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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 48,165

38041. The DenK architecture: a pragmatic approach to user interfaces - R. Ahn,R. J. Beun,T. Borghuis,H. C. Bunt,C. Van Overveld
In this paper we present the basic principles underlying the DenK-system, a generic cooperative interface combining linguistic and visual interaction. The system integrates results from fundamental research in knowledge representation, communication, natural language semantics and pragmatics, and objectoriented animation. Our design incorporates a cooperative and knowledgeable electronic assistant that communicates with a user in natural language, and an application domain, which is presented visually. The assistant, that we call the cooperator, has an information state that is represented in a rich form of Type Theory, a formalism that enables us to model the inherent cognitive dynamics of a dialogue participant. Pragmatic issues in man-machine interaction, concerning the use of natural...

38042. Neat vs Scruffy: A survey of Computational Models for Spatial Expressions - Amitabha Mukerjee
This paper attempts a survey of the computational modalities for representing spatial expressions. The focus is on computational or synthetic models, as opposed to cognitive or linguistic aspects. A number of formalisms based on qualitative paradigms such as topology seek to discretize space into regions based on alignment or tangency. This approach may be termed as "neat". Yet a large class of spatial expresssions (e.g. "near", "move away from") do not involve alignments, and even some which do (e.g. "in-front-of") have gradations. These gradations in a continuum are clearly less "neat"; we may view these as "scruffy"; there appears to be a growing trend towards the scruffy in...

38043. Automatic Speech Translation Based On The Semantic Structure - Johannes Mller,Holger Stahl,Manfred Lang
This paper describes a system for the semantic-based translation of spoken or written limited-domain utterances. The semantic structure as output of a semantic decoder serves as the interlingua -level. A word chain generator combined with a linguistic post-processor produces the according word chain in the target language. Both the semantic decoder and the word chain generator work with pure stochastic and trainable knowledge bases. The grammatical features of certain words can be easily extracted by the help of both the word chain and the semantic structure. Keywords: automatic speech translation, speech understanding, semantic decoding, language production, semantic structure, semantic model, syntactic model, inflectional model 1. SYSTEM OVERVIEW The depicted translation system, suitable for...

38044. Modifying Pappi to Account for Romance Languages - Martine Smets
this report deals with a description of linguistic phenomena of interest, in French and Spanish, and with analyses of those phenomena within the framework of GB theory. The second part will be concerned with actual implementation of French and Spanish in Pappi.

38045. Parsing N Best Trees from a Word Lattice - Hans Weber,Jorg Spilker,Gunther Gorz
. This article describes a probabilistic context free grammar approximation method for unification grammars. In order to produce good results, the method is combined with an N best parsing extension to chart parsing. The first part of the paper introduces the grammar approximation method, while the second part describes details of an efficient N-best packing and unpacking scheme for chart parsing. 1 Introduction Recently much attention has been payed to the integration of speech and language technology 1 . The concentration on spontaneous speech understanding led to the definition of a robust interface known as the word graph or word lattice between recognition and understanding. Depending on the application, systems are built to...

38046. An Intelligent Text Extraction and Navigation System - Jakub Piskorski,Gunter Neumann
We present sppc, a high-performance system for intelligent text extraction and navigation from German free text documents. sppc consists of a set of domainindependent shallow core components which are realized by means of cascaded weighted finite state machines and generic dynamic tries. All extracted information is represented uniformly in one data structure (called the text chart) in a highly compact and linked form in order to support indexing and navigation through the set of solutions. German text processing includes (among others) compound processing, high performance named entity recognition and chunk parsing based on a divide-and-conquer strategy. sppc has a good performance (4380 words per second on standard PC...

38047. Spatial Schemata and Language - Christian Balkenius
Introduction If we want to understand how semantic information is represented and processed, there are two possible paths to take. The first, and the most common, is to study the intricacies of language and try to infer the underlying mechanisms. The second approach is to investigate language from inside out by questioning how semantic structure is represented without reference to language. Only when the semantic representations are understood, is language considered. The present study describes an attempt to follow this second path by examining the neural mechanism underlying spatial representations. We will focus on the semantic mapping hypothesis originally proposed by O'Keefe and Nadel (1978). This hypothesis proposes that a specific brain region, the hippocampal formation, is responsible...

38048. Default Finite State Machines And Finite State Phonology - Gerald Penn,Richmond Thomason
We propose DFSM's as an extension of finite state machines, explore some of their properties, and indicate how they can be used to formalize naturally occurring linguistic systems. We feel that this implementation of two-level rules may be more linguistically natural and easier to work with computationally. We provide complexity results that shed light on the computational situation. INTRODUCTION Two-level phonology combines the computational advantages of finite state technology with a formalism that permits phenomena to be described with familiar-looking rules. The problem with such a scheme is that, in practice, the finite state machines (FSM's) can grow too large to be manageable; one wants to describe them and to run them without having to deal...

38049. Robust Parsing of Spoken Dialogue Using Contextual Knowledge and Recognition Probabilities - Gunther Gorz,Gerhard Hanrieder
In this paper we describe the linguistic processing component of a spoken dialogue system. The task of this word graph parser is to find the most plausible sequence of word hypotheses in the input graph. If no global solution can be found, a robust mechanism of selecting multiple partial results is applied. We argue that the semantic accuracy of the selected results can be considerably improved if the selection is based on an integrated quality score combining word recognition probabilities and context-dependent semantic top-down predictions. Results of parsing word graphs with and without predictions are reported. 1. INTRODUCTION The linguistic processing (LP) component of a spoken dialogue system (SDS) must be robust in order...

38050. Representation of Acoustic and Linguistic Knowledge in Continuous Speech Recognition - Tom Brndsted Cpk,Lars Bo Larsen
This report is the fifth in the documentation series from the research programme Spoken Language Dialogue Systems. At present, a total of 10 reports are planned. The following list is preliminary. The final versions may have slightly different titles and authors:

38051. AISSEN, Judith and
Linguistic Inquiry 22.1, 197-205. AUTHIER, Jean-Marc et REED, Lisa. 1991b. Case theory, theta theory and the distribution of French affected datives. To appear in Proceedings of WCCFL 10. BACH, Emmon. 1979. Control in Montague Grammar. Linguistic Inquiry 10, 297341. BACH, Emmon. 1983. Generalized categorial grammars and the English auxiliary. In Heny and Richards (eds) vol. 2, 101-120. BACH, Emmon and COOPER, Robin. 1978. The NP-S analysis of relative clauses and compositional semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 2, 145-150. BACH, Emmon and PARTEE, Barbara. 1980. Anaphora and semantic structure. In Jody Kreiman and Almerindo E. Ojeda, (eds), Papers from the Parasession on Pronouns and Anaphora. Chicago Linguistic Society, pp.1-28. BAKER, Carl L. 1978 Introduction...

38052. Developing Coherent Multiagent Systems using JAFMAS - Deepika Chauhan,Albert D. Baker
The Java-based Agent Framework for Multi-Agent Systems (JAFMAS) provides a generic methodology for developing speech-act based multiagent systems (MAS) along with a set of classes to support implementing these agents in Java. The methodology follows five stages: (i) agent identification, (ii) definition of each agent's conversations, (iii) determining the rules governing each agent's conversations, (iv) analyzing the coherency between all the conversations in the system, and (v) implementation. JAFMAS provides communication, linguistic and coordination support through sixteen Java classes. Communication support is provided for both directed and subject-based broadcast communication. Linguistic support is provided for speech-act (e.g. KQML) based communication languages. Coordination support comes from conceptualizing agent plans and their coordination as rule-based conversations represented by automata...

38053. Recognition Performance of a Structured Language Model - Ciprian Chelba,Frederick Jelinek
A new language model for speech recognition inspired by linguistic analysis is presented. The model develops hidden hierarchical structure incrementally and uses it to extract meaningful information from the word history --- thus enabling the use of extended distance dependencies --- in an attempt to complement the locality of currently used trigram models. The structured language model, its probabilistic parameterization and performance in a two-pass speech recognizer are presented. Experiments on the SWITCHBOARD corpus show an improvement in both perplexity and word error rate over conventional trigram models. 1. INTRODUCTION The main goal of the present work is to develop and evaluate a language model that uses syntactic structure to model longdistance dependencies....

38054. Spatial Cognition in Natural-Language Narratives - David Herman
Any system designed to model or simulate narrative intelligence will have to take into account how stories encode mental representations of emergent spatial relationships between items in narrated worlds. Intelligent agents, for example, need to be able to use sequences of referring expressions as cues for making inferences about agents, places, and objects and about the dynamic relations between them. Based on a corpus of seventeen North Carolina ghost stories, this paper argues that studying processes of spatial reference in natural-language narratives can yield important insights into some of the principles and parameters of narrative intelligence. Data and Methodology My paper derives from work done as part of two research initiatives at North Carolina State...

38055. DB-MAT: Knowledge Acquisition, Processing and NL Generation Using Conceptual Graphs - Galia Angelova,Kalina Bontcheva
. This paper presents some research results and a demo implementation of a knowledge-based Machine Aided Translation (MAT) system supporting the translation process with the necessary linguistic and conceptual knowledge. Conceptual Graphs (cgs) were chosen as a knowledge representation formalism since they provide formal structures and operations suitable for representing and processing of terminological knowledge. We employ the cg operations to extract relevant knowledge with a flexible granularity. The paper describes all system components from a cg perspective and their interaction hidden under the user-friendly interface. 1 Introduction The attractive idea of building knowledge-based Natural Language (NL) systems has inspired a lot of research and prototype implementations. However, the problems of differentiation and...

38056. Adjunct Scope - Gosse Bouma,Rob Malouf
this paper we study two problems at the syntax-semantics interface, both having to do with adjuncts. The first problem concerns the lexical representation of adjuncts. A broad range of cross-linguistic evidence suggests that many adverbials (including English temporals, locatives, manners,causals, etc.) are syntactically selected for by the verbal head that they combine with (see (Przepi'orkowski, in press) and (Bouma, Malouf, and Sag, 1998) for further discussion). Lexical representations must allow verbs to select for any number of adjuncts, but must be indifferent to the numerous scope possibilities that those adjuncts give rise to. The second problem involves a class of much-discussed adverbials that allow what appear to...

38057. Hypertext and Deixis - Dan Loehr
Hypertext linking is akin to deixis in that each points out of the di scourse to the context in which the discourse occurs. The context of a hypertext document such as a World Wide Web page is the World Wide Web itself. This study investigates some linguistic aspects of hypertext, using as data Web pages from college students and commercial enterprises. I first look at the syntactic forms of hypertext anchors, finding them mostly noun phrases. Next, noting the intuitive similarities between hypertext and place deictics, I attempt to find a quantitative relationship between the two. I show that certain place deictics do occur more frequently inside of hypertext anchors than in the ordinary text of Web pages, but this is...

38058. Towards Generation of Fluent Referring Action in Multimodal Situations - Tsuneaki Kato,Yukiko I. Nakano
Referring actions in multimodal situations can be thought of as linguistic expressions well coordinated with several physical actions. In this paper, what patterns of linguistic expressions are commonly used and how physical actions are temporally coordinated to them are reported based on corpus examinations. In particular, by categorizing objects according to two features, visibility and membership, the schematic patterns of referring expressions are derived. The difference between the occurrence frequencies of those patterns in a multimodal situation and a spoken-mode situation explains the findings of our previous research. Implementation based on these results is on going. 1 Introduction A lot of active studies have been conducted on the temporal coordination of natural language and visual information. The visual information considered includes...

38059. Feedback in Second Language Acquisition - Jens Allwood
Introduction 2.1.2 The notion of feedback - background 2.1.3 Feedback and language acquisition 2.2 Informants, activities, data, and coding 2.2.1 Informants 2.2.2 Activities 2.2.3 Data 2.2.4 Coding 2.3 Results and discussion 2.3.1 The relative share of feedback containing utterances and feedback words 2.3.2 The development of the linguistic categories for eliciting and giving feedback 2.3.3 Repetitions as feedback 2.3.4 Feedback and activity type 2.3.5 Discovering simple feedback systems 2.4 Conclusions 2.5 Where do we go from here? - Perspectives for further research 2 2 . Feedback in second language acquisition Jens Allwood 2 . 1 The notion of feedback 2.1.1 Introduction One of the key questions concerning language acquisition is the question of how one can learn a new language while simultaneously...

38060. Filtering Software Specifications Written in Natural Language - Angels Hern
. The specification phase is one of the most important and least supported part of the software development process. We have conceived SAREL (Assistance System for Writing Software Specification in Natural Language) as a tool to improve the specification phase. SAREL is a continuation of a program of research and development called LESD (Linguistic Engineering for Software Design). The purpose of SAREL 1 is to assist engineers in the creation of software specifications written in natural language. It is divided into three modules: the first one controls the requirement according to the writing norms, the second one obtains a conceptual representation using the Knowledge Base, and the third one carries out...

 

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