Explaining Polarization and its Dimensions in Nigeria: A DER Decomposition Approach
- Awoyemi Taiwo T; Araar Abdelkrim; Awoyemi Taiwo T; Araar Abdelkrim
Nigeria is a country of high ethnic and linguistic diversity, threatened by internal fissures and persistent levels of violence. It is argued that, ethnically polarized societies are prone to competitive rent-seeking activities by different groups and will have difficulty agreeing on public goods such as infrastructure, education, and good policies. This in part explains high level of inequity in income distribution and poverty in the country. High potential for large regional differences in economic and social conditions makes Nigeria susceptible to disintegration if the regional differences in standards of living continue to grow. Thus, the study aims to give insight...
Linguistic processes in the indexing and retrieval of documents
- W. J. Hutchins
For the storage and retrieval of documents in a library or other depository many kinds of clerical and intellectual operations are performed by librarians and by library users. Some of these are purely routine and are done almost ‘mechanically ’ but others are highly complex and require
Universidad Barcelona Dep. de Lingüistica General,
- Jordi Carrera; Irene Castellón; Departament De Lingüistica General; Gran Via; Corts Catalanes; Marina Lloberes; Gran Via De Les Corts; Lluís Padró; C Jordi Girona; Nevena Tinkova
Resumen: En el marco del área del PLN, obtener análisis sintácticos profundos de manera automática es indispensable de cara a desarrollar aplicaciones que puedan hacer uso de representaciones semánticas de cualquier nivel. Uno de los objetivos del proyecto KNOW es poner a disposición de la comunidad científica gramáticas de segmentación profunda de amplia cobertura. En este artículo presentamos la implementación en el entorno FreeLing de las gramáticas del castellano, catalán e inglés, lenguas que, junto con el vasco, constituyen las lenguas objeto de interés del proyecto KNOW. Palabras clave: PLN, análisis automático, análisis profundo, gramática de análisis, representación semántica, catalán,...
Teacher Education Quarterly, Fall 2003 Fostering Positive Dispositions toward Diversity: Dialogical Explorations of a Moral Dilemma
- Elza Magalhães Major; Cynthia H. Brock; Magalhães Major; Cynthia H. Brock; Elza Magalhães Major; Cynthia H. Brock
We pay attention to what we expect to see, we hear what we can place in our understanding, and we act according to our world views. (Wenger, 1998, p. 8) At present, numbers of students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds in U. S. schools continue to increase exponentially. For example, between 1991 and 2000 the population of English as a Second Language (ESL) students in U.S. schools (PreK-12) more than doubled (NABE Clearinghouse, 2000). While the numbers of students from diverse backgrounds are increasing, the U.S. teaching force consists primarily of monolingual middle- to lower-middle class European American women...
Counting and the grammar: Case and numerals in Inari Sami
- Diane Nelson; Ida Toivonen
This paper examines new data from Inari Sami which pose a challenge for two basic principles within generative grammar, namely that the lexicon consists of an unordered set, and that rules of the grammar cannot “count”. Drawing on evidence from the system of case and numerals in Inari Sami, we first discuss the data in light of Case Theory, in order to identify the structural relations and mechanisms involved in Inari Sami. We then examine several theories of numerals from a cross-linguistic perspective, and conclude that none of the existing theories can account for the Inari Sami data while still...
Feature geometry in disordered phonologies
- Daniel A. Dinnsen
Two types of systems are in general use for the description and classification of consonants in disordered phonological systems: conventional place-voice-man-ner and standard distinctive features. This paper proposes the use of a third model, feature geometry, which is an analysis framework recently developed in the linguistic study of primary languages. Feature geometry allows for relatively independent behaviour of individual distinctive features, but also organizes them into hierarchies in order to capture the fact that features very often act together in rules. Application of the feature geometry to the study of the phonologies of 40 misarticulating children, specifically to the phenomena...
Papers The origin of language and communication
- Brad Harrub; Bert Thompson; Dave Miller
By age four, most humans have developed an ability to communicate through oral language. By age six or seven, most humans can comprehend, as well as express, written thoughts. These unique abilities of communicating through a native language clearly separate humans from all animals. The obvious question then arises, where did we obtain this dis-tinctive trait? Organic evolution has proven unable to elucidate the origin of language and communication. Knowing how beneficial this ability is to humans, one would wonder why this skill has not evolved in other species. Materialistic science is insufficient to explain not only how speech came...
- Andrew Burn; Helen Nixon
English has a long, intimate relationship with the visual: the illuminated manuscripts of mediaeval romance; the woodcuts of 17C chapbooks and 18C broadsheet ballads; the painting and poetry of the pre-Raphaelites; Dickens illustrated by Cruikshank, Milton by Blake, Coleridge by Doré, Ted Hughes by Leonard Baskin; the art of the modern picture-book; the graphic novel; the comic strip from DC and Marvel to manga; the modern audio-visual narratives of film, television and computer games. However, the history of English as a school and university subject has been one of a struggle which has lead to the establishment of the discrete...
The Language Proficiency Profile-2: Assessment of the Global Communication Skills of Deaf Children Across Languages and Modalities of Expression
- James M. Bebko; Rosemary Calderon; Robert Treder
Data are presented from two studies that investigate the de-velopmental trends and concurrent validity of a measure of language and communication skills for deaf children, the Lan-guage Proficiency Profile-2 (LPP-2), developed by Bebko and McKinnon (1993). The LPP-2 was designed to evaluate the overall linguistic/communicative skills of deaf children, inde-pendent of any specific language or modality of expression. It focuses on the totality of the children’s communication skills. Experiment 1 investigated developmental trends of the LPP-2 for both deaf and hearing children, studying a combined sample of deaf and hearing children from the United States and Canada. Experiment 2 investigated...
A Semantic Lexicon for Emotions and Feelings
- Yvette Yannick Mathieu
In this paper, the FEELING system for extracting and building semantic representations of emotions, feelings and psychological states expressed in texts is presented, as well as the linguistic knowledge used by the system. Semantic representations are described by means of a set of feature structures. Letters to the Editor is taken as a domain for the evaluation of this work.
Natural noun phrase variation for interactive characters
- Donna K. Byron; Aakash Dalwani; Ryan Gerritsen; Mark Keck; Thomas Mampilly; Vinay Sharma; Laura Stoia; Timothy Weale; Tianfang Xu
Interactive characters that cohabit a shared space with human partners need to generate and interpret references to elements of the virtual world. Natural language allows for a wide range of phrasings for referring to any particular object, and this variation is thought to reflect not only spatial but also cogni-tive and linguistic factors. Our study attempts to account for the variability in referring forms found in a set of dialogs of two human partners performing a treasure-hunt task in a vir-tual world. A decision tree classifier was built that predicts the form of 51 % of the referring expressions, compared...
The Power of a Dream: The DREAM Act as a Cure for Nativism, Xenophobia, and Struggling Immigrant Communities
- Alex Flores; Alex Flores; Alex Flores
The greatest threat to our democracy today is a newly revived political division by race and ethnicity. To prevent a rupture in our country’s social and political framework, concrete solutions must be implemented in our classrooms to ameliorate growing tensions among different sectors of our population. They must either generate dialogues or teach the change they were designed to inspire. Xenophobia and nativism are two growing problems that confront us today, and I propose implementing the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act, or DREAM Act, as a facet of the long-term solution. Xenophobia in the United States is...
Label-free Bare Phrase Structure Some consequences for Hale & Keyser’s lexical-syntax
- Ángel J. Gallego; Centre De; Lingüística Teòrica
In this talk I discuss Hale & Keyser’s (1993 and subseq.) hypothesis that the limits of argument structure follow from restrictions on X-bar templates –i.e. from unambiguous projection of complements and specifiers – in the context of Chomsky’s Bare Phrase Structure (BPS). With Boeckx (2008a), I assume that Chomsky’s BPS makes HK’s pivotal claim virtually unstateable, a situation compounded by the lack of consensus about how to formulate the ‘bare ’ theory. Here I want to develop the Boeckx–Chomsky label-free approach to BPS, where labels are not actually created/projected, but identified by minimal search (a third-factor metric), as shown by...
GIS-Based Spatial Analysis of Tai Place Names in Southern China: An Exploratory Study of Methodology
- Fahui Wang; John Hartmann; Wei Luo; Pingwen Huang
This research is part of an ongoing larger project dealing with the historical origins of the Tai in southern China and Southeast Asia. The sinification of ethnic minorities, such as the Tai, has been a long and ongoing historical process in China. One indication of historical change is reflected in geographical place names over time. Many older Tai names can be recognized because they are named after geographical or other physical features in Tai, such as “rice field”, “village”, “mouth of a river”, “mountain”, “basin”, etc. On the other hand, many other older Tai place names have been obliterated or...
Comparative Mon-Khmer Linguistics in the 20th Century: Where From, Where To?
- Paul Sidwell
Just over a century since the foundational studies of Wilhelm Schmidt, and the extraordinary effervescence that the field enjoyed in the 1960s and 1970s, we have again reached an important watershed in the history of Mon-Khmer (MK) comparative-historical studies. 2006 saw the publication of Shorto's A Mon-Khmer Comparative Dictionary (MKCD), a wealth of extensive descriptive and lexical data is now available, and the Internationl Conference of Austroasiatic Linguistics (ICAAL) meetings are resuming after a hiatus of three-decades. At this historic juncture it is appropriate to pause and reflect on this history of comparative MK studies, from its foundations in philological...
THE EFFCTIVE TEACHING OF THE GENRE OF HOTEL BROCHURE
- Zhao Ning; Bio Statement
New Zealand. He takes a strong interest in the English for Specific Purposes (ESP). In this essay, genre-based pedagogy in the teaching of writing is reviewed and discussed in the context of product vs. process approach, genre-based approach, process genre approach, and teaching-learning cycle. The review and discussion of the pedagogy are then related to English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The classroom pedagogy in terms of teaching hotel brochure (HB) as a genre is presented, which is based on the integration of teaching-learning cycle and process genre approach. UU1. Genre-based pedagogy In ESP world, genre is considered as a sociolinguistic...
© Gabrielle Hogan-Brun. Not for citation or distribution without permission of the author. 1 At the Interface of Language Ideology and Practice: The Public Discourse Surrounding the 2004 Education Reform in Latvia
- Gabrielle Hogan-brun
Educational decisions in the Baltic countries are made within the context of a hybrid school population, for whom the State language is a compulsory subject. There are no strict regulations as to the amount of teaching to be carried out in the titular (or state) language in Lithuania’s and Estonia’s schools. In Latvia, an amended education law requesting for a minimum of 60 % of the teaching to be carried out in the state language was introduced for implementation at all public upper secondary schools as from September 2004. This reform has aroused discontent amongst its large Russophone minority population....
Feedback generation and linguistic knowledge in ‘SLIM ’ automatic tutor
- Rodolfo Delmonte
SLIM is a prototype interactive multimedia self-learning linguistic software for foreign language students at beginner-false beginner level. It allows students to work both in an autonomous self-directed mode or in a way of programmed learning in which the process of self-instruction is pre-programmed and monitored. In this latter mode it incorporates assessment and evaluation tools in order to behave as an automatic tutor. It is organized into three basic components: audiovisual mate-rials; a linguistic database recording all language material in text format; the supervisor. Audiovisual materials are partially taken from commercially available courses; the linguistic data-base is a highly sophisticated...
LINGUISTIC PHONETICS IN THE UCLA PHONETICS LAB*
- Patricia Keating
Faculty and students in the UCLA Phonetics Laboratory are linguists who want to describe the segmental and suprasegmental phonetic properties of languages, to relate these phonetic descriptions to phonological properties, and to explore the broader theoretical relation of phonetics to phonology. This presentation will survey some of our recent projects. Work on basic phonetic description of languages includes extensive study of aspects of Korean, and cross-language studies of intonation. Many projects in addition to the studies on intonation are concerned with speech prosody: for example, prosodic phrasing and segmental articulation, and prosody and voice quality. We also try to relate...
1 Findings from a mind-microscope: Relationships between long- and shorter-term narrative change in autistic speech
- Elena T. Levy; David Mcneill
In this paper we present an embodied account of increasing coherence in an autistic adolescent’s repeated retellings of a story. Our focus is on the contribution of gestural catchments in the production of a single, multimodal, syntactic construction. The analysis traces the construction’s mesodevelopment in speech and enactment across three days of retellings, from its origin in three separate descriptions of three event sequences, to the merging of two event sequences in a single utterance and then the merging of all three. We suggest that each utterance in the multimodal chain served a constitutive function in the formation of the...