Fuzzy Quantifiers: A Natural Language Technique for Data Fusion
- Ingo Glöckner; Alois Knoll
Abstract – Fuzzy quantifiers like ‘almost all ’ and ‘about half ’ abound in natural language. They are used for describing uncertain facts, quantitative relations and processes. An implementation of these quantifiers can provide expressive and easy-to-use operators for aggregation and data fusion, but also for steering the fusion process on a higher level through a safe transfer of expert-knowledge expressed in natural language. However, existing approaches to fuzzy quantification are linguistically inconsistent in many common and relevant situations. To overcome their deficiencies, we developed a new framework for fuzzy quantification, DFS. We first present the axioms of the theory,...
Journal of Semantics 13:41-65 © Oxford University Press 1996 Ambiguity and Coherence
- Alex Lascarides; Ann Copestake
Several recent theories of linguistic representation treat the lexicon as a highly structured object, incorporating fairly detailed semantic information, and allowing multiple aspects of meaning to be represented in a single entry (e.g. Pustejovsky 1991; Copestake 1992; Copestake and Briscoe 1995). One consequence of these approaches is that word senses cannot be thought of as discrete units which are in one-to-one correspondence with lexical entries. This has many advantages in allowing an account of systematic polysemy, but leaves the problem of accounting for effects such as zeugma and the absence of crossed readings, which have traditionally been explained in terms...
The generative dance in pursuit of generative knowledge
- Caroline Haythornthwaite; Karen J. Lunsford; Michelle M. Kazmer; Jenny Robins; Muzhgan Nazarova
This paper describes how a group working around the emotionally-charged topic of cultural and linguistic appropriateness created new knowledge about practice, and in particular practice about keeping a knowledge problem constantly open for inquiry. The group’s work focused on the creation of a database of materials to support and educate practitioners in their field. Interviews with 23 participants revealed that key to their success was learning and growth in understanding the importance of opening up discussion on what “appropriateness ” meant to group members, assumptions about appropriateness, and how to approach appropriateness on the way to deciding what to include...
Opinion TRENDS in Microbiology Vol.12 No.8 August 2004 Bacterial linguistic communication and social intelligence
- Eshel Ben Jacob; Israela Becker; Yoash Shapira; Herbert Levine
Bacteria have developed intricate communication capabilities (e.g. quorum-sensing, chemotactic signaling and plasmid exchange) to cooperatively self-organize into highly structured colonies with elevated environmental adaptability. We propose that bacteria use their intracellular flexibility, involving signal transduction networks and genomic plasticity, to collectively maintain linguistic communication: self and shared interpretations of chemical cues, exchange of chemical messages (semantic) and dialogues (pragmatic). Meaning-based communication permits colonial identity, intentional behavior (e.g. pheromone-based courtship for mating), purposeful alteration of colony structure (e.g. formation of fruiting bodies), decision-making (e.g. to sporulate) and the recognition and identification of
Multi-Expert Decision-Making with Linguistic Information: A Probabilistic-Based Model ∗
It is well-known that linguistic decision-making problems that manage preferences from different experts follow a common resolution scheme composed by two phases: an aggregation phase that combines the individual preferences to obtain a collective preference value for each alternative; and an exploitation phase that orders the collective preferences according to a given criterion, to select the best alternative/s. In this paper we propose a probabilisticbased approach to multi-expert decision-making with linguistic information. To this end, instead of using an aggregation operator to obtain a collective preference, a random preference is defined for each alternative in the aggregation phase. Then, the...
Failure to Agree in Agrammatism
- Anna Gavarró; Departament De Filologia Catalana
The purpose of this paper is to consider, in one particular respect, the bearing on linguistic theory of the study of aphasia. We will examine the inflectional deficits reported in the literature on aphasia and see how they can be accommodated in contemporary minimalism, holding minimal impairment as a basic assumption. The association between agreement (to which inflection relates) and movement embedded in the minimalist theories will also be considered and shown to be at least potentially problematic. To conclude, a proposal will be made to accommodate for the facts of agrammatism in a natural way. 1 1. The empirical...
1. Corpus de Referência do Português
- Maria Fern; A Bacelar Do Nascimento; Luísa Pereira; João Saramago
The Corpus de Referência do Português Contemporâneo (CRPC) is being developed in the Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa (CLUL) since 1988 under a perspective of research data enlargement, in the sense of concepts and hypothesis verification by rejecting the sole use of intuitive data. The intention of creating this open corpus is to establish an on-line representative sample collection of general usage contemporary Portuguese: a main corpus of great dimension as well as several specialized corpora. The CRPC has nowadays around 92 million words. Following the use in this area, the CRPC project intends to establish a linguistic...
Abstract Textual Information Structure and Social Power ®
- Zohreh Tahvildar
According to the social semiotic view of language, linguistic forms and meanings work together with social and cultural meanings and interpretations to create discourse. Prominent amongst social structures which influence textual strategies is inequality of power. Any discursive practice deals, willy nilly, with the exchange of information, and the components of context of situation including the power status of discourse producer would certainly affect the textual strategies he/she employs. Amongst these strategies, the present paper has focused on information structure trying to investigate the relationship between the amount of social power a discourse producer holds and variations in the information...
Algorithmic clustering of music
- Rudi Cilibrasi; Paul Vitányi; Ronald Wolf
We present a method for hierarchical music clustering, based on compression of strings that represent the music pieces. The method uses no background knowledge about music whatsoever: it is completely general and can, without change, be used in different areas like linguistic classification, literature, and genomics. Indeed, it can be used to simultaneously cluster objects from completely different domains, like with like. It is based on an ideal theory of the information content in individual objects (Kolmogorov complexity), information distance, and a universal similarity metric. The approximation to the universal similarity metric obtained using standard data compressors is called “normalized...
Semantic information processing of spoken language
- A. L. Gorin; J. H. Wright; G. Riccardi; A. Abella; T. Alonso
The next generation of voice-based user interface technology will enable easy-to-use automation of new and existing communication services. A critical issue is to move away from highly-structured menus to a more natural human-machine paradigm. In recent years, we have developed algorithms which learn to extract meaning from fluent speech via automatic acquisition and exploitation of salient words, phrases and grammar fragments from a corpus. These methods have been previously applied to the ’How may I help you? ’ task for automated operator services, in English, Spanish and Japanese. In this paper, we report on a new application of these language...
Towards a generative lexical resource: The Brandeis Semantic Ontology
- James Pustejovsky; Catherine Havasi; Roser Saurí; Patrick Hanks; Anna Rumshisky; Jessica Littman; José Castaño; Marc Verhagen
Generative Lexicon (GL) is a theory of linguistic semantics which focuses on the distributed nature of compositionality in natural language (Pustejovsky, 1995). Unlike purely verb-based ap-proaches to compositionality, it attempts to spread the semantic load across all constituents of an utterance. From the nature of word meaning to lexical creativity, GL provides a different perspec-tive on many of NLPs most important questions. Hence, GL is not just a theory, but is meant to be implemented as a component of the backbone of larger NL systems (Pustejovsky and Bogu-raev, 1993). One of the major complaints against GL has been that it...
The project is developing a system in the frame of which an integrated form of supporting multilingual document production and management is realized and within which each linguistic component is used in the production chain as early as possible and as e ciently as possible. 1 Technical Documentation and Language Engineering By means of integrating linguistic intelligence into the processing of technical documents, a considerable rate of improvement canbeachieved: an automatic spell, syntax and style checking of the text and checking of terminological consistency will ensure a reliable information retrieval as well as the generation of corresponding notions in the...
The second response, adopted by “multiple levels”
- David C. Plaut; In R. M. Klein; P. A. Mcmullen (eds
Many researchers assume that the most appropriate way to express the systematic aspects of language is in terms of a set of rules. For instance, there is a systematic relationship between the written and spoken forms of most English words (e.g., GAVE ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§�©� ¡), and this relationship can be expressed in terms of a fairly concise set of grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) rules (e.g., G ¢¡¤£� ¡ , A E ¢¡�¥¨§� ¡ , V ¢¡�©� ¡). In addition to being able to generate accurate pronunciations of so-called regular words, such rules also provide a straightforward account of how skilled readers apply...
Profer: Predictive, Robust Finite-State Parsing for Spoken Language
- Edward C. Kaiser; Michael Johnston; Peter A. Heeman
The natural languageprocessingcomponentof a speechunderstanding system is commonly a robust, semantic parser, implemented as either a chart-based transition network, or as a generalized leftright (GLR) parser. In contrast, we are developing a robust, semantic parser that is a single, predictive finite-state machine. Our approach is motivated by our belief that such a finite-state parser can ultimately provide an efficient vehicle for tightly integrating higher-level linguistic knowledge into speech recognition. We report on our development of this parser, with an example of its use, and a description of how it compares to both finite-state predictors and chart-based semantic parsers, while combining...
Mapping a Parochial Lexicon onto a Universal Semantics
Introduction. In this paper we argue that an important point of cross-linguistic variation is which elements of meaning are contributed by syntactic structure and which are provided by the syntax-semantics mapping. Specifically, one language, call it A, may have a syntactic element α which another language B lacks; in such cases, semantic interpretational mechanisms can perform the function in B which α fulfills in A. We assume that the same semantic interpretational
Grounded Acquisition of Containment Prepositions
- Amitabha Mukerjee
We present a developmental approach towards a) pre-linguistic learning of grounded spatial schemas, and b) the acquisition of spatial prepositions based on association from these pre-linguistic concepts. We learn from sentential data, picking out the words most frequently associated with the concept, and show that simple associative structures are adequate for learning object names, or distinctions such as “in ” or “out”. A synthetic model of visual attention is used to constrain the set of objects in current focus. We first learn perceptual-object labels from simple 2D multi-agent visual streams cooccurring with word-separated utterances. We show that a notion of...
A WORD PREDICTOR FOR INFLECTED LANGUAGES: SYSTEM DESIGN AND USER-CENTRIC INTERFACE
- Carlo Aliprandi; Synthema Srl
We present FastType, a word prediction system for the Italian inflected language, and its user-centric interface. Fast-Type has greatly evolved from its original features. We have added new linguistic resources, implemented more efficient prediction algorithms and made a brand-new user interface. Thanks to the prediction engine upgrades, like the generation of word and Part-of-Speech n-gram collections, and to the introduction of a linear combination algorithm, performances are greatly improved. Keystroke Saving reached 48 % and is now comparable to the one achieved with state-of-the-art methods for non-inflected languages. DonKey, the new human-computer interface, allows the user to benefit from automatic...
learning situations in graphic design
- Mabel Amanda López
This analysis is circumscribed to the verbal discourse about color in situations of graphiclanguage learning. It does not deal with the teaching of color theory in graphic design, however, but with the linguistic descriptions that involve chromatic aspects in pedagogical interactions. Only the verbal interactions resulting from the review of students ’ works in the stage of evaluation is considered as the subject matter of this analysis. We start from the hypothesis that verbal language endows the student with an essential tool for the conceptualization of his graphic production. Color, one of the factors that are evaluated in the practice...
Applications of Finite-State Transducers in Natural Language Processing
- Lauri Karttunen
Abstract. This paper is a review of some of the major applications of finite-state transducers in Natural Language Processing ranging from morphological analysis to finite-state parsing. The analysis and generation of inflected word forms can be performed efficiently by means of lexical transducers. Such transducers can be compiled using an extended regular expression calculus with restriction and replacement operators. These operators facilitate the description of complex linguistic phenomena involving morphological alternations and syntactic patterns. Because regular languages and relations can be encoded as finite-automata, new languages and relations can be derived from them directly by the finitestate calculus. This is...
Combining information sources for memory-based pitch accent placement
- Erwin Marsi; Bertjan Busser; Walter Daelemans; Veronique Hoste; Martin Reynaert; Antal Van Den Bosch
We describe results on pitch accent placement in Dutch text obtained with a memory-based learning approach. The training material consists of newspaper texts that have been prosodically annotated by humans, and subsequently enriched with linguistic features and informational metrics using generally available, lowcost, shallow, knowledge-poor tools. We report on the effects of context-modelling and the nearest neighbours parameter (k), and show the advantage of combining features of a different nature, where the best performance yields a cross-validated F-score of 82. Evaluation on an independent test corpus shows that our approach outperforms existing TTS systems for Dutch. 1.