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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 48,042

38041. Parallel Hidden Markov Models for American Sign Language Recognition - Christian Vogler,Dimitris Metaxas
The major challenge that faces American Sign Language (ASL) recognition now is to develop methods that will scale well with increasing vocabulary size. Unlike in spoken languages, phonemes can occur simultaneously in ASL. The number of possible combinations of phonemes after enforcing linguistic constraints is approximately 5:5 Theta 10 8 : Gesture recognition, which is less constrained than ASL recognition, suffers from the same problem. Thus, it is not feasible to train conventional hidden Markov models (HMMs) for large-scale ASL applications. Factorial HMMs and coupled HMMs are two extensions to HMMs that explicitly attempt to model several processes occuring in parallel. Unfortunately, they still require consideration of the combinations at training time. In this paper we...

38042. Elementary Principles of HPSG - Georgia M. Green
Introduction This chapter describes the theoretical foundations and descriptive mechanisms of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), as well as proposed treatments for a number of familiar grammatical phenomena. The anticipated reader has some familiarity with syntactic phenomena and the function of a theory of syntax, but not necessarily any expertise with modern theories of phrase-structure grammar. Section 1 describes the character of HPSG grammars, and the elements and axioms of the system. Section 2 describes how linguistic entities are modelled, and how grammars describe the modelled entities. The third section describes the ontology of featurestructure descriptions in HPSG, and Section 4 deals with the expression of constraints, especially those...

38043. Phonological Rules For Overlapping Articulatory Features In Speech Recognition - Jiping Sun,Li Deng
this paper, we report our recent development of an overlapping-feature based phonological model which represents long-span contextual dependency in speech acoustics. In this model, high-level linguistic constraints are incorporated in automatic construction of the feature overlapping patterns and the associated hidden Markov model (HMM) states which represent acoustic variability. The main linguistic information explored includes morpheme and syllable boundaries, syllable constituent categories, and word stress. A consistent computational framework developed for the construction of the feature-based model and the major components of the model are described. The experimental results on use of the feature-based model as the HMM state topology for speech recognition are reported.

38044. Representations of Dialogue State for Domain and Task Independent Meta-Dialogue - David R. Traum,Carl F. Andersen
We propose a representation of local dialogue context motivated by the need to react appropriately to meta-dialogue, such as various sorts of corrections to the sequence of an instruction and response action. Such context includes at least the following aspects: the words and linguistic structures uttered, the domain correlates of those linguistics structures, and plans and actions in response. Each of these is needed as part of the context in order to be able to correctly interpret the range of corrections. Partitioning knowledge of dialogue structure in this way may lead to an ability to represent generic dialogue structure (e.g., in the form of axioms), which can be particularized to the domain, topic and content...

38045. What is a word, What is a sentence? Problems of Tokenization - Gregory Grefenstette,Pasi Tapanainen
Any linguistic treatment of freely occurring text must provide an answer to what is considered as a token. In artificial languages, the definition of what is considered as a token can be precisely and unambiguously defined. Natural languages, on the other hand, display such a rich variety that there are many ways to decide upon what will be considered as a unit for a computational approach to text. Here we will discuss tokenization as a problem for computational lexicography. Our discussion will cover the aspects of what is usually considered preprocessing of text in order to prepare it for some automated treatment. We present the roles of...

38046. Inequality Without Irreflexivity
This paper presents the axiomatization --- without the rule of irreflexivity --- of the modal logic of inequality as well as a method for proving its completeness. This method uses the technics of the frame of subordination. 1 Introduction Introduced by von Wright [14] and furthered by Segerberg [12], the modal logic with inequality [11] [13] --- also called logic of elsewhere [1] [3] [12] --- is superior in expressive power to the modal logic without inequality [2] [5] [9]. Its linguistic basis is the propositional calculus enlarged with the modal operators L and [6=]. Its semantical basis is a relational structure of the form F = (W;R) where...

38047. Choosing A Distance Metric For Automatic Word Categorization - Emin Erkan,Korkmaz Gokturk
This paper analyzes the functionality of different distance metrics that can be used in a bottom-up unsupervised algorithm for automatic word categorization. The proposed method uses a modified greedy-type algorithm. The formulations of fuzzy theory are also used to calculate the degree of membership for the elements in the linguistic clusters formed. The unigram and the bigram statistics of a corpus of about two million words are used. Empirical comparisons are made in order to support the discussions proposed for the type of distance metric that would be most suitable for measuring the similarity between linguistic elements. 1 Introduction Statistical natural language processing is a challenging area in the field of computational natural language learning. Researchers of...

38048. Linguistic Issues in Grace (Evaluation of Part-of-Speech Tagging for French)
GRACE is the first large-scale evaluation program of taggers for French. This experiment allowed to compare the assignments of Parts-of-Speech tags by various different taggers, on a common corpus of literary and journalistic texts. The evaluation relied on the acceptance by the participants of a reference formalism for morpho-syntactic description (the reference tagset) used by an expert to tag the evaluation corpus, and by the participants to provide a description (mapping table) of their own tagset. The global strategy was to make the reference tagging and tokenization of the finest grain possible. The reference tags were decomposed in Parts of Speech (main category) and lists...

38049. Adaptation of Statistical Language Models for Automatic Speech Recognition - Philip R. Clarkson
Statistical language models encode linguistic information in such a way as to be useful to systems which process human language. Such systems include those for optical character recognition and machine translation. Currently, however, the most common application of language modelling is in automatic speech recognition, and it is this that forms the focus of this thesis. Most current speech recognition systems are dedicated to one specific task (for example, the recognition of broadcast news), and thus use a language model which has been trained on text which is appropriate to that task. If, however, one wants to perform recognition on more general language, then creating an appropriate language model...

38050. Machine Learning And Language Acquisition: A Model Of Child's Learning Of Turkish Morphophonology - Dr. Deniz Zeyrek,Assoc Prof,Dr. Cem Bozsahin,Umit Turan
MACHINE LEARNING AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A MODEL OF CHILD'S LEARNING OF TURKISH MORPHOPHONOLOGY Altun, Yasemin MS., Cognitive Science Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cem Bozsahin Co-Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Deniz Zeyrek July 1999, 90 pages Every normal child who is exposed to linguistic input in an interactional environment acquires the complex structure of the language at a very early age, in a very short time and without any explicit training. This fascinating character of language acquisition lead many researchers to study on the aspects of language acquisition. The present study is on the morphological analysis of Turkish and on learning the morphophonology of Turkish by using the non-monotonic setting of Inductive Logic Programming,...

38051. Fuzzy Data Analysis: Challenges and Perspectives - Rudolf Kruse,Christian Borgelt,Detlef Nauck
In meeting the challenges that resulted from the explosion of collected, stored, and transferred data, Knowledge Discovery in Databases or Data Mining has emerged as a new research area. However, the approaches studied in this area have mainly been oriented at highly structured and precise data. In addition, the goal to obtain understandable results is often neglected. Therefore we suggest to concentrate on Information Mining, i.e., the analysis of heterogeneous information sources with the prominent aim of producing comprehensible results. Since the aim of fuzzy technology has always been to model linguistic information and to achieve understandable solutions, we expect it to play an important role in information mining. 1. Introduction: A View of...

38052. Word Segmentation Based on Estimation of Words from Examples - Juntae Yoon,Woonjae Lee,Key-sun Choi
From a cognitive point of view, words can be recognized based on learned data which can be obtained from linguistic materials. Namely, people learn words from many examples which they meet. We propose a word segmentation algorithm based on estimated knowledge for words acquired from both local texts being processed and POS tagged corpus. In order to show the feasibility of our model, we apply it to guessing of unknown words caused by morphological analysis failure. 1 Introduction We continuously learn words by seeing and hearing examples, and acquire new ones based on learned knowledge and new examples. We can think of recognition and segmentation of words as the...

38053. Unbounded Negative Concord in Polish: A Lexicalist HPSG Approach
In this paper, we deal with Negative Concord (NC) in Polish. We show that Polish NC is a kind of unbounded dependency construction (UDC), although it differs in many respects from the `standard' UDCs such as, e.g., wh-extraction or topicalization. Our analysis of NC is coached in the theoretical framework of HPSG; more precisely, we adopt a lexicalist approach to UDCs proposed by Sag (1996a, 1996b). Moreover, we argue that Polish NC facts would be difficult to model by a purely semantic account. 1 Introduction The aim of this paper is twofold. First, on the basis of facts rarely (if ever) considered in the linguistic literature, we argue for...

38054. Distributional Clustering Of English Words - Fernando Pereira,Naftali Tishby,Lillian Lee
We describe and experimentally evaluate a method for automatically clustering words according to their distribution in particular syntactic contexts. Deterministic annealing is used to find lowest distortion sets of clusters. As the annealing parameter increases, existing clusters become unstable and subdivide, yielding a hierarchical "soft" clustering of the data. Clusters are used as the basis for class models of word coocurrence, and the models evaluated with respect to held-out test data. INTRODUCTION Methods for automatically classifying words according to their contexts of use have both scientific and practical interest. The scientific questions arise in connection to distributional views of linguistic (particularly lexical) structure and also in relation to the question of lexical acquisition both from psychological...

38055. CJK DOCP Recommendation: CJK multilingual linguistic markup CJKDOCP Text Corpus Exchange Formats Date: 1995-12-06 Author : Jing-Shin Chang (SIGMT, ROCLING) Revision : 1.2.3 File: CJKDOCP.xf.1.2.3.doc - Jing-shin Chang
nsuming for the corpus contributors, we hope that the corpus users can share the load of corpus tagging if some of the tagging information is not available in the original corpora. We also encourage the release of any derived works from the original works that contain extra information after further processing. 0.2. Simple Encoding Convention Used for Corpus Tagging An "element" (e.g., a paragraph, a sentence, or a word) is, in general, enclosed by a pair of "start tag" and "end tag" in an SGML text. For example, a book title "Advanced Unix Programming" can be tagged as: Advanced Unix Programming where "" is the "start tag"...<br/> <br/> <img src="/disenio20/corporativo/images/bullet9.2.0.gif"/> 38056. <a class="link2" href="/html_bura/ficha/params/title/parallel-term-indexing-for-document-retrieval-system/id/41671300.html ">Parallel Term Indexing for a Document Retrieval System</a> <span class="autorresultado"> - Scott L. Alexander,Nancy J. Mccracken</span> <br/> A parallel system for finding and indexing key terms in a document is described. With the constantly increasing amount and availability of information, a reliable and efficient method of document retrieval is quickly becoming a necessity for research. DR-LINK is one such document retrieving tool that is able to return a list of relevant documents to a user's query. One way that this is accomplished is by comparing the key terms in the query to the key terms in the documents. This process is called indexing. It is shown that the efficiency of indexing these terms is increased by developing a parallel implementation of the existing code....<br/> <br/> <img src="/disenio20/corporativo/images/bullet9.2.0.gif"/> 38057. <a class="link2" href="/html_bura/ficha/params/title/primitive-calculus-for-module-systems/id/41671134.html ">A Primitive Calculus for Module Systems</a> <span class="autorresultado"> - Davide Ancona</span> <br/> . We present a simple and powerful calculus of modules supporting mutual recursion and higher order features. The calculus allows to encode a large variety of existing mechanisms for combining software components, including parameterized modules, extension with overriding of object-oriented programming, mixin modules and extra-linguistic mechanisms like those provided by a linker. As usual, we rst present an untyped version of our calculus and then a type system which is proved sound w.r.t. the reduction semantics; moreover we give a translation of other primitive calculi. Introduction Considerable eort has been recently invested in studying theoretical foundations and developing new forms...<br/> <br/> <img src="/disenio20/corporativo/images/bullet9.2.0.gif"/> 38058. <a class="link2" href="/html_bura/ficha/params/title/recent-advances-in-transcribing-television-and-radio-broadcasts/id/41670928.html ">Recent Advances in Transcribing Television and Radio Broadcasts</a> <span class="autorresultado"> - Jean-luc Gauvain,Lori Lamel,Gilles Adda,Michele Jardino</span> <br/> Transcription of broadcast news shows (radio and television) is a major step in developing automatic tools for indexation and retrieval of the vast amounts of information generated on a daily basis. Broadcast shows are challenging to transcribe as they consist of a continuous data stream with segments of different linguistic and acoustic natures. Transcribing such data requires addressing two main problems: those related to the varied acoustic properties of the signal, and those related to the linguistic properties of the speech. Prior to word transcription, the data is partitioned into homogeneous acoustic segments. Non-speech segments are identified and rejected, and the speech segments are clustered and labeled according to bandwidth and...<br/> <br/> <img src="/disenio20/corporativo/images/bullet9.2.0.gif"/> 38059. <a class="link2" href="/html_bura/ficha/params/title/partial-proof-trees-as-building-blocks-for-categorial-grammar/id/41670862.html ">Partial Proof Trees as Building Blocks for a Categorial Grammar</a> <span class="autorresultado"> - Aravind K. Joshi,Seth Kulick</span> <br/> We describe a categorial system (PPTS) based on partial proof trees (PPTs) as the building blocks of the system. The PPTs are obtained by unfolding the arguments of the type that would be associated with a lexical item in a simple categorial grammar. The PPTs are the basic types in the system and a derivation proceeds by combining PPTs together. We describe the construction of the finite set of basic PPTs and the operations for combining them. PPTS can be viewed as a categorial system incorporating some of the key insights of lexicalized tree adjoining grammar, namely the notion of an extended domain of locality and...<br/> <br/> <img src="/disenio20/corporativo/images/bullet9.2.0.gif"/> 38060. <a class="link2" href="/html_bura/ficha/params/title/modular-connectionist-parser-for-resolution-of-pronominal-anaphoric-references-in/id/41670413.html ">A Modular Connectionist Parser for Resolution of Pronominal Anaphoric References in Multiple Sentences</a> <span class="autorresultado"> - Itamar Leite De Oliveira,Raul Sidnei Wazlawick</span> <br/> In this work a connectionist model used in the resolution of a well-known linguistic phenomenon as pronominal anaphoric reference is presented. The model is composed of two neural networks: a simple recurrent neural network (parser) and a feedforward neural network (segmenter). These networks are trained and tested simultaneously. With this model it is possible to solve anaphoric references with text segments of arbitrary size, that is to say, with any number of sentences. 1. Introduction The anaphoric reference is a linguistic phenomenon in that a pronoun or a noun phrase (NP) in a sentence is referring to somebody or to an object previously mentioned in the text. The problem then is to know...<br/> <br/> </div> <div align="center"> <b>Página de resultados:</b><br/> <div class="biblioPagination"> <ul class="biblioPaginationList"> <li class="paginationFirst"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/0.html " title="Página 1 de 2403. Recursos del 1 al 20. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "><b><<</b></a></li> <li class="paginationPrev"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38020.html " title="Página 1902 de 2403. Recursos del 38021 al 38040. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "><b><</b></a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37840.html " title="Página 1893 de 2403. Recursos del 37841 al 37860. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1893</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37860.html " title="Página 1894 de 2403. Recursos del 37861 al 37880. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1894</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37880.html " title="Página 1895 de 2403. Recursos del 37881 al 37900. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1895</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37900.html " title="Página 1896 de 2403. Recursos del 37901 al 37920. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1896</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37920.html " title="Página 1897 de 2403. Recursos del 37921 al 37940. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1897</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37940.html " title="Página 1898 de 2403. Recursos del 37941 al 37960. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1898</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37960.html " title="Página 1899 de 2403. Recursos del 37961 al 37980. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1899</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/37980.html " title="Página 1900 de 2403. Recursos del 37981 al 38000. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1900</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38000.html " title="Página 1901 de 2403. Recursos del 38001 al 38020. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1901</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38020.html " title="Página 1902 de 2403. Recursos del 38021 al 38040. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1902</a></li> <li class="paginationPage current"><a href="#">1903</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38060.html " title="Página 1904 de 2403. Recursos del 38061 al 38080. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1904</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38080.html " title="Página 1905 de 2403. Recursos del 38081 al 38100. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1905</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38100.html " title="Página 1906 de 2403. Recursos del 38101 al 38120. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1906</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38120.html " title="Página 1907 de 2403. Recursos del 38121 al 38140. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1907</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38140.html " title="Página 1908 de 2403. Recursos del 38141 al 38160. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1908</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38160.html " title="Página 1909 de 2403. Recursos del 38161 al 38180. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1909</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38180.html " title="Página 1910 de 2403. Recursos del 38181 al 38200. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1910</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38200.html " title="Página 1911 de 2403. Recursos del 38201 al 38220. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1911</a></li> <li class="paginationPage"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38220.html " title="Página 1912 de 2403. Recursos del 38221 al 38240. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "> 1912</a></li> <li class="paginationNext"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/38060.html " title="Página 1904 de 2403. Recursos del 38061 al 38080. Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística "><b>></b></a></li> <li class="paginationLast"><a href=" /html_bura/vernivel/params/nivel/57/start/48040.html " title="Página 2403 de 2403. Recursos del 48041 al 48042. 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