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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 48,168

38041. Improved Language Modeling By Unsupervised Acquisition Of Structure - Klaus Ries,Finn Dag Bu,Ye-yi Wang,Alex Waibel
The perplexity of corpora is typically reduced by more than 30% compared to advanced n-gram models by a new method for the unsupervised acquisition of structural text models. This method is based on new algorithms for the classification of words and phrases from context and on new sequence finding procedures. These procedures are designed to work fast and accurately on small and large corpora. They are iterated to build a structural model of a corpus. The structural model can be applied to recalculate the scores of a speech recognizer and improves the word accuracy. Further applications such as preprocessing for neural networks and (hidden) markov models in language processing, which exploit the...

38042. Compiling Nested Data-Parallel Programs for Shared-Memory Multiprocessors - Siddhartha Chatterjee
While data parallelism is well-suited from algorithmic, architectural, and linguistic considerations to serve as a basis for portable parallel programming, its characteristic fine-grained parallelism makes the efficient implementation of data-parallel languages on MIMD machines a challenging task. The design, implementation, and evaluation of an optimizing compiler are presented for an applicative nested data-parallel language called VCODE targeted at the Encore Multimax, a shared-memory multiprocessor. The source language supports nested aggregate data types; aggregate operations including elementwise forms, scans, reductions, and permutations; and conditionals and recursion for control flow. A small set of graph-theoretic compile-time optimizations reduce the overheads on MIMDmachines in several ways: by increasing the grain size...

38043. LAIR (Linguistic Analysis, Interpretation and Reasoning): Reference Manual - Allan Ramsay
This document can also be viewed on the WEB at http://www.ccl.umist.ac.uk/allan/manual/manual/manual.html.

38044. Generalization And Discrimination In Tree-Structured Unit Selection - Michael W. Macon,Andrew E. Cronk,Johan Wouters
Concatenative "selection-based" synthesis from large databases has emerged as a viable framework for TTS waveform generation. Unit selection algorithms attempt to predict the appropriateness of a particular database speech segment using only linguistic features output by text analysis and prosody prediction components of a synthesizer. All of these algorithms have in common a training or "learning" phase in which parameters are trained to select appropriate waveform segments for a given feature vector input. One approach to this step is to partition available data into clusters that can be indexed by linguistic features available at runtime. This method relies critically on...

38045. Language and Pronunciation Modeling in the CMU 1996 Hub 4 Evaluation - Kristie Seymore,Stanley Chen,Maxine Eskenazi,Ronald Rosenfeld
We describe several language and pronunciation modeling techniques that were applied to the 1996 Hub 4 Broadcast News transcription task. These include topic adaptation, the use of remote corpora, vocabulary size optimization, n-gram cutoff optimization, modeling of spontaneous speech, handling of unknown linguistic boundaries, higher order n-grams, weight optimization in rescoring, and lexical modeling of phrases and acronyms. 1. INTRODUCTION The language modeling component of the CMU 1996 Hub 4 system was developed througha series of experiments in topic adaptation, the use of remote corpora, vocabulary size optimization, n-gram cutoff optimization, modeling of spontaneousspeech,handlingof unknown linguistic boundaries, higher order n-grams, weight optimization in rescoring, and lexical modeling of phrases and acronyms. These experiments were...

38046. A Language/Action perspective on Cooperative Information Agents - E. Verharen,F. Dignum,H. Weigand
Research in Information Systems has switched its focus from data to communication. The communication between different autonomous ICS's (Information and Communication System) requires a certain amount of intelligence of each system. The system should be able to know which queries it can/may handle and also be able to negotiate about the information that it will give. In short these systems evolve into what is called Cooperative Information Agents. We show that basing the information contents of these agents on linguistic concepts and furthermore modelling the communications between the agents using speech act theory provides for a natural and sound setting for these CIA's as well as for Business...

38047. IRIDIA, Universit Libre de Bruxelles 50 av. F. Roosevelt, CP 194/6 B1050 Bruxelles, Belgium asaffio@ulb.ac.be - Alessandro Saffiotti
This contribution aims at matching Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory to the needs of knowledge representation (KR). We first survey the most common approaches to representing knowledge in DS theory, putting a stronger emphasis on recent work on graph-based approaches. We then pin-point to some limitations of these approaches. To overcome these limitations, we suggest marrying DS theory with KR by proposing a formal framework where DS theory is used for representing strength of belief about our knowledge, and the linguistic structures of an arbitrary KR language are used for representing the knowledge itself. We exemplify this framework by integrating (an extension of) the KRYPTON KR system with DS theory,...

38048. Compiling HPSG constraint grammars into logic programs - Thilo Gotz
. This paper defines a translation from HPSG constraint grammars into constraint logic programs that preserves the parsing problem. We will show that there can be no such complete translation, yet we will argue that for theoretical as well as practical reasons, it is interesting to see how closely one can approximate HPSG grammars with logic programs. We will thus examine the properties of the translation in detail and come up with a restriction on HPSG grammars that ensures the completeness of the translation. An optimised version of the translation procedure has been implemented in Prolog. 1 Introduction Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG, [15]) has become a de facto standard in...

38049. A Hypothetical Reasoning Algorithm for Linguistic Analysis - Esther Konig
The Lambek calculus, an intuitionistic fragment of Linear Logic, has recently been rediscovered by linguists. Due to its built-in hypothetical reasoning mechanism, it allows for describing a certain range of those phenomena in natural language syntax which involve incomplete subphrases or moved constituents. Previously, it seemed unclear how to extent traditional parsing techniques in order to incorporate reasoning about incomplete phrases, without causing the undesired effect of derivational equivalences. It turned out that the Lambek calculus offers a framework to formulate equivalent but more implementation-oriented calculi where this problem does not occur. In this paper, such a theorem prover for the Lambek calculus, i.e. a parser for Lambek categorial...

38050. Terminological Importation for Adapting Reusable Knowledge . . . - Jos L. Sierra,Martn Molina
This paper describes the adaptation approach of reusable knowledge representation components used in the KSM environment for the formulation and operationalisation of structured knowledge models. Reusable knowledge representation components in KSM are called primitives of representation. A primitive of representation provides: (1) a knowledge representation formalism (2) a set of tasks that use this knowledge together with several problem-solving methods to carry out these tasks (3) a knowledge acquisition module that provides different services to acquire and validate this knowledge (4) an abstract terminology about the linguistic categories included in the representation language associated to the primitive. Primitives of representation usually are domain independent. A primitive...

38051. Lexical Functional Grammars and Lexical Grammars - Esther Konig
This paper gives a comparison of the descriptive tools of two types of grammar formalisms, Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG), and (extended) categorial grammar, by defining a transformation of an LFG into a "strictly lexicalized grammar" (i.e. a categorial grammar). By this transformation, the grammar and the parser become more concise, i.e. computationally and conceptually more tractable, without loosing any essential expressive power. 1 Introduction For the implementation of large-scale grammars and for the definition of sophisticated syntax-semanticsinterfaces, it is essential that the basic data-structures of the grammar formalism are as simple as possible to reduce the cognitive effort of grammar engineering, and to keep the parsing and generation...

38052. Catherine Macleod, Adam Meyers, and Ralph Grishman, - Catherine Macleod,Adam Meyers,Ralph Grishman
A large corpus (about 100 MB of text) was selected and examples of 750 frequently occurring verbs were tagged with their complement class as defined by a large computational syntactic dictionary, COMLEX Syntax. This tagging task led to the refinement of already existing classes and to the addition of classes that had previously not been defined. This has resulted in the enrichment and improvement of the original COMLEX Syntax dictionary. Tagging also provides statistical data which will allow users to select more common complements of a particular verb and ignore rare usage. We discuss below some of the problems encountered in tagging and their resolution. 1 Introduction COMLEX Syntax is a moderately-broad-coverage English lexicon (with about 38,000 root forms)...

38053. Hybrid Belief System For Doubtful Agents - Alessandro Saffiotti
This paper aims at bridging together the fields of Uncertain Reasoning and Knowledge Representation. The bridge we propose consists in the definition of a Hybrid Belief System, a general modular system capable of performing uncertain reasoning on structured knowledge. This system comprises two distinct modules, UR-mod and KR-mod: the UR-mod provides the uncertainty calculus used to represent uncertainty about our knowledge; this knowledge itself is in turn represented by the linguistic structures made available by the KR-mod. An architecture is drawn for this system grounded on a formal framework, and examples are given using Dempster-Shafer theory or probabilities as UR-mod, and first order logic or KRYPTON...

38054. The 1996 Broadcast News Speech And Language-Model Corpus - David Graff
The Linguistic Data Consortium handled the recording, digitization, and transcription of 130 hours of radio and television news broadcasts. Of this material, 50 hours' worth was designated and published as a baseline training set, and 20 hours were prepared and distributed by NIST for use as development and evaluation test data, for the 1996 ARPA CSR Benchmark Tests. The remaining 60 hours were held in reserve for use as additional training and evaluation test data in the 1997 benchmarks. The LDC also acquired, conditioned and published a five-year archive of commercially produced broadcast transcripts for use in constructing language models for the broadcast news domain. These tasks posed a broad...

38055. Parsing As Dynamic Interpretation Of Feature Structures - Harry Bunt,Van Der Sloot
. In this chapter we develop a new approach to parsing through the recursive, model-theoretic interpretation of expressions representing linguistic knowledge. We argue that in particular the dynamic variant of modeltheoretic semantics can be useful, which approaches interpretation in a constructive way. On the theoretical side, we develop this approach by integrating feature structures in an existing formal logical language, defined and implemented for computational semantic purposes. The resulting language, called GEL, allows us to represent semantic as well as syntactic knowledge. In particular, we can represent grammatical rules as well as the phrase structures that they generate. Whereas a phrase-structure rule is traditionally viewed procedurally, as a recipe for phrase building,...

38056. Unknown - Jerry Fodor,Ernie Lepore
INTRODUCTION A certain metaphysical thesis about meaning that we'll call Informational Role Semantics (IRS) is accepted practically universally in linguistics, philosophy and the cognitive sciences: the meaning (or content, or sense') of a linguistic expression 1 is constituted, at least in part, by at least some of its inferential relations. This idea is hard to state precisely, both because notions like metaphysical constitution are moot and, more importantly, because different versions of IRS take different views on whether there are constituents of meaning other than inferential role, and on which of the inferences an expression occurs in are meaning constitutive. Some of these issues will presently concern us; but...

38057. Tagging of Speech Acts and Dialogue Games in Spanish Call Home - Lori Levin,Klaus Ries,Alon Lavie
The Clarity project is devoted to automatic detection and classification of discourse structures in casual, non-task-oriented conversation using shallow, corpus-based methods of analysis. For the Clarity project, we have tagged speech acts and dialogue games in the Call Home Spanish corpus. We have done preliminary cross-level experiments on the relationship of word and speech act n-grams to dialogue games. Our results show that the label of a game cannot be predicted from n-grams of words it contains. We get better than baseline results for predicting the label of a game from the sequence of speech acts it contains, but only when the speech acts are hand tagged, and not when they are automatically detected....

38058. Locality Abstractions for Parallel and Distributed Computing - Suresh Jagannathan
ions for Parallel and Distributed Computing Suresh Jagannathan Computer Science Research, NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, NJ 08540, suresh@research.nj.nec.com Abstract. Temporal and spatial locality are significant concerns in the design and implementation of any realistic parallel or distributed computing system. Temporal locality is concerned with relations among objects that share similar lifetimes and birth dates; spatial locality is concerned with relations among objects that share information. Exploiting temporal locality can lead to improved memory behavior; exploiting spatial locality can lead to improved communication behavior. Linguistic, compiler, and runtime support for locality issues is especially important for unstructured symbolic computations in which lifetimes and sharing properties of objects are not readily apparent. Language abstractions...

38059. Pomset Logic as an Alternative Categorial Grammar - Alain Lecomte,Christian Retor
: Lambek calculus may be viewed as a fragment of linear logic, namely intuitionistic non-commutative multiplicative linear logic. As it is too restrictive to describe numerous usual linguistic phenomena, instead of extending it we extend MLL with a non-commutative connective, thus dealing with partially ordered multisets of formulae. Relying on proof net technique, our study associates words with parts of proofs, modules, and parsing is described as proving by plugging modules. Apart from avoiding spurious ambiguities, our method succeeds in obtaining a logical description of relatively free word order, head-wrapping, clitics, and extraposition (these latest two constructions are unfortunately not included, for lack of space). 0 Introduction 2 1 Pomset...

38060. A Model for Multimodal Reference Resolution - Luis A. Pineda,E. Gabriela Garza
In this paper a discussion on multimodal referent resolution is presented. The discussion is centered on the analysis of how the referent of an expression in one modality can be found whenever the contextual information required for carrying on such an inference is expressed in one or more different modalities. In particular, a model for identifying the referent of a graphical expression when the relevant contextual information is expressed through natural language is presented. The model is also applied to the reciprocal problem of identifying the referent of a linguistic expression whenever a graphical context is given. In Section 1 of this paper the notion of modality in terms of which the theory is developed is presented....

 

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