Linguistic Measures Based on Fuzzy Coincidence for Reaching Consensus in Group Decision Making
- F. Herrera,E. Herrera-viedma,J. L. Verdegay
Assuming a linguistic framework, a model for the consensus reaching problem
in heterogeneous group decision making is proposed. This model contains two
types of linguistic consensus measures: linguistic consensus degrees and linguistic
proximities to guide the consensus reaching process. These measures evaluate the
current consensus state in three levels of action: level of the pairs of alternatives,
level of the alternatives, and level of the relation. They are based on a fuzzy
characterization of the concept of coincidence and they are obtained by means
of several conjuction functions for handling linguistic weighted information, the
LOWA operator for aggregating linguistic information, and linguistic quantifiers
representing the concept of fuzzy majority.
Linguistic Decision Analysis: Steps for Solving Decision Problems under Linguistic Information
- F. Herrera,E. Herrera-viedma
A study on the steps to follow in linguistic decision analysis is presented in a context
of multi-criteria/multi-person decision making. Three steps are established for solving
a multi-criteria decision making problem under linguistic information: (i) the choice of
the linguistic term set with its semantic in order to express the linguistic performance
values according to all the criteria, (ii) the choice of the aggregation operator of linguistic
information in order to aggregate the linguistic performance values, and (iii) the choice
of the best alternatives, which is made up by two phases: (a) the aggregation of linguistic
information for obtaining a collective linguistic performance value on the alternatives,...
Sentence Extraction and Rhetorical Classification for Flexible Abstracts
- Simone Teufel,Marc Moens
Knowledge about the discourse-level structure of a scientific
article is useful for flexible and sub-domain independent
automatic abstraction. We are interested
in the automatic identification of content units ("argumentative
entities") in the source text, such as Goal
or Problem Statement, Conclusions and Results.
In this paper, we present an extension of Kupiec
et al.'s methodology for trainable statistical sentence
extraction (1995). Our extension additionally
classifies the extracted sentences according to their argumentative
status; because only low-level properties
of the sentence are taken into account and no external
knowledge sources other than meta-level linguistic
ones are used, it achieves robustness and partial
Until recently, the world of research publications was
heavily paper-oriented. One of the roles...
A Linguistic Characterization of Bounded Oracle Computation and Probabilistic Polynomial Time
- J. Mitchell,M. Mitchell,A. Scedrov
We present a higher-order functional notation for
polynomial-time computation with an arbitrary 0; 1-
valued oracle. This formulation provides a linguistic
characterization for classes such as NP and BPP,
as well as a notation for probabilistic polynomialtime
functions. The language is derived from Hofmann
's adaptation of Bellantoni-Cook safe recursion,
extended to oracle computation via work derived from
that of Kapron and Cook. Like Hofmann's language,
ours is an applied typed lambda calculus with complexity
bounds enforced by a type system. The type
system uses a modal operator to distinguish between
two sorts of numerical expressions. Recursion can
take place on only one of these sorts. The proof
that the language captures precisely oracle...
A Computational Formalization for Partial Evaluation
- John Hatcl,I Ff
this paper, we illustrate that the computational meta-language can be a useful
framework for partial evaluation. It allows a clear distinction between static computation
steps (to be performed at specialization time) and dynamic computation steps (to be
residualized at specialization time and performed at run time). Moreover, it allows an
evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization.
To this end, we present a PCF-like version of the computational metalanguage, and
give it a structural operational semantics. We specify binding-time analysis as a nonstandard
type inference, and then a specializer using structural operational semantics.
We prove the correctness of the binding-time analysis and of the specializer.
The GALEN Project
- Galen European,Community Aim,A The Galen,Hewlett-packard Computers,Al Rector,Wa Nowlan,The Galen Consortium
The GALEN project is developing language independent concept representation systems as
the foundations for the next generation of multilingual coding systems. It aims to support
the flexibility required to cope with the diversity amongst medical applications, while
ensuring the coherence necessary for integration and re-use of terminologies. GALEN is
developing a fully compositional and generative formal system for modelling concepts ---
the GALEN Representation and Integration Language (GRAIL) Kernel. Its goal is to
overcome many of the problems with traditional coding and classification systems, in
particular the combinatorial explosion of terms in enumerative systems and the generation
of nonsensical terms in partially compositional systems. It will also provide...
Relations to Support Reuse of Specifications
The ROSA project investigates the use of analogy to enhance reuse of objectoriented
specifications. The repository stores analysis information about software
system projects, as well as semantic information found through an analysis
of the concepts that describe the different parts of these specifications.
This semantic information is organized in a term space, or semantic net, as
part of the repository. In this term space the concepts are linked through different
types of relationships.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how linguistic knowledge, can
be used to organize the term space. We study areas where semantic relations
have been studied to draw on their findings. The structure needs...
Context Effects on Interpretation and Intonation
- Jonas Kuhn
"Association-with-focus" data suggest an influence of intonational focus
on the interpretation of quantificational adverbs. Recent theories explain
this as an effect mediated by the discourse topic in the context: focus
constrains the topic, and domain restriction in quantification is dependent
on the topic. However, some focus projection data make the former dependence
implausible. I argue for a theory assuming different types of
context-dependence for focus and quantification. This difference has been
concealed by the fact that the two effects often coincide, especially in the
small contexts of linguistic examples.
"Association-with-focus"-Daten lassen auf einen Einfluß von intonatorischem
Fokus auf die Interpretation von quantifikationellen Adverbien
schließen. Neuere Theorien erklaren dies als einen Effekt,...
Generating Multilingual Proofs
- Xiaorong Huang,Armin Fiedler
This paper outlines the microplanner of PROVERB , a system that generates multilingual
text from machine-found mathematical proofs. The main representational vehicle is
the text structure proposed by Meteer. Following Panaget, we also distinguish between
the ideational and the textual semantic categories, and use the upper model to replace the
former. Based on this, a further extension is made to support aggregation before realization
decisions are made. While our the framework of our macroplanner is kept language independent,
our microplanner draws on language specific linguistic sources such as realization
classes and lexicon. Since English and German are the first two languages to be generated
and because the sublanguage...
A Qualitative Growth Model For Real-World Text Knowledge Bases
- Udo Hahn,Klemens Schnattinger
We introduce a knowledge-based approach to the analysis of real-world natural language
texts, which addresses the particular needs of dealing with new knowledge items. In order
to incrementally expand the underlying conceptual knowledge base, we exploit two
kinds of evidence from the text understanding process, viz. qualitative knowledge about
linguistic constructions in natural language texts and that about structural patterns in the
emerging text knowledge base. These clues are used to generate concept hypotheses,
rank them according to plausibility, and select the most credible ones for assimilation into
the conceptual knowledge base. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach and discuss
the results of an empirical evaluation in...
Automating Feature Set Selection for Case-Based Learning of Linguistic Knowledge
- Claire Cardie
This paper addresses the issue of "algorithm
vs. representation" for case-based learning of linguistic
knowledge. We first present empirical
evidence that the success of case-based learning
methods for natural language processing tasks depends
to a large degree on the feature set used to
describe the training instances. Next, we present
a technique for automating feature set selection
for case-based learning of linguistic knowledge.
Given as input a baseline case representation, the
method modifies the representation in response
to a number of predefined linguistic biases by
adding, deleting, and weighting features appropriately.
We apply the linguistic bias approach
to feature set selection to the problem of relative
pronoun disambiguation and show that the casebased
learning algorithm improves...
Learning the Semantics of Aspect
- Gabriele Scheler
The main point of this paper is to show how we can extract semantic
features, describing aspectual meanings, from a syntactic representation.
Aspectual meanings are represented as sets of features in an interlingua.
The goal is to translate English to Russian aspectual categories. This is
realized by a specialized language processing module, which is based on
the concept of vertical modularity. The results of supervised learning of
syntactic-semantic correspondences using standard back-propagation show
that both learning and generalization to new patterns are successful. Furthermore,
the correct generation of Russian aspect from the automatically
created semantic representations is demonstrated. The results are relevant
to machine translation in a hybrid systems approach...
Une Automatisation Informatique De L'analyse Distributionnelle
- Universit Caen,Basse Norm
The distributional method allows the discovery of syntactic structures of a given natural
language without the use of "sence" of the utterances neither specific knowledge about
the studied lanague. This method is not a linguistic theory but offer tools in order
to allow the discovery of structural properties of the natural language. The aim of
this word is not to achive a syntactic analysis of the corpus used, but to check all
the morphological cues this method required. We claim that this method obtain very
interesting results about linguistics and computational processing of natural languages,
Keywords : distributional analysis, segmentation into morphemes, discovery of
Towards A Formal Framework For Linguistic Annotations
- Steven Bird,Mark Liberman
`Linguistic annotation' is a term covering any transcription,
translation or annotation of textual data or recorded linguistic signals.
While there are several ongoing efforts to provide formats
and tools for such annotations and to publish annotated linguistic
databases, the lack of widely accepted standards is becoming
a critical problem. Proposed standards, to the extent they exist,
have focussed on file formats. This paper focuses instead on the
logical structure of linguistic annotations. We survey a wide variety
of annotation formats and demonstrate a common conceptual
core. This provides the foundation for an algebraic framework
which encompasses the representation, archiving and query of
linguistic annotations, while remaining consistent with many alternative
- Walter Daelemans,Antal Van Den Bosch
In the traditional (knowledge-based) approach to the design
of grapheme-to-phoneme modules in text-to-speech systems,
it is claimed that various explicitly coded, language-specific,
linguistic knowledge sources are necessary for a good performance.
Due to knowledge acquisition bottlenecks, this
implies long development cycles. As an alternative, we
propose to use inductive methods from machine learning in
a simple combined Trie Search and Similarity-Based Reasoning
approach and show that, for Dutch, its performance
is better than that of the knowledge-based approach and
backpropagation learning. Furthermore, we show that our
approach is reusable for any language for which a training
Keywords: grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, text-tospeech,
trie search, similarity-based reasoning, machine
The larger part of research on grapheme-to-phoneme conversion
Evaluating Parsing Schemes with Entropy Indicators
- Caroline Lyon
This paper introduces an objective metric for assessing the effectiveness of a parsing scheme. Information
theoretic indicators can be used to show whether a given scheme captures some of the structure of natural
language text. We then use this method to support a proposal to decompose the parsing task into
computationally more tractable subtasks.
The principle on which the grammar evaluator is based is derived from Shannon's original work with letter
sequences . We show how his ideas can be extended to other linguistic entities. We describe a method
of representation that enables the entropy of sentences to be measured under different parsing schemes.
The entropy is...
A Three-stage Method for Designing Genetic Fuzzy Systems by Learning from Examples
- Francisco Herrera,Manuel Lozano
. In this paper, we present a three step method for designing
Genetic Fuzzy Systems combining an iterative and increasing rule derivation
stage and two genetic-based simplification and tuning processes.
The performance of the method proposed is shown by measuring the accuracy
of the Fuzzy Logic Controllers designed in the fuzzy modeling of
two three-dimensional control surfaces and comparing them with others
generated by using Wang and Mendel's method, one of the most widely
known iterative rule derivation processes.
Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) are now considered as one of the most important
applications of Fuzzy Set Theory proposed by Zadeh in . FLCs are knowledgebased
controllers that make use...
Efficient Implementation of a Semantic-based Transfer Approach
- Michael Dorna,Martin C. Emele
. This article gives an overview of a new semantic-based
transfer approach developed and applied within the Verbmobil Machine
Translation project . We present the declarative transfer
formalism and discuss its implementation. The results presented in
this paper have been integrated successfully in the Verbmobil system.
The application domain of the Verbmobil Machine Translation (MT)
project [16, 22] is spontaneous spoken language in face-to-face dialogs.
The scenario is restricted to the task of arranging business
meetings, but the approach is intended to be extensible to other
topics as well. The languages involved are English, German and
Japanese. Apart from linguistic and cognitive research, this project
is also a software-engineering challenge....
Identifying Procedural Relations in Text
- Donia R. Scott,Anthony Hartley,Judy Delin,Simon Attfield
We have developed a methodology for analysing corpora of instructional text to record the mappings from aspects of the underlying task being described to surface linguistic expressions (Delin et al., 1994). We describe here an investigation of the reliability of judgements of two procedural relations, GENERATION and ENABLEMENT, from text. Our results show that such judgements can be reliably made by non-trained subjects, thus providing support for the validity of our methodology.
Resistance is Futile; Formal Linguistic Observations on Design Patterns
- Peter Van Emde Boas
Inspection of the current literature on Design Patterns shows that the Prime Directive
for this community is Pragmatics. It hardly matters what patterns are, or how
Patterns are represented formally or syntactically. What does matter is their role in
enhancing the reuse of good solutions to recurring problems.
In this article I want to show that minimal assumptions about the pragmatic use
of Patterns suffice to show that Design Patterns form just another formal language,
which can be shown to be at least Recursively enumerable. Whether the language
is Recursive depends on further conditions on the actual relation which is assumed
to hold between a pattern and its...