Mostrando recursos 21 - 40 de 66,702

  1. Eliciting Euphoria Online: The Aesthetics of “ASMR” Video Culture

    Rob Gallagher
    “Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response” (ASMR) is a term that has emerged online to describe a mysterious tingling sensation that some people experience in response to particular audiovisual and interpersonal “triggers.” Initially coalescing via discussion threads on health forums, ASMR culture quickly began using platforms like YouTube and Reddit to exchange trigger videos. This paper frames the emergence of ASMR video culture as an example of how bodies and algorithms are conspiring to bring into being new cultural forms that can seem literally inexplicable on first encounter. Treating videos as “inputs,” judged not as messages to be understood or interpreted but...

  2. El lèxic d’origen germànic en el llatí medieval de Catalunya

    Jaime Moya, Joan Maria
    El nostre treball, que està inserit dins del projecte del Glossarium Mediae Latinitatis Cataloniae (GMLC), compartit per la Universitat de Barcelona i el Consell Superior d'Investigacions Científiques, ha consistit a elaborar un estudi etimològic del lèxic d'origen germànic que apareix en el llatí medieval de Catalunya. Concretament, s'han estudiat els termes d'origen germànic (gòtic i fràncic) que van penetrar com a substrat en el llatí altmedieval de Catalunya, des de l'antiguitat tardana fins al tombant del segle XII. Els termes germànics suara esmentats, que es troben inclosos en textos diplomàtics, han estat identificats i extrets del corpus documental del GMLC i,...

  3. Admixture into and within sub-Saharan Africa

    Busby, George BJ; Band, Gavin; Si Le, Quang; Jallow, Muminatou; Bougama, Edith; Mangano, Valentina D; Amenga-Etego, Lucas N; Enimil, Anthony; Apinjoh, Tobias; Ndila, Carolyne M; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Nyirongo, Vysaul; Doumba, Ogobara; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Spencer, Chris CA;
    Similarity between two individuals in the combination of genetic markers along their chromosomes indicates shared ancestry and can be used to identify historical connections between different population groups due to admixture. We use a genome-wide, haplotype-based, analysis to characterise the structure of genetic diversity and gene-flow in a collection of 48 sub-Saharan African groups. We show that coastal populations experienced an influx of Eurasian haplotypes over the last 7000 years, and that Eastern and Southern Niger-Congo speaking groups share ancestry with Central West Africans as a result of recent population expansions. In fact, most sub-Saharan populations share ancestry with groups...

  4. Exploring cultural and linguistic influences on clinical communication skills: a qualitative study of International Medical Graduates

    Verma, Anju; Griffin, Ann; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew

  5. Linguistic Validation of the Turkish Version of the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Cancer Module

    Brandon Gunn, G.; Atalar, Banu; Mendoza, Tito R.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Selek, Uğur; Özyar, Enis; Rosenthal, David I.

  6. Palliative and End-of-Life Care in Newfoundland’s Deaf Community

    Maddalena, Victor; O’Shea, Fiona; Murphy, Myles
    The Deaf community is a distinct cultural and linguistic community (the uppercase D is a cultural identification). Compared to the general population, the Deaf community, as a social group, experiences poorer health status. Deaf people seek care less frequently than the general population and have fewer interactions with the health system. Their encounters with the health system are often characterized by communication difficulties, fear, mistrust, and frustration. Qualitative research was used to explore the experiences of family caregivers who provided end-of-life care for a Deaf person. Key findings indicate that the Deaf community has limited understanding of their options for...

  7. It’s Harder to Break a Relationship When you Commit Long

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie
    Past research has produced evidence that parsing commitments strengthen over the processing of additional linguistic elements that are consistent with the commitments and undoing strong commitments takes more time than undoing weak commitments. It remains unclear, however, whether this so-called digging-in effect is exclusively due to the length of an ambiguous region or at least partly to the extra cost of processing these additional phrases. The current study addressed this issue by testing Japanese relative clause structure, where lexical content and sentence meaning were controlled for. The results showed evidence for a digging-in effect reflecting the strengthened commitment to an...

  8. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Vandenberghe, Rik
    The extent to which deficits in non-verbal auditory processing contribute to the clinical phenotype of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is unclear. Grube et al. reveal impairments in processing the timing of brief sequences of non-linguistic stimuli, particularly in the non-fluent variant, indicative of a core central auditory impairment in PPA.

  9. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja
    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was...

  10. A General Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Neural Network Multidimensional Classifier Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets for Medical Identification

    Zhao, Jing; Lin, Lo-Yi; Lin, Chih-Min
    The diversity of medical factors makes the analysis and judgment of uncertainty one of the challenges of medical diagnosis. A well-designed classification and judgment system for medical uncertainty can increase the rate of correct medical diagnosis. In this paper, a new multidimensional classifier is proposed by using an intelligent algorithm, which is the general fuzzy cerebellar model neural network (GFCMNN). To obtain more information about uncertainty, an intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic term is employed to describe medical features. The solution of classification is obtained by a similarity measurement. The advantages of the novel classifier proposed here are drawn out by comparing...

  11. Top–Down Modulation on the Perception and Categorization of Identical Pitch Contours in Speech and Music

    Weidema, Joey L.; Roncaglia-Denissen, M. P.; Honing, Henkjan
    Whether pitch in language and music is governed by domain-specific or domain-general cognitive mechanisms is contentiously debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mechanisms governing pitch contour perception operate differently when pitch information is interpreted as either speech or music. By modulating listening mode, this study aspired to demonstrate that pitch contour perception relies on domain-specific cognitive mechanisms, which are regulated by top–down influences from language and music. Three groups of participants (Mandarin speakers, Dutch speaking non-musicians, and Dutch musicians) were exposed to identical pitch contours, and tested on their ability to identify these contours in...

  12. Cognitive Predictors of Word and Pseudoword Reading in Spanish First-Grade Children

    González-Valenzuela, María J.; Díaz-Giráldez, Félix; López-Montiel, María D.
    The study examines the individual and combined contribution of several cognitive variables (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming) to word and pseudoword reading ability among first-grade Spanish children. Participants were 116 Spanish-speaking children aged 6 years and without special educational needs, all of whom were attending schools in a medium socioeconomic area. Descriptive/exploratory and bivariate analyses were performed with the data derived from three measures of reading ability (accuracy, speed, and efficiency), and hierarchical multivariate regression models were constructed. In general, the results confirm that, with the exception of non-alphanumeric rapid naming, the cognitive variables studied...

  13. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Recent Verbal Behavior Research on Individuals with Disabilities: a Review and Implications for Research and Practice

    Brodhead, Matthew T.; Durán, Lillian; Bloom, Sarah E.
    The number of individuals from various culture and language backgrounds who are receiving behavior-analytic services is growing. Therefore, a behavioral understanding of the role of cultural and linguistic diversity (CLD) in language acquisition may be warranted. We searched recent editions of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis to determine the degree to which researchers report the CLD of individuals with disabilities who participate in verbal behavior research. Our results indicate that researchers in these journals rarely report the culture and language background of their participants. Given these results, we provide a conceptual analysis and...

  14. Dialect Variation Influences the Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Word Processing in Sentences. Electrophysiological Evidence from a Cross-Dialectal Comprehension Study

    Lanwermeyer, Manuela; Henrich, Karen; Rocholl, Marie J.; Schnell, Hanni T.; Werth, Alexander; Herrgen, Joachim; Schmidt, Jürgen E.
    This event-related potential (ERP) study examines the influence of dialectal competence differences (merged vs. unmerged dialect group) on cross-dialectal comprehension between Southern German dialects. It focuses on the question as to whether certain dialect phonemes (/oa⌢/, /oƱ⌢/), which are attributed to different lexemes in two dialect areas (Central Bavarian, Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone) evoke increased neural costs during sentence processing. In this context, the phonological and semantic processing of lexemes is compared in three types of potentially problematic communication settings (misunderstanding, incomprehension, allophonic variation = potential comprehension). For this purpose, an oddball design including whole sentences was combined with a semantic...

  15. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K.; Barker, David H.
    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however,...

  16. Women are Warmer but No Less Assertive than Men: Gender and Language on Facebook

    Park, Gregory; Yaden, David Bryce; Schwartz, H. Andrew; Kern, Margaret L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kosinski, Michael; Stillwell, David; Ungar, Lyle H.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
    Using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we explored differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness. In Study 1, we analyzed topics (groups of semantically similar words) across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users. Most language differed little across gender. However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most associated with self-identified male participants included swearing, anger, discussion of objects instead of people, and the use of argumentative language. In Study 2, we plotted male- and female-linked language topics along two interpersonal dimensions...

  17. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence

    Shtyrov, Yury; MacGregor, Lucy J.
    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain’s activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of familiar words and meaningless pseudowords. Stimuli were briefly presented on the visual-field periphery to experimental participants whose attention was occupied with a non-linguistic visual feature-detection task. The neural activation...

  18. Can a linguistic serial founder effect originating in Africa explain the worldwide phonemic cline?

    Fort, Joaquim; Pérez-Losada, Joaquim
    It has been proposed that a serial founder effect could have caused the present observed pattern of global phonemic diversity. Here we present a model that simulates the human range expansion out of Africa and the subsequent spatial linguistic dynamics until today. It does not assume copying errors, Darwinian competition, reduced contrastive possibilities or any other specific linguistic mechanism. We show that the decrease of linguistic diversity with distance (from the presumed origin of the expansion) arises under three assumptions, previously introduced by other authors: (i) an accumulation rate for phonemes; (ii) small phonemic inventories for the languages spoken before...

  19. Theory of Mind Development in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Growing Complexity of Recursive Thinking Ability

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella
    This study explores the development of theory of mind, operationalized as recursive thinking ability, from adolescence to early adulthood (N = 110; young adolescents = 47; adolescents = 43; young adults = 20). The construct of theory of mind has been operationalized in two different ways: as the ability to recognize the correct mental state of a character, and as the ability to attribute the correct mental state in order to predict the character’s behaviour. The Imposing Memory Task, with five recursive thinking levels, and a third-order false-belief task with three recursive thinking levels (devised for this study) have been...

  20. Promoting Mentalization in Clinical Psychology at Universities: A Linguistic Analysis of Student Accounts

    Freda, Maria Francesca; Esposito, Giovanna; Quaranta, Teresa
    This study investigated the structure of mentalization (Bateman & Fonagy, 2012) in a training context. The dual purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of practicum student training and whether the Linguistic Inquiry method (Pennebaker, 2000) could be used to evaluate the three dimensions of mentalization — relational, cognitive, and emotional. The training utilized the groups and their accounts as devices and mediators to conceptualize the relationship between self-mentalizing training, the academic context and the practicum experience. Accounts from 38 Italian students pursuing master degree in Clinical, Dynamic, and Community Psychology were analyzed by LIWC software. The Wilcoxon test showed a...

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