How Good Are Embodied And Disembodied Idea Flows In Bridging Income Gaps And Idea Gaps?
- Wei-Kang WONG
This paper empirically evaluates the relative importance of embodied versus disembodied idea flows in explaining income gaps and idea gaps. Trade is used as a measure of embodied idea flows and telephone call traffic a measure of disembodied flows. Since both trade and telephone traffic may be endogenous, this paper uses the geographic, linguistic, and colonial components of trade and telephone traffic as instruments to identify their effects on income and total factor productivity (TFP). The results provide little support for the embodied object models when both trade and telephone traffic are included in the regressions. Telephone traffic has a...
¿Se puede hablar inglés sin pensar como los estadounidenses? Sobre la globalización y los factores determinantes de la asimilación cultural
- Alberto Chong
(Disponible en idioma inglés) Basándome en investigaciones en lingüística y sicología, empleo el lenguaje hablado como manifestación de la aculturación. Empleo datos a nivel del individuo y a nivel de la ciudad provenientes de la zona del Lago Ontario en Canadá y estudio los factores que determinan la asimilación cultural. Me concentro en la educación, la edad, el ingreso y, en especial, en algunas variables que se suelen tratar cuando salen a colación temas de globalización, tales como la inmigración, mirar televisión, fronteras y los antecedentes de residencia de los individuos. Hallo que el contacto real sí importa en tanto...
More Than Words: Quantifying Language to Measure Firms' Fundamentals
- PAUL C. TETLOCK; MAYTAL SAAR-TSECHANSKY; SOFUS MACSKASSY
We examine whether a simple quantitative measure of language can be used to predict individual firms' accounting earnings and stock returns. Our three main findings are: (1) the fraction of negative words in firm-specific news stories forecasts low firm earnings; (2) firms' stock prices briefly underreact to the information embedded in negative words; and (3) the earnings and return predictability from negative words is largest for the stories that focus on fundamentals. Together these findings suggest that linguistic media content captures otherwise hard-to-quantify aspects of firms' fundamentals, which investors quickly incorporate into stock prices. Copyright (c) 2008 by The American...
Criteria for managers quality evaluation (II)
- Russu, Corneliu
This paper, as part of a series dealing with the firm management quality’s evaluation, is focusing on other two factors (criteria) influencing the managers’ quality, respectively managerial capability – detailed in subcriteria as communication, linguistic, negotiation, and representation ability, and ability to use information technology -, and behaviour – interpreted as expression of conduct, self-control, behaviour stability, and foreseeable reactions. For each identified subcriterion the relevant aspects in light of which its weight should be established are detailed.
A fuzzy logic evaluation system for commercial loan analysis
- Levy, J; Mallach, E; Duchessi, P
This paper introduces an application of fuzzy logic to commercial loan analysis. It describes the fuzzy sets and linguistic variables that contribute to the financial evaluation. It also presents a computer-based Fuzzy Logic Evaluation System consisting of the components Specify Fuzzy Sets, Edit Rules, and Evaluator. The Evaluator performs fuzzification, evaluation, and defuzzification activities. Using company-specific and industry financial data, the current version of the system appraises a company's credit, capital, and capacity performance. A specific example for efficiency analysis illustrates the system constructs.
A test of Governance: Education, Health and Family Planning in Areas Annexxed toKarnataka, Maharashtra and AP from Hyderabad State
- P. N. Mari Bhat
At the time of reorganization of states on the basis of the linguistic formula, the territory that belonged to erstwhile state of Hyderabad was broken down to three parts and annexed to Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. About one-third of the territory went to Maharashtra, one-sixth to Karnataka and remaining half was annexed to Andhra Pradesh. As the annexation brought the three parts under different political and administrative regimes, the progress made since then provides a ready testing ground for measuring the efficiency of governance in the three states.
SAARC and India: Policy Issues hinge on Security and Democracy
- Rajen Harshe
The entire project of SAARC is dependent on Indiaâ€™s capacity to bind the neighbouring states in multiple networks of ties to promote regional cooperation. India not only shares frontiers with all the SAARC countries, but also ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious histories. If India can persuade SAARC members to view south Asia as a viable regional entity, it can promote projects of development cooperation. But that is easier said than done. For, the success of such an enterprise depends on how well the problems pertaining to security and democracy are addressed.
Market research for requirements analysis using linguistic tools.
- Luisa Mich; Mariangela Franch; Pier Luigi Novi Inverardi
Numerous studies in recent months have proposed the use of linguistic instruments to support requirements analysis. There are two main reasons for this: (i) the progress made in natural language processing, (ii) the need to provide the developers of software systems with support in the early phases of requirements definition and conceptual modelling. This paper presents the results of an online market research intended (a) to assess the economic advantages of developing a CASE tool that integrates linguistic analysis techniques for documents written in natural language, and (b) to verify the existence of potential demand for such a tool. The...
A diversity-based approach to requirements tracing in new product development.
- Loris Gaio
Production models emerged in recent times have stressed the need to face complex production contexts, characterized in particular by the rise in internal and environmental variability. In this work, a stylization of some elements concerning analysis and design of new products is given, and in particular those that involve definition and transfer phases in the development of innovative goods, where change and variability in requirements along development process are often high. This analysis has a twofold goal: first, to supply a conceptual frame for the close examination of some dynamics of requirement's integration into an artifact's design, in order to...
Endowments, Coercion, and the Historical Containment of Education
- Gustavo J Bobonis
Distinguishing the role of coercive labor and political institutions from the effects of economic inequality levels and populations’ ethno-linguistic compositions in explaining the diverging patterns of development across the Americas has remained a challenging task. This paper examines whether the incentives for elite groups to enforce coercive labor and political institutions, holding other factors constant, inhibited economic development by restricting the provision of public schooling. Using 19th-century micro data from municipalities in Puerto Rico, and exploiting variation in the suitability of coffee cultivation across regions and the timing of the nineteenth century coffee boom, we find that coffee-region local governments...
Effect of Linguistic Heterogeneity on Technology Transfer: An Economic Study of FIFA Football Rankings.
- yamamura, eiji
This paper used the Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) world ranking points data to examine how linguistic heterogeneity has an impact on technology transfer from the most developed countries. The major findings are: (1) the learning effect from the most developed countries on team performance i s larger for developing countries than for developed countries. (2) Linguistic heterogeneity has a detrimental effect on technology transfer for the developed countries but not for the developing countries. The results presented here are interpreted as implying that the importance of common and proper comprehension of team strategy among members, which is hampered...
- Snow, Kim
This paper reports one key finding of a larger case study critical discourse analysis of a youth-led research project. A model of 20 care-related conceptual dimensions, utilizing a variety of linguistic tools was applied to the responses to five questions asked of youth in the original study. This paper explores one of the three core findings that were identified by the nested analytical approach. The three meta themes of the original research were: a regulated reality, a disposable life and a stained identity. This paper reports on the theme of a disposable life. It draws on that analysis, demonstrating content,...
How can “cheap talk” yield coordination, given a conflict?
- Mark Jeffreys
Language, Game, Cooperation, Coordination, Cheap talk, Linguistic diversity,
The Integration of Periodic Markets in Mayan Guatemala: A Gravity Approach.
- E. Anthon Eff; Christa D. Jensen
Mayan towns in the Guatemalan highlands hold markets on specific days of the week. A market is attended by local townspeople, by peasants residing in the town’s hinterland, and by vendors bringing wares from other towns. A market functions to bring in goods from other ecological zones, to bring in goods from higher order centers, and to sell surpluses of locally produced goods. To understand how these markets are integrated, we develop a gravity model, examining the flow of vendors from 85 towns of residence to 15 market towns. In our model, the flow of vendors from one town to...
Segregation and the Quality of Government in a Cross-Section of Countries
- Alberto Alesina; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya
This paper has three goals. The first, and perhaps the most important, is to provide a new compilation of data on ethnic, linguistic and religious composition at the sub-national level for a large number of countries. This data set allows us to measure segregation of di¤erent ethnic, religious and linguistic groups within the same country. The second goal is to correlate measures of segregation with measures of quality of the polity and policymaking. The third is to construct an instrument that helps to overcome the endogeneity problem that arises because groups move within country borders, partly in response to policies....
Trading millet and sorghum genetic resources women vendors in the village fairs of San and Souentza, Mali:
- Smale, Melinda; Diakité, Lamissa; Dembélé, Brahima; Traoré, Issa Seni; Guindo, Oumar; Konta, Bouréma
"In Mali, liberalization of seed markets for sorghum and millet, the staple food crops, has not advanced at the same rate or with the same measurable success as liberalization of grain markets. Most seed of these crops is uncertified and continues to be supplied to farmers by farmers, according to clan and ethno-linguistic group. After poor harvests or when replanting after a dry spell, farmers rely on local markets for grain as sources of seed. This paper summarizes the findings of a vendor survey conducted in two marketsheds during weekly fairs. No certified seed is sold. Almost all vendors are...
LINGUISTIC MODEL OF AFFINITY GROUPING TO THE STUDY OF POVERTY
- Lazzari, Luisa L.; Fernández, María José
The problem of getting an homo-geneous group of elements linked to various kinds of fuzzy relations is presented often in several decision areas. It is possible to solve it by applying the affinity concept that allows grouping items that meet certain characteristics in a degree. Poverty is a key issue in the analysis of the countries’ social situation. This has encouraged several researches in order to quantify this phenomenon, to characterize it and to compare it intertemporally into the country or with other nations. To target households considered poor due to unsatisfied basic needs it is useful to find an...
Language Rights and Community Law
- Urrutia, Iñigo; Lasagabaster, Iñaki
The territory of the European Union is made up of a rich and wide-ranging universe of languages, which is not only circumscribed to the "state languages". The existence of multilingualism is one of Europe’s defining characteristic and it should remain so in the constantly evolving model of Europe’s political structure.Linguistic rights have been dealt with under Community law through various viewpoints. The linguistic regime of the European Union is essentially of a legal nature. As a consequence of the legal regime of the languages there is a graduation between them. The building of political and economic Europe based on the...
Language Diversity in Urban Landscapes: An econometric study
- Paulo A.L.D. Nunes; Laura Onofri; Jasone Cenoz; Durk Gorter
This multidisciplinary study adopts econometric analysis for investigating how different characteristics determine the choice of the language used in the signs of a shopping street. We work with a dataset containing about 200 observations collected in the main shopping streets of the cities of Donostia (Spain) and Ljouwert (The Netherlands). The results corroborate the important assumption that multilingualism and the choice of the language (even in a street sign) is an individual and a social preference. Therefore, understanding individuals’ linguistic preference structures is preliminary to the target and design of proper linguistic and social policies.
Bilingualism and Communicative Benefits
- Shlomo Weber; Jean Gabszewicz; Victor Ginsburgh
We examine patterns of acquiring non-native languages in a model with two languages and two populations with heterogeneous learning skills, where every individual faces a binary choice of learning the foreign language or refraining from doing so. We show that both interior and corner linguistic equilibria can emerge in our framework, and that the fraction of learners of the foreign language is higher in the country with a higher gross cost adjusted communicative benefit. It turns out that this observation is consistent with the data on language proficiency in bilingual countries such as Belgium and Canada. We also point out...