Mostrando recursos 21 - 40 de 3.136

  1. The Acoustic Change Complex for Measuring Speech Perceptual Performance in Normal Hearing Listeners in Noise, Cochlear Implant Users, and Second Language Listeners

    Brint, EM
    A series of experiments recorded the acoustic change complex (ACC) to a broad range of speech stimuli. The ACC is an electrophysiological response to an acoustic change within an on-going stimulus. Recordings were obtained from normal hearing (NH) listeners in noise, cochlear implanted (CI) listeners, and second language listeners. Chapter 2 presented a mixture of transitions between four vowels and four fricatives in quiet and at three noise levels to NH listeners. We investigated how the ACC was affected by noise, and how the ACC relates to individuals’ behavioural speech-in-noise ability. Chapter 3 details a CI study using the same...

  2. Pastoralist Settlement and the Anthropogenic Savannah: the archaeo-ecology of Mili Sita, Kenya

    Boles, OJC
    Pastoralism has long been regarded difficult subject matter for archaeology, particularly in eastern Africa. Ephemeral settlements are presumed to leave little physical residue, such that reconstructions of pastoralist ethno-histories have relied on often-vague distributions of material culture. Cultural-stratigraphic approaches are limited in their capacity to explore the lifeways and social dynamics behind material expressions. As a consequence, our knowledge of how herding spread into the region and the historical development of the specialised stock-keeping communities seen today is hindered by a methodological incapacity to address what are arguably the fundamental drivers of pastoralist daily experience: mobility and landscape ecology. This...

  3. Contribuição da avaliação do processamento auditivo na investigação das dificuldades de aprendizagem

    Nunes, Cristiane Lima; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Carvalho, Graça S.
    O processamento auditivo central está relacionado com a capacidade do indivíduo analisar e interpretar os eventos acústicos recebidos pelo sistema auditivo, os quais estão intrinsecamente relacionados com o desenvolvimento da linguagem e da aprendizagem. Neste estudo aplicámos oito testes de avaliação do processamento auditivo (PA) em crianças dos 10 aos 13 anos e comparámos os resultados com o desempenho académico é linguístico. A amostra foi constituída por 51 crianças organizadas em 4 grupos: com bom desempenho académico ou com fraco desempenho académico; e com presença ou com ausência de perturbação da comunicação. A análise estatística mostrou que dois dos testes aplicados (teste MSV e teste PD) discriminam...

  4. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS

    Foley, JA; Foltynie, T; Zrinzo, L; Hyam, JA; Limousin, P; Cipolotti, L
    Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method. In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and...

  5. Lexical-gustatory synaesthesia: linguistic and conceptual factors

    Ward, J; Simner, J

  6. Does it matter what you call it? Lay beliefs for overcoming chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis, and post-viral fatigue syndrome

    McDermott, MR; Bendle, C; Griffin, M; Furnham, A
    © 2016, Springer Publishing Company.The study reported here examines variation in beliefs about how best to overcome a health complaint when it is nominally designated in one of 3 different ways, namely, as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), or as post.viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS). In a repeated measures design, the participant sample (n = 140) was presented with an adapted version of Knapp and Karabenick's (1985) questionnaire which asks respondents to rate the degree to which single-item coping strategies would be most useful for overcoming each of the 3 designated complaints. Factor analysis of the coping items produces...

  7. 'Confabulation' in narrative discourse by schizophrenic patients.

    Kramer, S; Bryan, KL; Frith, CD
    There are many clinical reports of confabulation by schizophrenic patients. This study provides evidence of a form of confabulation by schizophrenic patients in tasks which do not include a memory component. It uses a linguistic framework to analyse the components of this confabulation.

  8. Лѣтопись: 7 November 1981, Oxford: Meeting of the Slavic and East European Medieval Study Group

    MacRobert, Catherine Mary; Burns, Yvonne
    This feature "ЛѢТОПИСЬ" ('Chronicle') reports on recent events in the field of Early Slavic studies, e.g., celebrations, conferences, symposia, announcements of forthcoming colloquia and past study groups, etc.

  9. Natalie Operstein (2010). Consonant structure and prevocalization. (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 312.) Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Pp. x+234.

    Nevins, A

  10. Who is not multilingual now?

    Morgan, C
    What is the relationship between research into multilingualism and research concerned more generally with language and communication in mathematics education? Diversity in linguistic practices is universal in modern society and poses problems for teaching and learning even in apparently monolingual contexts. Research in multilingualism and mathematics education offers constructs and insights that can inform research and pedagogy more widely. The

  11. Effects of Noise Reduction on AM and FM Perception

    Ives, DT; Calcus, A; Kalluri, S; Strelcyk, O; Sheft, S; Lorenzi, C
    The goal of noise reduction (NR) algorithms in digital hearing aid devices is to reduce background noise whilst preserving as much of the original signal as possible. These algorithms may increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an ideal case, but they generally fail to improve speech intelligibility. However, due to the complex nature of speech, it is difficult to disentangle the numerous low- and high-level effects of NR that may underlie the lack of speech perception benefits. The goal of this study was to better understand why NR algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility by investigating the effects of NR...

  12. It’s Harder to Break a Relationship When you Commit Long

    Arai, Manabu; Shikanai, Chie
    Past research has produced evidence that parsing commitments strengthen over the processing of additional linguistic elements that are consistent with the commitments and undoing strong commitments takes more time than undoing weak commitments. It remains unclear, however, whether this so-called digging-in effect is exclusively due to the length of an ambiguous region or at least partly to the extra cost of processing these additional phrases. The current study addressed this issue by testing Japanese relative clause structure, where lexical content and sentence meaning were controlled for. The results showed evidence for a digging-in effect reflecting the strengthened commitment to an...

  13. Acquisition of abstract concepts is influenced by emotional valence.

    Ponari, M; Norbury, CF; Vigliocco, G
    There is considerable lack of evidence concerning the linguistic and cognitive skills underpinning abstract vocabulary acquisition. The present study considers the role of emotional valence in providing an embodied learning experience in which to anchor abstract meanings. First, analyses of adult ratings of age-of-acquisition, concreteness and valence demonstrate that abstract words acquired early tend to be emotionally valenced. Second, auditory Lexical Decision accuracies of children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years (n = 20 per group) complement these analyses, demonstrating that emotional valence facilitates processing of abstract words, but not concrete. These findings provide the first evidence that young, school-aged...

  14. On Violence and Vision: Ethics and Aesthetics of Translation in the Work of Atxaga, Kundera and Semprún

    Hulme, HA
    Translation is never a neutral activity: simultaneously generative and destructive, connective and disruptive, translation illuminates a set of ethical issues surrounding the production and reception of literary forms. Translation also contains its own ethics concerned with the appropriations and manipulations involved in the attempted transfer of meaning between different languages, voices and cultures. This thesis engages with translation, in both theory and practice, as part of an interrogation of ethical as well as political thought within the twentieth-century European novel. I begin by exploring the binaries surrounding discussions of the ethics of translation, particularly Lawrence Venuti’s categorization of translations as...

  15. Publication or performance? Documenting the processes of translating two one-act Strindberg plays

    Brodie, GS
    This article documents the translation procedures taking place during a 2012 project in the Scandinavian Department of University College London, which marked the anniversary of August Strindberg’s death by retranslating four of his lesser-known one-act plays . The translators’ self-reflection on their work was captured in interviews recorded with them shortly after the translations had been performed. The working method, whereby two translators collaborated on each play, had the effect of foregrounding the dialogues created by the process, not only at socio-communicative levels between translating partners; but also on an academic plane, in the juxtapositions of linguistic and translation theories...

  16. Psychiatric knowledge on the Soviet periphery: mental health and disorder in East Germany and Czechoslovakia, 1948-1975

    Marks, SV
    This thesis traces the development of concepts and aetiologies of mental disorder in East Germany and Czechoslovakia under Communism, drawing on material from sychiatry and its allied disciplines, as well as discourses on mental health in the popular press and Party literature. I explore the transnational exchanges that shaped these concepts during the Cold War, including those with the USSR, China and other ountries in the Soviet sphere of influence, as well as engagement with science from the 'West'. It challenges assumptions about the 'pavlovization' and top-down control of psychiatry, demonstrating that researchers were far from isolated from international developments,...

  17. Contemporary Urban Vernaculars in Rap, Literature and in Translation in Sweden and the UK

    Smalley, N
    This thesis explores the use of contemporary urban vernaculars in creative writing in Sweden and the UK. Contemporary urban vernaculars can be defined as varieties of informal speech that have emerged in urban areas with high ethnic and linguistic diversity, and have come to index social affiliation and identity. The thesis examines the form these varieties take when represented in selected examples of creative writing including rap lyrics, poetry, prose, drama, and translation. It also looks at the way such varieties progress from one form to another, arguing that there is a translation effect in operation as spoken language is...

  18. Piteous Performances: Representations of Infanticide and its Contexts in Tudor and Stuart Literature of Stage and Street

    Billingham, JE
    This research derives from analysis of cases of suspicious infant death recorded in Sussex Coroners’ inquests between 1485 and 1688. It examines both infanticides and child murders, following the early modern practice of defining “infant” as up to age seven. The historical records, which are summarised in several theme-based tables, are combined with close readings of imaginative texts, including plays by Shakespeare, Middleton and Webster, broadside ballads, and pamphlets. Archival and literary accounts are examined in the context of early modern works concerning law, religion, and the body, alongside recent studies of women’s history, and childbirth. Anthropological theories concerning rites...

  19. The role of labels and metaphors in investigating interconnections between the Digital Humanities and the Humanities

    Nyhan, J
    It is not uncommon for practitioners of Digital Humanities (DH) to portray their research and colleagues as revolutionary. Looking to the published literature, for example, it can be noticed that a significant number of articles use the term in order to describe, define, demarcate and categorise Digital Humanities. These include articles with titles like ‘The Digital Humanities Revolution’ (Mattison 2006); articles and pieces that describe the work of Digital Humanities as being revolutionary in nature or effect, for example, the ‘Digital Humanities Manifesto 2.0’ (Presner et al. 2009), which explicitly refers to the ‘Digital Humanities revolution’; while works such as...

  20. Descriptive Translation Studies

    Hermans, T
    The academic discipline of translation studies is of relatively recent date. While there has been profound and critical thought about matters of translation throughout history, traditionally much of it was ad hoc, evaluative, and concerned with particular genres such as literature or sacred texts. Sustained attention to translation in an academic context did not begin until around the mid-20th century, when, as a result of technological and socioeconomic developments, the volume of translations increased substantially, especially in the industrialized world, and consequently the need arose to train professional translators. The fi rst generation of academically trained translation scholars consisted primarily of linguists involved in translator training. In the...

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