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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 48,569

38041. Deterministic Consistency Checking of LP Constraints - Suresh Manandhar
We provide a constraint based computational model of linear precedence as employed in the HPSG grammar formalism. An extended feature logic which adds a wide range of constraints involving precedence is described. A sound, complete and terminating deterministic constraint solving procedure is given. Deterministic computational model is achieved by weakening the logic such that it is sufficient for linguistic applications involving word-order. Subject areas: feature logic, constraint based grammars 1 Introduction Within HPSG (Pollard and Sag, 1987) (Pollard and Sag, 1994) the constituent ordering principle given in (1) is intended to express the relation between the value of the phon attribute and the dtrs attribute which contains the hierarchical structure of the derivation. (1) phrasal sign = PHON order constituent( 1...

38042. What Knowledge Must Be In The Head In Order To Acquire Language? - William Bechtel
this paper I want to raise a worry about the conceptualization of these projects and advance a different perspective from which to think about human linguistic ability. The worry can be focused by noticing that there is a step that must be performed even before one attempts a direct or a complex localization: one must identify a system that is responsible for the phenomenon. Richardson and I refer to this as identifying the locus of control for the phenomenon. In the case of language, it seems to many that this system is the mind/brain. The case for this seems to be overwhelming: humans comprehend and produce language,...

38043. Conciseness through Aggregation in Text Generation - James Shaw
Aggregating di#erent pieces of similar information is necessary to generate concise and easy to understand reports in technical domains. This paper presents a general algorithm that combines similar messages in order to generate one or more coherent sentences for them. The process is not as trivial as might be expected. Problems encountered are briefly described. 1 Motivation Aggregation is any syntactic process that allows the expression of concise and tightly constructed text such as coordination or subordination. By using the parallelism of syntactic structure to express similar information, writers can convey the same amount of information in a shorter space. Coordination has been the object of considerable research (for an overview, see (van Oirsouw87)). In contrast to...

38044. Executive Summary - H. Alshawi,I. Bretan,D. Carter,K. Ceder,M. Collins,R. Crouch,V. Digalakis,B. Ekholm,J. Kaja,J. Karlgren,B. Lyberg,P. Price,S. Pulman,M. Rayner,C. Samuelsson,T. Svensson,David Carter,Ken Ceder,Michael Collins,Richard Crouch,Jussi Karlgren,Bertil Lyberg,Patti Price,Stephen Pulman,Manny Rayner,Christer Samuelsson,Tomas Svensson
ion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 51 6.4 Experiments : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 52 6.4.1 Overview of experimental setup : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 52 6.4.2 Parameters of...

38045. Probabilistic Constraints in Acquisition - Joseph Allen
This paper presents a connectionist model of verb argument structure assignment that relies on probabilistic information regarding particular verbs, as well as semantic information shared among several verbs. The model illustrates how co-occurrence relations among different levels of linguistic representation may interact in acquisition by contributing to the discovery of language specific well formedness constraints and coherent semantic subclasses of verbs. Both semantics and observed conditions of use contribute to the formation of semantic subclasses, which in turn determine the set of constructions in which particular verbs appear. 1. Introduction The ability to detect cues to regularities in language is important to several recent accounts of basic language acquisition phenomena (Morgan & Demuth 1996, Bates & MacWhinney...

38046. Logic as General Rationality: A Survey - Departament Llenguatges
: Logic today is urged to confront and solve the problem of reasoning under non-ideal conditions, such as incomplete information or imprecisely formulated statements , as is the case with uncertainty , approximate descriptions or linguistic vagueness . At the same time, Probability theory has widened its traditional field of analysis (the expected frequency of physical phenomena) so as to encompass and analyze general rational expectations . Thus, Probability has placed itself in the position of offering Logic a solution for its own long-awaited generalization. The basis for that turns out to be precisely the shared base underlying the two disciplines. This theoretical base predates their common birth,...

38047. A Generic ATMS - Juan Luis Castro,Jose Manuel Zurita
The main aim of this paper is to create a general Truth Maintenance System based on the De Kleer [5] algorithm. This kind of system is to be designed so that it can be used in different propositional monotonic logic models of reasoning systems. The knowledge base system that will interact with it is described. Furthermore, we study the efficiency that transferring ATMS to a logic with several truth values presupposes. Definitions and properties of the generic ATMS are particularized to interact both with a reasoning system based on multivalued logic specifically to the case of [0,1]-valued logic and with a reasoning system based on fuzzy logic....

38048. Linguistic Domain Theories: Natural-Language Database Interfacing From First Principles - Manny Rayner
The paper describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. It is shown how a variety of interface functionalities can be described as instances of a formal inference problem: in each case a "linguistic domain theory" Gamma and an input formula F are given, and the task is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F , given Gamma and a set of permitted assumptions. Functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type "Do you know...", and generating assertions and questions. A method called "Abductive Equivalential Translation", suitable for solving inference problems of this kind, is...

38049. Adaptive Vocabularies For Transcribing Multilingual Broadcast News - P. Geutner,M. Finke,P. Scheytt
One of the most prevailing problems of large-vocabulary speech recognition systems is the large number of out-of-vocabulary words. This is especially the case for automatically transcribing broadcast news in languages other than English, that have a large number of inflections and compound words. We introduce a set of techniques to decrease the number of out-of-vocabulary words during recognition by using linguistic knowledge about morphology and a two-pass recognition approach, where the first pass only serves to dynamically adapt the recognition dictionary to the speech segment to be recognized. A second recognition run is then carried out on the adapted vocabulary. With the proposed techniques we were able to reduce the OOV-rate...

38050. Automatic Word Categorization: An Information-theoretic Approach - Marc M. Lankhorst,Rudy Moddemeijer
This paper presents a novel approach to the automatic categorization of words from raw data. We count occurrences of word pairs in text and use a hierarchical clustering technique on this frequency data to obtain a classification of words into linguistic categories. As a distance criterion in the clustering process, we use the loss of mutual information caused by combining two clusters into a single new cluster. The main advantage of such a method is the ability to construct linguistic categories that combine both syntactic and semantic/pragmatic factors, which may help in reducing the number of nonsensical analyses that a language processing system will produce. Results of the...

38051. Anatomy Of A Versatile Page Reader - Henry S Baird
An experimental printed-page reader that is easy to adapt to various languages is described. Changing the target language may involve simultaneous changes in symbol sets, typefaces, sizes of text, page layouts, linguistic contexts, and imaging defects. Our strategy has been to isolate the effects of these sources of variation within separate, independent engineering subsystems. In this way, we have been able to construct, with a minimum of manual effort, classifiers for arbitrary combinations of symbols, typefaces, sizes, and imaging defects. We have tried to rid the algorithms of all language-specific rules, relying instead on automatic learning from examples and generalized table-driven methods. For some tasks we have been...

38052. Memory-Based Lexical Acquisition and Processing - Walter Daelemans
Current approaches to computational lexicology in language technology are knowledge-based (competence-oriented) and try to abstract away from specific formalisms, domains, and applications. This results in severe complexity, acquisition and reusability bottlenecks. As an alternative, we propose a particular performance-oriented approach to Natural Language Processing based on automatic memory-based learning of linguistic (lexical) tasks. The consequences of the approach for computational lexicology are discussed, and the application of the approach on a number of lexical acquisition and disambiguation tasks in phonology, morphology and syntax is described. 1 Introduction In computational lexicology, three basic questions guide current research: (1) which knowledge should be in the lexicon, (2) how should this knowledge be represented (e.g., to...

38053. The Effect of Syntactic Phrase Indexing on Retrieval Performance for Dutch Texts - Ren Ee Pohlmann,Wessel Kraaij
In this paper we describe an experiment with syntactic phrase indexing for Dutch texts. We compare different choices for combining terms to form head-modifier pairs and we also investigate the effect of adding none, one, or all constituent parts of the pair as a separate index term. The results of our experiments show that using head-modifier pairs as index terms can improve both recall and precision significantly but only if all constituent parts are also added separately. We found that using both Noun-Adjective and Noun-Noun head-modifier pairs produced the best results. Keywords Natural language processing; syntactic phrase indexing; head-modifier pairs; Dutch. 1 Introduction The work described in this paper...

38054. A Neural Fuzzy Controller Learning by Fuzzy Error Propagation - Detlef Nauck,Rudolf Kruse
In this paper we describe a procedure to integrate techniques for the adaptation of membership functions in a linguistic variable based fuzzy control environment by using neural network learning principles. This is an extension to our work in [2]. We solve this problem by definining a fuzzy error that is propagated back through the architecture of our fuzzy controller. According to this fuzzy error and the strength of its antecedent each fuzzy rule determines its amount of error. Depending on the current state of the controlled system and the control action derived from the conclusion, each rule tunes the membership functions of its antecedent and its conclusion....

38055. Pitch Accent Classification of Fundamental Frequency Contours by Hidden Markov Models - Marcus Fach,Wolfgang Wokurek
In this study Hidden Markov models are employed for the automatic classification of pitch accents in German utterances. A simplified version of the tone sequence model (i.e. a linguistic theory of pitch accents) is applied. In this approach only two of the nuclear tones (rise, fall) are used. They are represented by continuous density Hidden Markov models. The classifier works on the sequence of feature vectors defined by N-tuples of succeeding fundamental frequency estimates. Introduction The aim of this study is the automatic extraction of the sentence accent in German utterances. It is based on the fundamental frequency (F0), which ist a perceptually very important item among prosodic parameters such as F0, duration and intensity. Therefore, the automatic...

38056. Partitioning and Transcription of Broadcast News Data - Jean-luc Gauvain,Lori Lamel,Gilles Adda
Radio and television broadcasts consist of a continuous stream of data comprised of segments of different linguistic and acoustic natures, which poses challenges for transcription. In this paper we report on our recent work in transcribing broadcast news data[2, 4], including the problem of partitioning the data into homogeneous segments prior to word recognition. Gaussian mixture models are used to identify speech and non-speech segments. A maximumlikelihood segmentation/clustering process is then applied to the speech segments using GMMs and an agglomerative clustering algorithm. The clustered segments are then labeled according to bandwidth and gender. The recognizer is a continuous mixture density, tied-state cross-word context-dependent HMM system with a 65k trigram language model. Decoding is...

38057. Personality-Rich Believable Agents That Use Language - A. Bryan,Loyall Joseph Bates
We are studying how to create believable agents that perform actions and use natural language in interactive, animated, real-time worlds. Believable agents are autonomous agents that have specific, rich personalities like characters in movies and animation. We have extended Hap, the behavior-based architecture used by the Oz group to construct non-linguistic believable agents, to support natural language text generation. These extensions allow us to tightly integrate text generation with other aspects of the agent, including action, perception, inference and emotion. We describe our approach, and show how it leads to agents with properties we believe important for believability, such as: using language and action together to accomplish communication goals; using perception to help make...

38058. The Architecture Of The Festival Speech Synthesis System - Paul Taylor,Alan W Black,Richard Caley
We describe a new formalism for storing linguistic data in a text to speech system. Linguistic entities such as words and phones are stored as feature structures in a general object called an linguistic item. Items are configurable at run time and via the feature structure can contain arbitrary information. Linguistic relations are used to store the relationship between items of the same linguistic type. Relations can take any graph structure but are commonly trees or lists. Utterance structures contain all the items and relations contained in a single utterance. We first describe the design goals when building a synthesis architecture, and then describe some problems with previous architectures. We...

38059. Generating Dependency Structures of Fuzzy Word Meanings in Semantic Space - Burghard B. Rieger
This paper will report on one of the central objectives of a project in computational semantics which is supported by the Northrhine-Westphalia Ministry of Science and Research under grant IV A 2-FA 8600. 1. Modelling system structures of word meanings and/or world knowledge is to face the problem of their mutual and complex relatedness. Under the notion of semantic relevance and knowledge disposition this interdependency may empirically be reconstructablefrom natural language discourse although most approaches in linguistic semantics and artificial intelligence do not address these issues. Instead, linguists as well as experts engaged in word meaning and/or world knowledge representation still provide the necessary semantic or external world data...

38060. Abstracting Object Interactions Using Composition Filters - Mehmet Aksit,Ken Wakita,Jan Bosch,Lodewijk Bergmans
ing Object Interactions Using Composition Filters Mehmet Aksit 1 , Ken Wakita 2 , Jan Bosch 1 , Lodewijk Bergmans 1 and Akinori Yonezawa 3 1 TRESE project, Department of Computer Science, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. email: {aksit, bosch, bergmans}@cs.utwente.nl 2 Department of Information Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152, Japan. email: wakita@is.titech.ac.jp 3 Dept. of Information Science - Faculty of Science- University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 Japan. email: yonezawa@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract It is generally claimed that object-based models are very suitable for building distributed system architectures since object interactions follow the clientserver model. To cope with the complexity of today's distributed systems, however, we think that high-level linguistic mechanisms are needed to effectively structure, abstract...

 

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