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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 49,527

38041. Handwriting Recognition with Fuzzy Linguistic Rules - Ashutosh Malaviya,Liliane Peters
With fuzzy linguistic rules complex handwriting patterns can be represented in a broad linguistic domain, thus facilitating a flexible and widely valid recognition scheme. Based on the multi-layered human visual recognition system a multilevel fuzzy rule based classification system is proposed and explained. The constraints which influence the structure of this system applied to handwritten symbols are briefly discussed. 1. Introduction In recent years various handwriting recognition methods have been developed for both on-line and off-line applications [4][1][10][7]. These methods include statistical methods like the hidden Markov model [1], connective learning based methods like neural networks[4] and syntactic methods[2]. The advantages of neural networks are automatic learning and...

38042. Chart Parsing Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar - Fred Popowich,Carl Vogel
A Prolog chart parser for Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) is described. The HPSG formalism has undergone significant modification since Proudian and Pollard first introduced an HPSG chart parser in 1985. This paper describes the impact of these developments on chart parsing methodology. It also presents a critical evaluation of aspects of HPSG which emerges from our implementation. 1. Introduction Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) is in the family of linguistic theories known as unification grammars (Shieber, 1986). Seiffert (1987) has presented a system for parsing unification grammars in general, while Proudian and Pollard (1985) have provided an implementation of HPSG in particular. But, HPSG has undergone quite a bit...

38043. CUF - A Formalism for Linguistic Knowledge Representation - Jochen Dorre,Michael Dorna
We describe the formalism CUF (Comprehensive Unification Formalism), which has been designed as a tool for writing and making computational use of any kind of linguistic description ranging from phonology to pragmatics. The motivations for its major design decisions are discussed. CUF is an offspring of the line of theory-neutral universal grammar formalisms like PATRII [SUP + 83] and STUF-II [BKU88, Dor91, DR91]. Like these it is based on defining feature structures and relations over these as encodings of linguistic principles and data. However, it is radically more expressive, since it allows the definition of arbitrary recursive relational dependencies without tying recursion to phrase structure rules. Complex restrictions needed in semantic...

38044. Object Oriented Modeling Focused On A Linguistic Approach - N. Juristo,A. M. Moreno
This article aims to propose an approach to formalize this process. This method is based on the use of linguistic information from informal specifications. This information is composed of words which, in turn, denote elements of an OO modeling, such as classes, properties, etc. These words have a particular meaning, and their use in the modeling is usually related with that meaning. So, the objective is to analyze this information from the semantic and syntactic viewpoint and extract, by means of a formal procedure, the components of an OO system. This paper presents briefly the proposed approach and is focused on the results of its application by a...

38045. Extracting Expert Knowledge from Medical Texts - Marc Weeber,Rein Vos
. In this paper we argue that researchers in Intelligent Data Analysis (IDA) in Medicine and Pharmacology should consider textual databases as an additional source of knowledge. We describe three areas where medical knowledge extraction from textual databases can be fruitful: finding new applications for existing drugs, evolution of medical knowledge in time, and drug risk assessment. We evaluate two textual knowledge extraction methods, where an IDA approach shows to be robust and efficient compared to a common computational linguistic one. 1 Introduction One of the goals in Intelligent Data Analysis in Medicine and Pharmacology is the discovery or extraction of medical knowledge in computerized data [8]. Most applications use medical databases...

38046. How Spatial Information Connects Visual Perception and Natural Language Generation in Dynamic Environments: Towards a Computational Model - K Intelligenz,Wissensbasierte Systeme,Leitung Prof,Dr. W. Wahlster,Wolfgang Maa
. Suppose that you are required to describe a route step-bystep to somebody who does not know the environment. A major question in this context is what kind of spatial information must be integrated in a route description. This task generally refers to two cognitive abilities: Visual perception and natural language. In this domain, a computational model for the generation of incremental route descriptions is presented. Central to this model is a distinction into a visual, a linguistic, and a conceptual-spatial level. Basing on these different levels a software agent, called MOSES, is introduced who moves through a simulated 3D environment from a starting-point to a destination. He selects...

38047. Structure Sharing Unification of Disjunctive Feature Descriptions - Johannes Matiasek
A method is presented which allows for unification of disjunctive feature descriptions with a minimal amount of copying. This is accomplished by using a lazy incremental copy technique in combination with a representation of feature descriptions that allows for distributed disjunctions. The use of context descriptions keeps disjunctions as local as possible and prevents independent alternatives to interact unnessecarily, thus helping to avoid redundant copying. In that way structure sharing is possible between different feature descriptions as well as between disjuncts. Furthermore the unification algorithm need not consider nondisjunctive parts of a feature descriptions twice when dealing with alternatives as e.g., in implementations employing backtracking. This allows for an...

38048. Using Argumentation to Control Lexical Choice: A Functional Unification Implementation - Michael Elhadad
Using Argumentation to Control Lexical Choice: A Functional Unification Implementation Michael Elhadad This thesis investigates the impact of the pragmatic situation on surface generation. It presents new surface generation techniques that improve on both aspects of surface generation: (1) lexical choice, which consists of choosing words and their associated syntactic structures and (2) syntactic realization, which consists of combining these partial structures into grammatical sentences. Because surface generation depends directly on aspects of the pragmatic situation, these new techniques allow a purely conceptual input to be expressed by a greater variety of linguistic forms and with more sensitivity to pragmatic factors than was previously possible. Specifically, this research focuses on...

38049. A Processing Account of Weak Crossover - Carl Alphonce
this paper I will present a chain-building algorithm and show how it offers an account of the weak crossover phenomenon. The chain building algorithm is independently motivated by computational considerations, and is embedded in a psycholinguistically motivated parsing model. The paper proceeds as follows: I first present arguments for the reasonably uncontroversial position that there is a distinction to be made between linguistic competence and performance. I then outline and motivate my assumptions regarding structure-building in general and chain-building in particular. I argue that the existence of so-called garden path utterances is evidence that parsing does not proceed in a massively parallel fashion. Ranked-parallel models and serial models are both...

38050. A Formal Approach For Generating Oo Specifications From Natural Language - Natalia Juristo,Jos L. Morant,Ana M. Moreno,Ana Maria Moreno,Facultad De Informatica
The requirements analysis process is essential to software development. The success or failure of a software system can be said to largely depend on the quality of this activity. A formal and disciplined process is therefore necessary for requirements analysis. In this paper, we present an approach that is based on the formal definition of relations between linguistic and OO conceptual structures as a basis for a formal and disciplined problem analysis process. This process is based on two components, conceptual model formalization and OO model construction. The first provides formal rules to identify the key components of conceptual models, and the second, provides a set...

38051. to New Language Pairs - I. Dan Melamed
There are three steps in porting SIMR to new language pairs. The first step is to choose an appropriate matching predicate, and collect any linguistic resources required by that matching predicate. The second step is to implement bitext space axis generation routines that are consistent with the matching predicate. The last step is to re-optimize SIMR's numerical parameters. This document explains each step in detail. It assumes that you have read and understood the paper [1]. It also assumes that you have SIMR and the porting tools properly installed. 1 Matching Predicate SIMR's matching predicates can be based on any combination of predicate filters and oracle filters [3]. Your...

38052. TDL - A Type Description Language for HPSG Part 1: Overview - Intelligenz Gmbh,Hans-ulrich Krieger,Ulrich Sch Afer,Deutsches Forschungszentrum,K Unstliche Intelligenz
Unification-based grammar formalisms have become the predominant paradigm in natural language processing (NLP) and computational linguistics (CL). Their success stems from the fact that they can be seen as high-level declarative programming languages for linguists, which allow them to express linguistic knowledge in a monotonic fashion. Moreover, such formalisms can be given a precise, set-theoretical semantics. This paper presents TDL, a typed feature-based language and inference system, which is specifically designed to support highly lexicalized grammar theories like HPSG, FUG, or CUG. 1 TDL allows the user to define (possibly recursive) hierarchically-ordered types, consisting of type constraints and feature constraints over the boolean connectives , , and :. TDL distinguishes between...

38053. Scientific Knowledge Discovery using Inductive Logic Programming - Stephen Muggleton
This paper is an overview of scientific knowledge discovery tasks carried out using Inductive Logic Programming (ILP). The results reviewed have been published in some of the top general science journals, and as such are among the strongest examples of semi-automated scientific discovery in the Artificial Intelligence literature. Space restrictions do not permit this paper to cover other discovery areas of ILP. These include the discovery of linguistic features in natural language data and the discovery of patterns in traffic data. 1 Introduction The pharmaceutical industry is increasingly overwhelmed by large-volume-data. This is generated both internally as a side-effect of screening tests and combinatorial chemistry, as well as externally from sources...

38054. Harmonizing the Approaches - Robin Cooper,Dick Crouch,Jan Van Eijck,Chris Fox,Josef Van Genabith,Jan Jaspars,Hans Kamp,Manfred Pinkal,Massimo Poesio,Steve Pulman,Espen Vestre,Deliverable D
ion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 2.3 Quantification : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 2.4 Propositions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 2.5 Predication : : : :...

38055. Automatic Generation of a Fuzzy Rule Base for Online Handwriting Recognition - Ashutosh Malaviya,Hartmut Surmann,Liliane Peters
An automatic method to generate fuzzy rules and their membership functions to recognize handwritten characters is described. Firstly an initial rule base is created on the basis of a referential data set containing handwriting prototypes. Subsequently the classification behavior of the fuzzy rules is optimized with a genetic algorithm, which is regarded as a typical solution to NP-complete problems. A suitable fitness function which corresponds to the human perception of the linguistic variables is obtained. The proposed rule generation process extends the learning and adaptive capabilities of existing fuzzy rule based recognition system. Keywords: fuzzy features, fuzzy rule generation, genetic algorithm. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Online character recognition systems have to operate in real-time and have to cope with a multiple number of...

38056. Unknown - Enric Vallduv
The Informational Component Enric Vallduv'i Supervisor: Ellen F. Prince Even though the relevance of non-truth-conditional notions like `topic' and `focus' in sentence structure and interpretation has long been recognized, there is little agreement on the exact nature of these notions and their role in a model of linguistic competence. Following the information-packaging approach (Chafe 1976, Prince 1986), this study argues that these notions are primitive elements in the informational component of language. This component, informatics, is responsible for the articulation of sentences qua information, where information is defined as that part of propositional content which constitutes a contribution of knowledge to the hearer's knowledge-store. Informational primitives combine into four possible distinct information-packaging...

38057. Automatic Acquisition of Morphological Knowledge for Medical Language Processing - Pierre Zweigenbaum,Natalia Grabar
Medical words exhibit a rich and productive morphology. Morphological knowledge is therefore very important for any medical language processing application. We propose a simple and powerful method to acquire automatically such knowledge. It takes advantage of commonly available lists of synonym terms to bootstrap the acquisition process. We experimented it on the SNOMED International Microglossary for pathology in its French version. The families of morphologically related words that we obtained were useful for query expansion in a coding assistant. Since the method does not rely on a priori linguistic knowledge, it is applicable to other languages such as English.

38058. Distributional Clustering Of English Words - Fernando Pereira,Naftali Tishby,Lillian Lee
We describe and experimentally evaluate a method for automatically clustering words according to their distribution in particular syntactic contexts. Deterministic annealing is used to find lowest distortion sets of clusters. As the annealing parameter increases, existing clusters become unstable and subdivide, yielding a hierarchical "soft" clustering of the data. Clusters are used as the basis for class models of word coocurrence, and the models evaluated with respect to held-out test data. INTRODUCTION Methods for automatically classifying words according to their contexts of use have both scientific and practical interest. The scientific questions arise in connection to distributional views of linguistic (particularly lexical) structure and also in relation to the question of lexical acquisition both from psychological...

38059. A Dynamic Syntax-Semantics Interface - Tsutomu Fujinami
The relation between syntax and semantics of natural language can be regarded as a constraint. With the ideas from Channel Theory (Barwise 1993, Barwise and Seligman 1994), the way that an utterance represents a situation can be captured as a linguistic channel. To study the operational aspects of such a channel, we construct it as a system of communicating processes by turning to the ß-calculus (Milner et al. 1992). We show how a concurrent bottom-up chart parser can be encoded in the calculus and how a semantic object similar to those employed in Situation Theoretic Discourse Representation Theory (Cooper 1993) can be created as the result of interactions between processes...

38060. Learning the Rule Base of a Fuzzy Controller by a Genetic Algorithm - Jorn Hopf,Frank Klawonn
For the design of a fuzzy controller it is necessary to choose, besides other parameters, suitable membership functions for the linguistic terms and to determine a rule base. This paper deals with the problem of finding a good rule base --- the basis of a fuzzy controller. Consulting experts still is the usual but time--consuming and therefore rather expensive method. Besides, after having designed the controller, one cannot be sure that the rule base will lead to near optimal control. This paper shows how to reduce significantly the period of development (and the costs) of fuzzy controllers with the help of genetic algorithms and, above all, how to engender a...

 

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