Mostrando recursos 21 - 40 de 68,833

  1. La puta discordia del lenguaje

    Pastor Pascual, Adrián

  2. City and country: dialect acquisition in the Catskill Mountains of Upstate New York

    Rauter, Julian
    Individuals moving from one dialect-specific area to another often pick up some characteristics of the new region�s speech patterns. Dialect acquisition is subtle in adults and therefore understudied in the field of sociolinguistics. This study collected speech samples from natives of the Catskill Mountains in upstate New York and Catskill residents originally from the New York City Metropolitan Area. A perceptual methodology using a 9-point scale was employed to determine acquisition (Munro et al. 1999). Post-hoc tests showed that ratings of the two groups differed significantly (p < 0.0001), but 33% of migrant ratings fell on the �Catskill� end of...

  3. When Things Fall Apart: Looking through Said's and Spivak's Postcolonial Perspectives

    Yıldız, Başak
    Broadly defined, postcolonial criticism is the examination of the effects of colonialism on societies. Its purpose is to analyze the ways through which “powerful” cultures dominated the third World nations. On the other hand, these nations have certain reactions to the attempts mentioned. As an area of study which embodies cultural awareness, postcolonial theory attempts to make the related parties realize the construction of an inferiority felt by the colonized and lead a struggle for gaining cultural, social and political voice, which necessitates an understanding of the existing cultural hybridity. Edward Said and Gayatri Chakraworty Spivak are two of the...

  4. Teaching of English at the undergraduate level in Kerala: Problems, Perspectives and Possibilities

    Farooqui, Abida
    It goes without saying that English language is a hard nut to crack even at the undergraduate level. In spite of having spent ten to twelve years to learn the language and explore its nuances, the state of English learning in Kerala point to a very dismal state of affairs. It is disappointing that after spending immense time, energy and effort on the language, students end up enrolling in spoken English centres to hone their linguistic skills. Students, and sometimes teachers fumble when it comes to expressing themselves, either in speech or writing. In fact, the words 'teaching' and 'learning'...

  5. $rec.titulo

    Kastoryano, Riva
    This book looks at the role of multiculturalism in the complex construction of the European Union, acknowledging the tension of creating a new political space for identities that are simultaneously national, regional, linguistic, and religious, and yet strive to encompass a political and geographic whole. The author investigates the difficulty of conjugating the complex, pluralistic sense of belonging that individuals and groups in the EU experience in efforts to form a cohesive political identity, and one that is expressly European.

  6. Research Article

    Ather Ashraf; Muhammad Akram; Mansoor Sarwar
    Copyright © 2014 Ather Ashraf et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go...

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Usability evaluation and adaptation of the e-health Personal Patient Profile-Prostate decision aid for Spanish-speaking Latinomen

    Donna L. Berry; Barbara Halpenny; Jaclyn L. F. Bosco; John Bruyere; Martin G. S
    Background: The Personal Patient Profile-Prostate (P3P), a web-based decision aid, was demonstrated to reduce decisional conflict in English-speaking men with localized prostate cancer early after initial diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to explore and enhance usability and cultural appropriateness of a Spanish P3P by Latino men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: P3P was translated to Spanish and back-translated by three native Spanish-speaking translators working independently. Spanish-speaking Latino men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer, who had made treatment decisions in the past 24 months, were recruited from two urban clinical care sites. Individual cognitive interviews...

  8. Metaphor identification in large texts corpora. PloS one

    Yair Neuman; Dan Assaf; Yohai Cohen; Mark Last; Shlomo Argamon; Newton Howard; Ophir Frieder
    Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child) is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are variations of the same core algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms on two corpora of Reuters and the New York Times articles. The paper presents the most comprehensive study of metaphor identification in terms of scope of metaphorical phrases and annotated corpora size. Algorithms ’ performance in identifying linguistic phrases as metaphorical or literal has been compared to human judgment. Overall, the algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm with 71 % precision and 27...

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution

    Eitan Adam Pechenick; Christopher M. Danforth; Peter Sheridan Dodds
    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the “true ” popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the...

  10. Video Article Making Sense of Listening: The IMAP Test Battery


    (2010). The ability to hear is only the first step towards making sense of the range of information contained in an auditory signal. Of equal importance are the abilities to extract and use the information encoded in the auditory signal. We refer to these as listening skills (or auditory processing AP). Deficits in these skills are associated with delayed language and literacy development, though the nature of the relevant deficits and their causal connection with these delays is hotly debated. When a child is referred to a health professional with normal hearing and unexplained difficulties in listening, or associated delays...

  11. RESEARCH Open Access A semantic web framework to integrate cancer omics data with biological knowledge

    Matthew E Holford; James P Mccusker; Kei-hoi Cheung; Michael Krauthammer
    Background: The RDF triple provides a simple linguistic means of describing limitless types of information. Triples can be flexibly combined into a unified data source we call a semantic model. Semantic models open new possibilities for the integration of variegated biological data. We use Semantic Web technology to explicate high throughput clinical data in the context of fundamental biological knowledge. We have extended Corvus, a data warehouse which provides a uniform interface to various forms of Omics data, by providing a SPARQL endpoint. With the querying and reasoning tools made possible by the Semantic Web, we were able to explore...

  12. Research Article Processing Sentences with Literal versus Figurative Use of Verbs: An ERP Study with Children with Language Impairments, Nonverbal Impairments, and Typical Development


    License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Forty native Italian children (age 6–15) performed a sentence plausibility judgment task. ERP recordings were available for 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 11 children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), and 13 control children. Participants listened to verb-object combinations and judged them as acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli belonged to four conditions, where concreteness and congruency were manipulated. All groups made more errors responding to abstract and to congruent sentences. Moreover, SLI participants performed worse than NVLD participants with abstract sentences. ERPs...

  13. fMRI Evidence for the Involvement of the Procedural Memory System in Morphological Processing of a Second Language

    Christos Pliatsikas; Tom Johnstone; Theodoros Marinis
    Behavioural evidence suggests that English regular past tense forms are automatically decomposed into their stem and affix (played =play+ed) based on an implicit linguistic rule, which does not apply to the idiosyncratically formed irregular forms (kept). Additionally, regular, but not irregular inflections, are thought to be processed through the procedural memory system (left inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia, cerebellum). It has been suggested that this distinction does not to apply to second language (L2) learners of English; however, this has not been tested at the brain level. This fMRI study used a masked-priming task with regular and irregular prime-target pairs...

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE

    Riia Milovanov; Thomas Jacobsen
    doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00321 The interplay between musical and linguistic aptitudes: a review

  15. Grasping Hand Verbs: Oscillatory Beta and Alpha Correlates of Action-Word Processing

    Valentina Niccolai; Hannah Weissler; Nienke Hoogenboom; Alfons Schnitzler
    The grounded cognition framework proposes that sensorimotor brain areas, which are typically involved in perception and action, also play a role in linguistic processing. We assessed oscillatory modulation during visual presentation of single verbs and localized cortical motor regions by means of isometric contraction of hand and foot muscles. Analogously to oscillatory activation patterns accompanying voluntary movements, we expected a somatotopically distributed suppression of beta and alpha frequencies in the motor cortex during processing of body-related action verbs. Magnetoencephalographic data were collected during presentation of verbs that express actions performed using the hands (H) or feet (F). Verbs denoting no...

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access

    Arnd Giese
    majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74 % of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73 % speak German at work. 74.4 % of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average ” or better while 25.6 % reported it as “very bad ” or “bad”. 10.7 % of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3 % of T estimated their reception of the physician’s...

  17. PROCEEDINGS Open Access Exploring Spanish health social media for detecting drug effects

    Isabel Segura-bedmar; Paloma Martínez; Ricardo Revert; Julián Moreno-schneider
    Background: Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) cause a high number of deaths among hospitalized patients in developed countries. Major drug agencies have devoted a great interest in the early detection of ADRs due to their high incidence and increasing health care costs. Reporting systems are available in order for both healthcare professionals and patients to alert about possible ADRs. However, several studies have shown that these adverse events are underestimated. Our hypothesis is that health social networks could be a significant information source for the early detection of ADRs as well as of new drug indications. Methods: In this work we...

  18. From Mind to Mouth: Event Related Potentials of Sentence Production in Classic Galactosemia

    Inge Timmers; Bernadette M. Jansma; M. Estela Rubio-gozalbo
    Patients with classic galactosemia, an inborn error of metabolism, have speech and language production impairments. Past research primarily focused on speech (motor) problems, but these cannot solely explain the language impairments. Which specific deficits contribute to the impairments in language production is not yet known. Deficits in semantic and syntactic planning are plausible and require further investigation. In the present study, we examined syntactic encoding while patients and matched controls overtly described scenes of moving objects using either separate words (minimal syntactic planning) or sentences (sentence-level syntactic planning). The design of the paradigm also allowed tapping into local noun phrase-...

  19. Funding: This rese...

    Iris Berent; Hong Pan; Xu Zhao; Jane Epstein; Monica L. Bennett; Vibhas Deshp; Teja Seethamraju; Emily Stern
    It is well known that natural languages share certain aspects of their design. For example, across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to lbif. But whether language universals are myths or mentally active constraints—linguistic or otherwise— remains controversial. To address this question, we used fMRI to investigate brain response to four syllable types, arrayed on their linguistic well-formedness (e.g., blif%bnif%bdif%lbif, where % indicates preference). Results showed that syllable structure monotonically modulated hemodynamic response in Broca’s area, and its pattern mirrored participants ’ behavioral preferences. In contrast, ill-formed syllables did not systematically tax sensorimotor regions—while such syllables engaged primary auditory cortex,...

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula

    Sean Lee
    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other lan-guages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Korea-nic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus infer-ence from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago,...

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