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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 52,133

38041. International Conference on Compu%afional Linguistics - Some Coonents,Of A Progri,I For,Dynamic Modelling,Klein I
A system that is to serve as a vehicle for testing models of language change is being programmed in jOVIAL. Inherent in the design of the system is the requirement that each member of a speech community be represented by a generation grammar and a recognition grammar. The units of interaction in a simulation are conversations. Grammar rules may be borrowed or lost by individuals during the course of a simulation. The rules them- selves need no be limited to those suggested by a particular theory of language; also, they may refer to any or all levels of linguistic phenomena. Extralinguistic factors pertinent to language change may be incorporated in...

38042. Polarity Items in Resource Logics. A comparison - A Comparison,Raffaella Bernardi
Polarity Items (PIs) are linguistic expressions known for being polarity sensitive.

38043. Structural Methods for Lexical/Semantic Patterns - Scott A. Waterman
This paper represents initiM work on corpus methods for acquiring lexicM/semantic pattern lexicons for text understanding. Recently, implementors of information extraction (IE) systems have moved away from using conventionM syntactic parsing methods, instead adopting a variety of pattern based approaches for complex IE tasks. While there has been much work towards automated acquisition of lexicons for conventional syntactic processing, little progress has been made towards those for pattern systems, due primarily, in the author 's opinion, to a lack of a linguistic framework in which to view their use. In combining a functional view of both denotational semantics and syntactic structure, this paper provides a basis for examining the structural constraints between the...

38044. Acquiring Disambiguation Rules From Text - Donald Hindle
An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing handwritten disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components of the parser improves the acquired rule set. This work suggests a path toward more robust and comprehensive syntactic analyz- er8.

38045. Paper given at International conference 'Machine translation: ten years on', - John Hutchins
This paper has illustrated marked differences between the types of systems developed in the mid 1980s and the kind of research being conducted in the 1990s. There has been a change of emphasis in many aspects. The dominance of rule-based approaches has been broken by the appearance of a variety of corpus-based methods: statistical MT, example-based MT, connectionist approaches, research on spoken translation, etc. There has been the development of new types of MT systems for monolingual users, for specific domains and with controlled vocabularies. Within the rule-based systems there has been a move away from the syntax orientation of the past to a lexicalist' position, from...

38046. Linguistic Theory in Statistical Language Learning - Christer Samuelsson
This article attempts to determine what elements of linguistic theory are used in statisticaJ language learning, and why the extracted language models look like they do. The study indicates that some linguistic elements, such as the notion of a word, are simply too useful to be iguored. The second most important factor seems to be features inherited from the originaJ task for which the technique was used, for example using hidden Markov models for partof -speech tagging, rather than speech recognition.

38047. Retrospect and Prospect in Computer-Based Translation - John Hutchins
At the last MT Summit conference this century, this paper looks back briefly at what has happened in the 50 years since MT began, reviews the present situation, and speculates on what the future may bring. Progress in the basic processes of computerized translation has not been as dramatic as developments in computer technology and software. There is still much scope for the improvement of the linguistic quality of MT output, which hopefully developments in both rule-based and corpus-based methods can bring.

38048. Learning Word Clusters from Data Types - Paolo Allegrini,Simonefta Montemagni,Vito Pirrelli
The paper illust, ratcs a linguistic knowledge quisition model making use of data tyI)cs, infinite memory, and an inkrential mechanism fi)r inducing new infi)rmat;ion ]kom known The model is compared with staldard stochastic methods applied to data tokens, and tested on a task of lexico semantic classifical,ion.

38049. The Autonomy of Shallow Lexical Knowledge - Kathleen Dahlgren
The question of what is "purely linguistic"is considered in relation to the problem of modularity. A model is proposed in which parsing has access to world knowledge, and both contribute to the construction of a discourse model. The lexical semantic theory of naive semantics, which identifies word meanings with naive theories, and its use in computational text interpretation, demonstrate that a shallow, constrained layer of knowledge which is linguistic can be identified.

38050. Feature Logic With Weak Subsumption Constraints - Jochen Drre,Ibm Deutschland Gmbh
In the general framework of a constraint-based grammar formalism often some sort of feature logic serves as the constraint language to describe linguistic objects. We investigate the extension of basic feature logic with subsumption (or matching) constraints, based on a weak no- tion of subsumption. This mechanism of oneway information flow is generally deemed to be necessary to give linguistically satisfactory descriptions of coordination phenomena in such formalisms. We show that the problem whether a set of constraints is satisfiable in this logic is decidable in polynomial time and give a solution algorithm.

38051. Learning Paraphrases to Improve a Question-Answering System - Florence Duclaye,Francois Yvon,Olivier Collin,Avenue Marzin
In this paper, we present a nearly unsupervised learning methodology for automatically extracting paraphrases from the Web. Starting with one single linguistic expression of a semantic relationship, our learning algorithm repeatedly samples the Web, in order to build a corpus of potential new examples of the same relationship. Sampling steps alternate with validation steps, during which implausible paraphrases are filtered out using an EM-based unsupervised clustering procedure. This learning machinery is built on top of an existing question-answering (QA) system and the learnt paraphrases will eventually be used to improve its recall. We focus here on the learning aspect of this system and report preliminary results.

38052. Discourse Entities In Janus - Damaris M. Ayuso
This paper addresses issues that arose in applying the model for discourse entity (DE) generation in B, Webber's work (1978, 1983) to an interactive multi- modal interface. Her treatment was extended in 4 areas: (1)the notion of context dependence of DEs was formalized in an intensional logic, (2)the treat- ment of DEs for indefinite NPs was modified to use skolem functions, (3)the treatment of dependent quantifiers was generalized, and (4)DEs originating from non-linguistic sources, such as pointing actions, were taken into account, The discourse entities are used in intra- and extra-sentential pronoun resolution in BBN Janus, I

38053. Japanese-to-English Project PROTRAN & TWINTRAN - P_rot_ran G Twintran
les and the Processing System Our marin task in the last year of research hts been to reformulate the sentence-for-sentence Japanese-to-English system in such a wty as to make the complete linguistic information explicit, which are executed by a processing system separate from these rules. The processing system is all programmed in Prolog and executes the linguistic rules by applying a function to erich type of rule. This task has largely been tchieved by now. The linguistic infotradition resides in t'he following sets of rules: 1) Japanese-to-English Automatic Dictionary (at present 32000 entries), held in a rela- tional datab;;se with seven fields for each entry (combined key comprises the fields Entry_nord, Translation, ;lord._class, Entry_code and Continuation; outside key are the...

38054. Electronic Dictionaries and Linguistic Analysis of Italian Large Corpora - Slmonetta Vetn,Annibale Eha
In ths paper we will show how Itahan electronic dictionaries have been built within the methodological framework of Lexicon-grammar We will see the structure of electronic dictionaries of simple and compound Words, and we will show how to analyse texts employing these linguistic tools wthn INTEX. a morphological analyser Finally, we will show how electronic grammars (built wth INTEX) interact with dictionaries and allow recogmctlon of sequences of simple and compound words m large corpora 0.

38055. Using Register-Diversified Corpora for - Douglas Biber
versus Nonabstract Style The primary communicative functions, major co-occurring features, and characteristic registers associated with each dimension are summarized in Table 7. As this table shows, registers differ systematically along each of these dimensions, relating to functional considerations such as interactiveness, involvement, purpose, and pro- duction circumstances, all of which have marked correlates in linguistic structure? To illustrate these differences more concretely, Figure 1 presents the differences among nine spoken and written registers within the two-dimensional space defined by Di- mension 1: 'Involved versus Informational Production' and Dimension 3: 'Elaborated versus Situation-Dependent Reference.' The register characterizations on Figure 1 reflect different relative frequencies of the linguistic features summarized in Table 7....

38056. Design Tool Combining Keyword Analyzer and Case-based Parser ibr Developing Natural Langnage Database Interfaces - Hideo Shimazu,Seigo Arita,Yosuke Takashima
We have designed and experimentally implemented a tool for developing a natural language systems that can accept extrasgrammatical expressions, keyword sequences, and linguistic fragments, as well as ordi nary natural language queries. The key to this tooUs efficiency is its effective use of a simple keyword analyzer iu combination with a conventional case-based parser. The keyword analyzer performs a majority of those queries which are simple data retrievals. Since it uses only keywords in any query, this analyzer is robust with regard to extra-grammatical expressions. Since little labor is required of tile application designer in using the keyword analyzer portion of the tool, and since the case-based parser processes only those queries which the...

38057. Real-Time Linguistic Analysis for Continuous Speech Understanding - Paolo Baggia,Elisabetta Gerbino,Egldio Giachin,Claudio Rullent
This paper describes the approach followed in the development of the linguistic processor of the continuous speech dialog system implemented at our labs. The application scenario (voice-based information retrieval service over the telephone) poses severe specifications to the system: it has to be speakerindependent, to deal with noisy and corrupted speech, and to work in real time. To cope with these types of applications requires to improve both efficiency and accuracy. At present, the system accepts telephone-quality speech (utterances referring to an electronic mailbox access, recorded through a PABX) and, in the speaker-independent configuration, it correctly understands 72% of the utterances in about twice real time. Experimental results are discussed, as obtained from an implementation of the system...

38058. Strategies For Adding Control Information To Declarative Grammars - Hans Uszkoreit
Strategies are proposed for combining different kinds of constraints in dcclarative grammars with a detachable layer of control information. The added control information is the basis for parametrized dynamically controlled linguistic deduction, a form of linguistic processing that permits the implementation of plausible linguistic performance models without giving up the declarative formulation of linguistic competence. The information can be used by the linguistic processor for ordering the sequence in which conjuncts and disjuncts are processed, for mixing depth-first and breadth-first search, for cutting off undesired derivations, and for constraint-relaxation.

38059. Requirements for Robust Natural Language - Jaime G. Carbonell
Introduction Natural Language interfaces to data bases and expert systems require the integration of several crucial capabilities in order to be judged habitable by their end users and productive by the developers of applications. User habitability is measured in terms of linguistic coverage, robustness of behavior and speed of response, whereas implementer productivity is measured by the amount of effort required to connect the interface to a new application, to develop its syntactic and semantic grammar, and to test and test and debug the resultant system assuring a certain level of performance. These latter criteria have not been addressed directly by natural language researchers in pure laboratory settings, with the exception of...

38060. Machine Translation, Linguistics, And Interlingua - Petr Sgall,Jarmila Panevov
An adequate, complete, and economical linguistic theory is necessary for MT and the question is whether a consistent use of the often unduly neglected dependency syntax, including a systematic description of topic and focus, cannot serve as a re- liable base for the grammar of an inter- lingua, or of a set of interrelated inter- face structures.

 

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