In search of a meaningful set of macroregions for the "New Europe"
- Marinella Terrasi
This paper aims at showing that the new enlargement of EU borders calls for a revision of the principal spatial paradigm that has been used to analyze economic development processes up to now: the centre/periphery paradigm. More specifically, it is maintained that a new macrostructure must be identified for the EU economic space, on which to project development spatial strategies. The regional delimitations adopted for the INTERREG programs don't seem appropriate for this puropose, because they are identified in order to promote transnational cooperation rather than to control the spatial components of European integration. Our analysis moves off from the...
Sign Language Peoples as indigenous minorities: implications for research and policy
- Sarah C E Batterbury; Paddy Ladd; Mike Gulliver
In this paper we draw strong parallels between Sign Language Peoples (SLPs) and First Nation peoples. We argue that SLPs (communities defining themselves by shared membership in physical and metaphysical aspects of language, culture, epistemology, and ontology) can be considered indigenous groups in need of legal protection in respect of educational, linguistic, and cultural rights accorded to other First Nation indigenous communities. We challenge the assumption that SLPs should be primarily categorised within concepts of disability. The disability label denies the unique spatial culturolinguistic phenomenon of SLP collectivist identity by replicating traditional colonialist perspectives, and actively contributing to their ongoing...
The six dimensions of New Labour: structures, strategies, and languages of neoliberal legitimacy
- Julie MacLeavy
This paper explores New Labour’s emerging political economy using Jessop’s six dimensions of the state as a heuristic device. In pointing towards the contextualised and institutionalised nature of sociopolitical action, the six dimensions of the state model is posited as a means of unravelling the constitution and ordering of the state within contemporary society. Specifically, the paper focuses on the potential of the six-dimension model to frame analysis of the strategic use of language in contemporary governance. This is illustrated through the model’s application to New Labour’s political regime as manifested in key government practices and policies, and the extension...
The Economics of Language: An Introduction and Overview
- Chiswick, Barry R.
This paper provides an introduction and overview of my research on the Economics of Language. The approach is that language skills among immigrants and native-born linguistic minorities are a form of human capital. There are costs and benefits associated with this characteristic embodied in the person. The analysis focuses on the economic and demographic determinants of destination language proficiency among immigrants. This is based on Exposure, Efficiency and Economic Incentives (the three E’s) for proficiency. It also focuses on the labor market consequences (earnings) of proficiency for immigrants and native-born bilinguals. The empirical testing for the US, Canada, Australia, Israel...
When there are no pagodas on Pagoda Street: language, mapping and navigating ambiguities in colonial Singapore
- Yoke Sum Wong
What does it mean to constitute the landscape in language? The author addresses the complications of navigating a colonial landscape such as 19th-century Singapore, and the complex web of mobilities emerging from multiple knowledges. Despite the existence of official streetnames, different racial groups possessed different names and references for the very same streets—even within the same language. How then can we ever know of a place if it is inscribed by the interplay of cultural and linguistic experiences that constitute specific worlds? Drawing from Wittgenstein and Derrida, the author attempts to engage with the linguistic assumptions governing mobility in the...
An anthropological case study on the relation of space, language, and social order: the Bisa of Burkina Faso
- Andreas Dafinger
This paper outlines certain benefits that spatial analysis offers to anthropological research, and shows how anthropology and related linguistic research may in turn contribute to the understanding of the social determinants of spatial order. It presents a case study of spatial order in a rural West African society. Although the examples are from a particular setting, the theoretical frame is a general one: the analysis will focus on the connections between social order, language, and the perception of space.
'Managing urban air quality': language and rational choice in metropolitan governance
- Y Rydin
The author examines the contributions of linguistic analysis and rational choice analysis to understanding the urban policy process, with the aid of the issue of air-quality management and a specific case study of metropolitan London. She argues that these theories can complement each other in providing empirically grounded analyses at the urban level. By means of the rational choice approach, she considers the choice situation facing local and central government in dealing with urban air pollution. However, forestalling some central criticisms made of the rational choice approach, she also considers the way in which the problem of urban air quality...
Linguistic and Economic Characteristics of Francophone Minorities in Canada: A Comparison of Ontario and New Brunswick.
- Grenier, G
This paper analyses and compares the Canadian francophone minorities of Ontario and New Brunswick in order to see how well they have done in preserving their identity and in achieving economic success.
Landscape grammar 1: spatial grammar theory and landscape planning
- Kevin Mayall; G Brent Hall
This paper presents the concept of a spatial landscape grammar. The concept formally draws parallels between the structures of linguistics and the character of real-world landscapes. Landscape grammar can be used to define a landscape’s character by using a vocabulary of landscape object types and spatial syntax rules, and these can be used to generate landscape scenes rendered in two or three dimensions through the use of a generative and interpretive production system and modern computing technology. The spatial counterparts of the linguistic concepts of vocabulary and grammar rules are formalized and the basis of the landscape production system is...
Specificul legaturii concept - termen din perspectiva terminologiei economice
- Teodora Ghiviriga
Terminology - the interdisciplinary study of specialised linguistic units used in a defined area of knowledge - lays at the basis of its approach the univocal relation between the term and the concept it names, so that one term names one concept. The special nature of the concept in economics makes room for mutations in this univocal relation, due to two reasons: a. given the status of economics as a science placed at the crossroads between the exact sciences and the social sciences, the concept can be culturally / ideologically loaded, which is conducive to ambiguity; b. the concept may...
Social exclusion and the gender gap in education
- Lewis, Maureen; Lockheed, Marlaine
Despite a sharp increase in the share of girls who enroll in, attend, and complete various levels of schooling, an educational gender gap remains in some countries. This paper argues that one explanation for this gender gap is the degree of social exclusion within these countries, as indicated by ethno-linguistic heterogeneity, which triggers both economic and psycho-social mechanisms to limit girls'schooling. Ethno-linguistic heterogeneity initially was applied to explaining lagging economic growth, but has emerged in the literature more recently to explain both civil conflict and public goods. This paper is a first application of the concept to explain gender gaps...
Poverty, social divisions, and conflict in Nepal
- Do, Quy-Toan; Iyer, Lakshmi
The authors conduct an econometric analysis of the economic and social factors which contributed to the spread of violent conflict in Nepal. They find that conflict intensity is significantly higher in places with greater poverty and lower levels of economic development. Violence is higher in locations that favor insurgents, such as mountains and forests. The authors find weaker evidence that caste divisions in society are correlated with the intensity of civil conflict, while linguistic diversity has little impact.
Quantifying international migration : a database of bilateral migrant stocks
- Parsons, Christopher R.; Skeldon, Ronald; Walmsley, Terrie L.; Winters, L. Alan
This paper introduces four versions of an international bilateral migration stock database for 226 by 226 countries and territories. The first three versions each consist of two matrices, the first containing migrants defined by country of birth, that is, the foreign-born population; the second, by nationality, that is, the foreign population. Wherever possible, the information is collected from the 2000 round of censuses, though older data are included where this information was unavailable. The first version of the matrices contains as much data as could be collated at the time of writing but also contains gaps. The later versions progressively...
Was Germany ever United? Evidence from Intra- and International Trade 1885 - 1933
- Nikolaus Wolf
When did Germany become economically integrated? Within the framework of a gravity model, based on a new data set of about 40,000 observations on trade flows within and across the borders of Germany over the period 1885 – 1933, I explore the geography of trade costs across Central Europe. There are three key results. First, the German Empire before 1914 was a poorly integrated economy, both relative to integration across the borders of the German state and in absolute terms. Second, this internal fragmentation resulted from cultural heterogeneity, from administrative borders within Germany, and from geographical barriers that divided Germany...
Is the Melting Pot Still Hot? Explaining the Resurgence of Immigrant Segregation
- David M. Cutler; Edward L. Glaeser; Jacob L. Vigdor
This paper uses decennial Census data to examine the residential integration of the foreign born in the United States between 1910 and 2000. Immigrant segregation declined in the first part of the century, but has been rising over the past few decades. Recent immigrants tend to hail from countries with greater cultural distinctions from U.S. natives, whether economic, racial, or linguistic. These factors explain much of the increase in segregation after 1970. Evidence also points to changes in urban form, particularly native-driven suburbanization and the decline of public transit as a transportation mode, as an explanation for the new immigrant...
Improving Customer Complaint Management by Automatic Email Classification Using Linguistic Style Features as Predictors
- K. COUSSEMENT; D. VAN DEN POEL
Customer complaint management is becoming a critical key success factor in today’s business environment. This study introduces a methodology to improve complaint handling strategies through an automatic email classification system that distinguishes complaints from non-complaints. As such, complaint handling becomes less time-consuming and more successful. The classification system combines traditional text information with new information about the linguistic style of an email. The empirical results show that adding linguistic style information into a classification model with conventional text-classification variables results in a significant increase in predictive performance. In addition, this study reveals linguistic style differences between complaint emails and others.
Wellbeing of Citizen Children of Immigrants in Relation to Food Stamps and WIC, 1998-2005
- Mariana Chilton
One in five children under the age of six in the United States is a child of immigrant parents, making children of immigrants the fastest growing child population in the Unites States. Though 93 % of children of immigrants are US citizens, federal assistance programs meant to provide a safety net for poor families often do not reach these vulnerable children (1). There is limited information on how this difficulty in participating in food assistance programs affects the health and wellbeing of US citizen infants and toddlers of immigrant parents. The public health impact of immigrant food assistance participation (or...
A test of Governance: Education, Health and Family Planning in Areas Annexxed toKarnataka, Maharashtra and AP from Hyderabad State
- P. N. Mari Bhat
At the time of reorganization of states on the basis of the linguistic formula, the territory that belonged to erstwhile state of Hyderabad was broken down to three parts and annexed to Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. About one-third of the territory went to Maharashtra, one-sixth to Karnataka and remaining half was annexed to Andhra Pradesh. As the annexation brought the three parts under different political and administrative regimes, the progress made since then provides a ready testing ground for measuring the efficiency of governance in the three states.
SAARC and India: Policy Issues hinge on Security and Democracy
- Rajen Harshe
The entire project of SAARC is dependent on Indiaâ€™s capacity to bind the neighbouring states in multiple networks of ties to promote regional cooperation. India not only shares frontiers with all the SAARC countries, but also ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious histories. If India can persuade SAARC members to view south Asia as a viable regional entity, it can promote projects of development cooperation. But that is easier said than done. For, the success of such an enterprise depends on how well the problems pertaining to security and democracy are addressed.
Does Ethnicity Determine Support for the Governing Party? The Structural and Attitudinal Basis of Partisan Identification in 12 African Nations
- Norris, Pippa; Mattes, Robert
Structural theories predict that the cues of social identity, particularly ethnicity, should exert a strong influence upon voting choices and party support in developing societies with low levels of education and minimal access to the news media. To explore these issues, this study seeks to analyze the influence of ethno-linguistic and ethno-racial characteristics on identification with the governing party in a dozen African states. Ethnicity is compared with other structural and attitudinal factors commonly used to explain patterns of partisanship in many countries. The study draws upon the first round of the Afrobarometer, a cross-national representative survey of political and...