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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 48,479

38041. Syntactic Analysis and Error Correction in the SCARRIE Project - Patrizia Paggio
This paper reports on work carried out at CST in Copenhagen to develop the Danish version of the SCARRIE prototype, addressing in particular the issue of how a form of shallow parsing is combined with error detection and correction. The syntactic grammar for Danish has been developed with the aim of dealing with the most frequent context-dependent errors found in a parallel corpus of unedited and proofread texts specifically collected for the project. By focussing on certain grammatical constructions and error types, the linguistic `intelligence' provided by syntactic parsing could be exploited without impairing robustness and efficiency. The resulting system is a pre-industrial prototype which compared to existing spelling...

38042. The Symbolic Coding Of Segmental Duration And Tonal Alignment: An Extension To The Intsint System. - Daniel Hirst
This paper presents work based on an analysis-by-synthesis approach which aims to develop a reversible coding system for prosody, capable of deriving a `linguistic-like' surface phonological representation directly from acoustic data that is sufficient to reproduce a synthetic version of the original utterance without significant loss of linguistic information. With such a coding system, capable of representing any significant prosodic distinctions, the task of predicting such representations would be greatly simplified, becoming one of mapping between sets of symbolic representations. This approach has already been applied to the stylisation and symbolic coding of fundamental frequency curves by means of the INTSINT transcription system. An automatic version has also been proposed. This paper presents...

38043. Using Neural Nets for Portuguese Part-of-Speech Tagging - Nuno C. Marques,Gabriel Pereira Lopes,Lisboa Faculdade
We will describe the use of neural networks to perform part-of-speech (POS) disambiguation of textual corpora. Available part-of-speech taggers need huge amounts of hand tagged text, but for Portuguese there is no such corpora available. In this paper we propose a neural network that, apparently, is capable of overcoming the huge training corpus problem. Distinct network topologies are applied to the problem of learning the parameters of a part-of-speech tagger from a very small Portuguese training corpus. The experiments carried out are discussed. The results obtained point to a correction rate above the 96% using a hand tagged training corpus with approximately 15,000 words. 1 Introduction The application potential of textual corpora increases, when the corpora is annotated....

38044. Perception of Linguistic Rhythm By Newborn Infants - Franck Ramus,Bertoncini Mehler
this paper, Xavier Jeannin and Michel Dutat for technical assistance, and the Dlgation Gnrale pour l'Armement for financial support.

38045. A Calculus of Module Systems - Davide Ancona,Elena Zucca
We present CMS, a simple and powerful calculus of modules supporting mutual recursion and higher order features, which can be instantiated over an arbitrary core calculus satisfying standard assumptions. The calculus allows to express a large variety of existing mechanisms for combining software components, including parameterized modules like ML functors, extension with overriding of object-oriented programming, mixin modules and extra-linguistic mechanisms like those provided by a linker. Hence CMS can be used as a paradigmatic calculus for modular languages, in the same spirit the lambda calculus is used for functional programming. As usual, we rst present an untyped version of the calculus and then a type system; we prove...

38046. Multilingual Generation of Grammatical Categories - Gabriele Scheler
We present an interlingual semantic representation for the synthesis of morphological aspect of English and Russian by standard backpropagation. Grammatical meanings are represented symbolically and translated into a binary representation. Generalization is assessed by test sentences and by a translation of the training sentences of the other language. The results are relevant to machine translation in a hybrid systems approach and to the study of linguistic category formation. 1 Introduction In this paper, we propose a representation for grammatical meanings which are relevant to the morphological forms progressive/simple in English and imperfective/perfective in Russian. We show that these grammatical meanings are sufficient to predict the correct aspectual form in the generation...

38047. A Corpus-based Analysis of Speech Repairs in Japanese - Yuu Haruki,Masato Ishizaki,Yasuharu Den
this paper is preliminary, it basically showed that Levelt's monitoring theory holds for speech repairs naturally occurring in Japanese dialogues except for the timing of trouble detection and the nonretracing strategy in substitution of function words. These exceptions might indicate a difference of cognitive linguistic units between Japanese and other languages like Dutch. This issue is the next target of our study.

38048. The Creation, Distribution And Use Of Linguistic Data: The Case Of The Linguistic Data Consortium - Mark Liberman,Christopher Cieri
The Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) is an open consortium of universities, companies and government research laboratories. It creates and distributes speech and text databases, lexicons and other resources. The University of Pennsylvania is the LDC's host institution. The LDC was founded in 1992 with a grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Currently, all LDC publication and distribution activities are self-supporting, while new data creation is partly supported by grant IRI 9528587 from the Information, Robotics and Intelligent Systems division of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The LDC's core mission remains the support of pre-competitive research and development in speech and language technology, but support of other language-related research is also...

38049. Representing Aspects of Language - Robert F. Port,Timothy Van Gelder
We provide a conceptual framework for understanding similarities and differences among various schemes of compositional representation, emphasizing problems that arise in modelling aspects of human language. We propose six abstract dimensions that suggest a space of possible compositional schemes. Temporality turns out to play a key role in defining several of these dimensions. From studying how schemes fall into this space, it is apparent that there is no single crucial difference between AI and connectionist approaches to representation. Large regions of the space of compositional schemes remain unexplored, such as the entire class of active, dynamic models that do composition in time. These models offer the possibility of parsing real-time input into useful segments, and thus...

38050. A Decision-Based Approach to Rhetorical Parsing - Daniel Marcu
We present a shift-reduce rhetorical parsing algorithm that learns to construct rhetorical structures of texts from a corpus of discourse-parse action sequences. The algorithm exploits robust lexical, syntactic, and semantic knowledge sources. 1 Introduction The application of decision-based learning techniques over rich sets of linguistic features has improved significantly the coverage and performance of syntactic (and to various degrees semantic) parsers (Simmons and Yu, 1992; Magerman, 1995; Hermjakob and Mooney, 1997). In this paper, we apply a similar paradigm to developing a rhetorical parser that derives the discourse structure of unrestricted texts. Crucial to our approach is the reliance on a corpus of 90 texts which were manually annotated with discourse trees and the adoption of a...

38051. Lisp -- Almost a whole Truth ! - Christian Queinnec
Lisp is well known for its metacircular definitions. They differ by their intent (what they want to prove), their means (what linguistic features are allowed for the definition) and by their scope (what linguistic features are described). This paper provides a new metacircular definition for a complete Lisp system including traditionally neglected features such as cons, read, print and error. The programming style adopted for this interpreter is inspired both by denotational semantics and its continuation passing style (to explain continuation handling) and by the object oriented paradigm as highlighted by typedriven generic functions. The resulting interpreter lessens the number of primitives it uses to only...

38052. Data Structures For Page Readers - Henry S. Baird,David J. Ittner
Software-engineering aspects of an experimental printed-page reader are described, with emphasis on data-structure choices. This reader performs a wide variety of tasks, including geometric layout analysis, symbol recognition, linguistic contextual analysis, and user-selectable output encoding (e.g. Unicode). We have implemented a single common data structure to support all these tasks. It embraces iconic, geometric, probabilistic, and symbolic data, and can represent the full physical document hierarchy as well as many partial stages of analysis. We illustrate the evolution of this data structure, in the course of reading a page, from purely iconic to purely symbolic form. The data structure can be snapshot in machine- and OS-independent peripheral files. Careful...

38053. A Practical, Declarative Theory of Dialog - Susan W. Mcroy,Syed S. Ali
The general goal of our work is to investigate computational models of dialog that can support e#ective interaction between people and computer systems. We are particularly interested in the use of dialog for training and education. To support e#ective communication, dialog systems must facilitate users' understanding by incrementally presenting only the most relevant information, by evaluating users' understanding, and by adapting the interaction to address communication problems as they arise. Our theory provides a specification and representation of the linguistic, intentional, and social information that influence how people understand and respond in an ongoing dialog and an architecture for combining this information. We represent knowledge uniformly in a single, declarative, logical language where the interpretation and performance of...

38054. A Computational Model of Minimalist Syntactic Theory
This paper has presented a theory based on principles of Minimalist syntax, with several virtues. The model can handle a wide range of human preference and complexity judgements including Late Closure, Garden Path, and Minimal Attachment effects, and does so in a way that can accommodate the lexically-based factors discussed in Stevenson and Merlo (1997, forthcoming). As Stevenson and Merlo convincingly point out, these sharp lexical contrasts are not predicted by a theory based on pure frequency effects nor does their corpus analysis support the view that acceptability is tracking frequency. In addition, the theory can handle cross linguistic variation.

38055. An Environment For The Labelling And Testing Of Melodic Aspects Of Speech - Christel Brindopke,Arno Pahde,Franz Kummert,Gerhard Sagerer
In this paper, we present an environment for labelling and testing of melodic aspects of spoken language. The environment has three modes of application: First, the environment provides labelling facilities for a model-based melodic description for German. Second, it supports a language independent pre-theoretical description of speech melody allowing the development of new melodic categories. Third, our test bed can be used to generate speech samples with controlled melodic parameters for further use in perception experiments. The melodic description facilities (model-based, pre-theoretical) are supported by visual and audible feedback allowing a step-bystep refinement of the melodic description in question. 1 Introduction Melodic aspects of speech are related with several linguistic and extralinguistic phenomenon. Linguistic aspects are for...

38056. Resolution of Governor Selection Ambiguity For Korean Noun Phrase Using Automatically Constructed Lexical Information - Hoojung Chung,Young-sook Hwang,Yong-jae Kwak
A natural language parsing system using dependency grammar analyzes a sentence by identifying governor for each linguistic constituent in the sentence. One of the difficult problems in parsing Korean language is to select a correct governor for a noun phrase. To solve this problem, we propose an automatic method to generalize cooccurrence data into conceptual-level lexical information using a thesaurus and raw corpus. And we also present a method to resolve governor selection ambiguity for Korean noun phrase using those lexical information. Experimental result shows that the parser using conceptual-level lexical information as well as cooccurrence information resolves governor selection...

38057. Dutch Stress Acquisition: OT and Connectionist Approaches - Marc Joanisse
phonological units cannot be directly observed and need to be inferred by a learner; likewise, the language learner does not have information about which words are regular or irregular at their disposal, since it is never expose to overt evidence to this effect. Both these facts greatly complicate the task of inferring a linguistic rule; it is proposed that the CP model might lend a better understanding of how children are able to learn phonological patterns. Finally, as we explain below, Dutch children seem to acquire stress in a way that suggests they are acquiring these patterns in a specific stage-like way. Accounting for these facts represents a...

38058. Simulation as an Environment for the Knowledge Acquisition of Procedural Expertise - Adrian Pearce,Claude Sammut,Simon Goss
: Knowledge engineering is the discipline of encoding the knowledge of an expert into an operational form such as an expert system. Some forms of expertise, "show me" rather than "tell me", are not readily available to linguistic access by the expert or to symbolic codification by a knowledge engineer. Behavioural cloning, in which examples of expert behaviour, are generalised into a performance model by machine learning techniques is one strategy. This work has been focused on building a controller for dynamic systems. A variant which is more formal in the knowledge structures and task analyses decomposes tasks into hierarchies of procedures and learns generalisations...

38059. Identifying Discourse Markers in Spoken Dialog - Peter A. Heeman,Donna Byronz,James F. Allen
In this paper, we present a method for identifying discourse marker usage in spontaneous speech based on machine learning. Discourse markers are denoted by special POS tags, and thus the process of POS tagging can be used to identify discourse markers. By incorporating POS tagging into language modeling, discourse markers can be identified during speech recognition, in which the timeliness of the information can be used to help predict the following words. We contrast this approach with an alternative machine learning approach proposed by Litman (1996). This paper also argues that discourse markers can be used to help the hearer predict the role that the upcoming utterance plays in the dialog. Thus...

38060. A Computational Architecture for Conversation - Eric Horvitz
. We describe representation, inference strategies, and control procedures employed in an automated conversation system named the Bayesian Receptionist. The prototype is focused on the domain of dialog about goals typically handled by receptionists at the front desks of buildings on the Microsoft corporate campus. The system employs a set of Bayesian user models to interpret the goals of speakers given evidence gleaned from a natural language parse of their utterances. Beyond linguistic features, the domain models take into consideration contextual evidence, including visual findings. We discuss key principles of conversational actions under uncertainty and the overall architecture of the system, highlighting the use of a hierarchy of...

 

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