movies which very often commingle the pictorial, linguistic and embodied elements associated to an idiom.

198. Problemas metodológicos en la formación de corpus orales - Recalde Fernández, Montserrat; Vázquez Rozas, Victoria
El impulso creciente experimentado por la lingüística de corpus en sus variadas vertientes se manifiesta en una preocupación cada vez mayor por las condiciones de obtención y manejo de los datos recopilados. En la comunicación analizamos estas facetas metodológicas aplicadas a la formación de corpus orales con el objetivo de valorar las consecuencias de las decisiones que atañen a las técnicas de registro de muestras y al tratamiento y codificación de los datos grabados. Nos centraremos, por un lado, en el contraste existente entre la conversación espontánea y la entrevista semidirigida, y por otro en algunas implicaciones de la transcripción y codificación del material sonoro. En ambos...

199. Polysemous verbs and modality in native and non-native argumentative writing: a corpus-based study - Salazar, Danica; Verdaguer, Isabel
The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were examined to determine their use in the three corpora. After presenting the overall results for all verbs studied, more in-depth linguistic analysis was performed on the polysemous verb feel. These analyses revealed that the non-native writers, unlike their native counterparts, had a limited grasp of the full range of meanings of lexical verbs such as feel. It also...

200. Bello y las "escrituras disciplinarias": diccionarios, gramáticas, ortografías - Velleman, Barry L.
Los diccionarios y las gramáticas representan herramientas de planificación lingüística, y, junto con las constituciones y los manuales de urbanidad, son "escrituras disciplinarias" (González Stephan 1995). La "etnortografía", subdisciplina de la glotopolítica, es otra variedad de "escritura disciplinaria", puesto que las iniciativas de reforma ortográfica pueden reflejar y promover determinadas ideologías políticas, culturales y religiosas (Calero Vaquera 2010). En sus propuestas destinadas a simplificar la ortografía castellana, Andrés Bello (1781-1865) y Domingo Sarmiento (1811-1888) son representantes de diversas orientaciones etnortográficas. Se interpreta a Bello como figura esencial del cultivo de la cultura latinoamericana poscolonial desde la perspectiva del modelo de...


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