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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 52,757

38041. Talking Technology: Language and Literacy in the Primary School Examined Through Children's Encounters with Mechanisms - Eric Parkinson
This article embraces an examination of certain dedicated terms within technology education that children may encounter as part of their primary school experience. Four language-related issues are explored. The first of these concerns the difficulty that may be experienced in defining certain technological terms. The second concerns the ways in which primary school children use their own versions of terminology to describe specific artifacts and functions. The third issue concerns the role of some manufacturers and publishers in employing inappropriate terminology within educational products. The final issue revolves around the psycho-social development of language in young children and the contribution this may make to the acquisition of appropriate technical...

38042. Emotion Detection In Task-Oriented Spoken Dialogs - Laurence Devillers,Lori Lamel,Ioana Vasilescu
Detecting emotions in the context of automated call center services can be helpful for following the evolution of the human-computer dialogs, enabling dynamic modification of the dialog strategies and influencing the final outcome. The emotion detection work reported here is a part of larger study aiming to model user behavior in real interactions. We make use of a corpus of real agent-client spoken dialogs in which the manifestation of emotion is quite complex, and it is common to have shaded emotions since the interlocutors attempt to control the expression of their internal attitude. Our aims are to define appropriate emotions for call center services, to annotate the dialogs and to validate...

38043. Tools and resources for Tree Adjoining Grammars - Franois Barthlemy,Cedric Cnam,Pierre Boullier,Linda Kaouane,Abdelaziz Khajour
This paper presents a workbench for Tree Adjoining Grammars that we are currently developing. This workbench includes several tools and resources based on the markup language XML, used as a convenient language to format and exchange linguistic resources.

38044. Referential Features And Linguistic Indirection - Sharon Oviatt,Karen Kuhn
The present report outlines differences between multimodal and unimodal communication patterns in linguistic features associated with ease of dialogue tracking and ambiguity resolution. A simulation method was used to collect data while participants used spoken, pen-based, or multimodal input during spatial tasks with a dynamic system. Users' linguistic constructions were analyzed for differences in the rates of reference, co-reference, definite and indefinite referring expressions, and deictic terms. Differences also were summarized in the prevalence of linguistic indirection. Results indicate that spoken language contains substantially higher levels of referring and co-referring expressions and also linguistic indirection, compared with multimodal language communicated by the same users completing the same task. In contrast, multimodal language not only...

38045. The fragile nature of the left periphery: CP deficits in agrammatic aphasia - Naama Friedmann
this paper, the psychological reality of syntactic trees and hierarchical ordering is explored from another perspective -- that of the neuropsychology of language breakdown. The study reported here examined several syntactic domains that rely on different nodes in the tree -- tense and agreement verb inflection, subordinations, interrogatives, and verb movement - through a study of 14 Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic-speaking agrammatic aphasics, and perusal of the cross-linguistic literature

38046. Language And Cognition - Jacques Mehler,Christophe Pallier,Anne Christophe
The 4000 or so human languages display an extraordinary surface diversity; therefore language learning by the infant requires some plasticity. We present here psycholinguistic data suggesting that there are nevertheless some limits on this plasticity. In the first part, we document a "foreign listening syndrome", that is the fact that people listen to foreign speech sounds through the filter of the phonology of their own language (a perceptual equivalent to a foreign accent in production). Even very good bilinguals seem to retain a dominant language. It thus seems that the perceptual system is shaped by early linguistic experience and stays rather rigid afterwards. In the second part, we show that very young babies are...

38047. Effect of Rule Weights in Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems
This paper examines the effect of rule weights in fuzzy rule-based classification systems. Each fuzzy if-then rule in our classification system has antecedent linguistic values and a single consequent class. We use a fuzzy reasoning method based on a single winner rule in the classification phase. The winner rule for a new pattern is the fuzzy if-then rule that has the maximum compatibility grade with the new pattern. When we use fuzzy if-then rules with certainty grades (i.e., rule weights), the winner is determined as the rule with the maximum product of the compatibility grade and the certainty grade. In this paper, the effect of...

38048. A Robust Risk Minimization based Named Entity Recognition System - Tong Zhang,David Johnson
This paper describes a robust linear classification system for Named Entity Recognition. A similar system has been applied to the CoNLL text chunking shared task with state of the art performance. By using different linguistic features, we can easily adapt this system to other token-based linguistic tagging problems. The main focus of the current paper is to investigate the impact of various local linguistic features for named entity recognition on the CoNLL2003 (Tjong Kim Sang and De Meulder, 2003) shared task data. We show that the system performance can be enhanced significantly with some relative simple token-based features that are available for many languages. Although more sophisticated linguistic features will also be helpful, they provide much...

38049. Symbiotic Value of an Embodied Agent in Language Learning - Dominic W. Massaro
Our perception and understanding are influenced by a speaker's face and accompanying gestures, as well as the actual sound of the speech. Given the value of face-toface interaction, our persistent goal has been to develop, evaluate, and use animated agents to teach speech and language. Baldi is an accurate three-dimensional agent appropriately aligned with either synthesized or natural speech. We describe our language-training program, which utilizes Baldi as a tutor, who guides students through a variety of exercises designed to teach vocabulary and grammar, to improve speech articulation, and to develop linguistic and phonological awareness.

38050. Multi-Level Annotation in MMAX - Christoph M Uller,Michael Strube
We present a light-weight tool for the annotation of linguistic data on multiple levels.

38051. Distributional Encroachment and Its Consequences for - Adam Albright,Bruce Hayes
We describe a common but neglected pattern of linguistic exceptions, which involve "distributional encroachment." This occurs when the distribution of allomorphs is determined by phonological context, but a few exceptional forms take the "wrong" allomorph. For learning algorithms, this can complicate the task of identifying distributions. We present an algorithm for learning allomorph distributions, then show how it can be modified to handle distributional encroachment.

38052. Using Program Slicing to Analyze Aspect Oriented Composition - Davide Balzarotti,Mattia Monga
AspectJ language was proposed to make cross-cutting concerns clearly identifiable with special linguistic constructs called aspects. In order to analyze the properties of an aspect one should consider the aspect itself and the part of the system it a#ects. This part is just a slice of the entire system and can be extracted by exploiting program slicing algorithms. However, the expressive power of AspectJ constructs forces slicers to take into account big portions of programs. We suggest that AspectJ should regulate more formally the interaction among code units, by defining some stricter boundaries around aspect influence, otherwise the separation turns out to be just syntactic sugar.

38053. WordsEye: An Automatic Text-to-Scene Conversion System - Bob Coyne,Richard Sproat
Natural language is an easy and effective medium for describing visual ideas and mental images. Thus, we foresee the emergence of language-based 3D scene generation systems to let ordinary users quickly create 3D scenes without having to learn special software, acquire artistic skills, or even touch a desktop window-oriented interface. WordsEye is such a system for automatically converting text into representative 3D scenes. WordsEye relies on a large database of 3D models and poses to depict entities and actions. Every 3D model can have associated shape displacements, spatial tags, and functional properties to be used in the depiction process. We describe the linguistic analysis and depiction techniques used by WordsEye along...

38054. Use of Deep Linguistic Features for the Recognition and Labeling of - John Chen,Owen Rambow
We use deep linguistic features to predict semantic roles on syntactic arguments, and show that these perform considerably better than surface-oriented features. We also show that predicting labels from a "lightweight" parser that generates deep syntactic features performs comparably to using a full parser that generates only surface syntactic features.

38055. Geographic Reference Analysis for Geographic Document Querying - Frdrik Bilhaut,Thierry Charnois,Patrice Enjalbert,Yann Mathet
Retrieval from geographical documents, i.e. documents with a major geographic component. The final aim, in response to an informational query of the user, is to return a ranked list of relevant passages in selected documents, allowing text browsing within them. We consider in this paper the spatial component of the texts and the queries. The idea is to perform an off-line linguistic analysis of the document, extracting spatial expressions (i.e. expressions denoting geographical localisations). The point is that such expressions are (in general) much more complex than simple place names. We present a linguistic analyser which recognises them, performing a semantic analysis and computing symbolic representations of their "content". These representations, stored in the text thanks to...

38056. How to Find Trouble in Communication - A. Batliner,K. Fischer,R. Huber,J. Spilker,E. Noth
Automatic dialogue systems used, for instance, in call--centers, should be able to determine in a critical phase of the dialogue - indicated by the customers vocal expression of anger/irritation - when it is better to pass over to a human operator. At a first glance, this does not seem to be a complicated task: It is reported in the literature that emotions can be told apart quite reliably on the basis of prosodic features. However, these results are achieved most of the time in a laboratory setting, with experienced speakers (actors), and with elicited, controlled speech. We compare classification results obtained with the same feature set...

38057. Linguistic Creativity at Different Levels of Decision in Sentence Production - Pablo Gervs
The shape taken by linguistic creativity at the different levels of decision involved in sentence production (phonetics, rhythm, lexical choice, semantics, syntax and narrative content) is explored in relation to existing computational models of creativity. A general outline of the possibilities is given for each level, and two specific levels - word invention at the lexical level, illustrated by the Jabberwocky poem by Lewis Carroll; and poetic metaphor at the semantic level, illustrated by examples from verses by Garcia Lorca - are studied in further detail. The applicability of the existing computational models is discussed in connection to the kind of creativity apparent in the...

38058. Links without Locations - Herman Hendriks
This paper is organized as follows. First, in Section 1, an outline is given of the theory of information packaging---i.e., the structuring of propositional content in function of the speaker's assumptions about the hearer's information state---as it is presented by Vallduv'i (1992, 1993, 1994), who identifies the informational primitives focus and ground, link and tail, adapted from the traditional pragmatic focus/ground and topic/comment approaches, and 1. The present paper is a merged, updated and extended version of `Links without Locations ' and `Information Packaging: From Cards to Boxes', which appeared in P. Dekker and M. Stokhof (eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium, Institute of Language, Logic and Computation,...

38059. Kava - Using Byte code Rewriting to add Behavioural Reflection to Java - Ian Welch,Robert J. Stroud
Many authors have proposed using byte code rewriting as a way of adapting or extending the behaviour of Java classes. There are toolkits available that simplify this process and raise the level of abstraction above byte code. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of these toolkits provide a complete model of behavioural reflection for Java. In this paper, we describe how we have used load-time byte code rewriting techniques to construct a runtime metaobject protocol for Java that can be used to adapt and customise the behaviour of Java classes in a more flexible and abstract way. Apart from providing a better semantic...

38060. Towards Formal Models of Embodiment and Self-organization of Language - Willem H. Zuidema,Gert Westermann
Research in language evolution is concerned with the question of how complex linguistic structures can emerge from the interactions between many communicating individuals.

 

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