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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 61,705

38041. Fuzzy Logic Tracking Control for Unicycle Mobile Robots - A. Overview
Abstract — This paper addresses the problem of trajectory tracking control in an autonomous, wheeled, mobile robot of unicycle type using Fuzzy Logic. The Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) is based on a backstepping approach to ensure asymptotic stabilization of the robot’s position and orientation around the desired trajectory, taking into account the kinematics and dynamics of the vehicle. We use the Mamdani inference system to construct a controller, with nine IF-THEN rules and the centroid of area method as our deffuzification strategy where the input torques and velocities are considered as linguistic variables. The performance of this FLC are illustrated...

38042. Information Structure in Subordinate and Subordinatelike Clauses - Nobo Komagata
Abstract. While information structure has traditionally been viewed as a single partition of information within an utterance, there are opposing views that identify multiple such partitions in an utterance. The existence of alternative proposals raises questions about the notion of information structure and also its relation to discourse structure. Exploring various linguistic aspects, this paper supports the traditional view by arguing that there is no information structure partition within a subordinate clause. Keywords: Information structure, Theme/Rheme, Topic/Focus, Subordinate clause, Discourse structure, Utterance

38043. By - Anna Feldman; Anna Feldman
Morpho-syntactic tagging is the process of assigning part of speech (POS), case, number, gender, and other morphological information to each word in a corpus. Morpho-syntactic tagging is an important step in natural language processing. Corpora that have been mor-phologically tagged are very useful both for linguistic research, e.g. finding instances or frequencies of particular constructions in large corpora, and for further computational pro-cessing, such as syntactic parsing, speech recognition, stemming, and word-sense disam-biguation, among others. Despite the importance of morphological tagging, there are many languages that lack annotated resources. This is almost inevitable because these resources are costly to create....

38044. NLTK-Lite: Efficient scripting for natural language processing - Steven Bird
The Natural Language Toolkit is a suite of program modules, data sets, tutorials and exercises covering symbolic and statistical natural language processing. NLTK is popular in teaching and research, and has been adopted in dozens of NLP courses. NLTK is written in Python and distributed under the GPL open source license. Over the past year the toolkit has been completely rewritten, simplifying many linguistic data structures and taking advantage of recent enhancements in the Python language. This paper reports on the resulting, simplified toolkit, NLTK-Lite, and shows how it is used to support efficient scripting for natural language processing. 1

38045. Linguistics and Philosophy 4, 159-219. [6] Barwise, J. 1987. Noun Phrases, Generalized Quantifiers and Anaphora, in Generalized Quantifiers: Linguistic and Logical Approaches, P. Gärdenfors (ed.), - N. Hedberg (eds; Dordrecht Kluwer

38046. The logic of the partial λ-calculus with equality - Lutz Schröder
Abstract. We investigate the logical aspects of the partial λ-calculus with equality, exploiting an equivalence between partial λ-theories and partial cartesian closed categories (pcccs) established here. The partial λ-calculus with equality provides a full-blown intuitionistic higher order logic, which in a precise sense turns out to be almost the logic of toposes, the distinctive feature of the latter being unique choice. We give a linguistic proof of the generalization of the fundamental theorem of toposes to pcccs with equality; type theoretically, one thus obtains that the partial λ-calculus with equality encompasses a Martin-Löf-style dependent type theory. This work forms part...

38047. Web question answering through automatically learned patterns - Dmitri Roussinov
While being successful in providing keyword based access to web pages, commercial search portals, such as Google, Yahoo, AltaVista, and AOL, still lack the ability to answer questions expressed in a natural language. We explore the feasibility of a completely trainable approach to the automated question answering on the Web or large scale digital libraries. By using the inherent redundancy of large scale collections, each candidate answer found by the system is triangulated (confirmed or disconfirmed) against other possible answers. Since our approach is entirely self-learning and does not involve any linguistic resources it can be easily implemented within digital...

38048. Dibujo-aprendizaje-arquitectura moderna - Bravo Farré, Lluís
A partir de la crisis de los diversos academicismos arquitectónicos del siglo XIX, y especialmente desde la eclosión irreversible del movimiento moderno, el dibujo abandona progresivamente su papel subsidiario como una técnica instrumental mas al servicio de directrices ajenas a su campo, hasta situarse en el corazón mismo de la experiencia arquitectónica y del proceso de formación del arquitecto. Ello no debe entenderse solamente como referido a la captación de los tradicionales valores plásticos, estilísticos, compositivos, simbólicos o en general formales. El dibujo se convierte en catalizador y soporte de una experiencia básica e integral de la percepción que permitirá...

38049. From e-pedagogies to activity planners. How can they help teachers? - de Miguel García, Elena; López Alonso, Covadonga; Fernández-Pampillón Cesteros, Ana; Matesanz del Barrio, María
Within the framework of the Project E-Ling, at Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), our research team is working on the creation of educational materials and defining online pedagogies in the area of Linguistics. We have been using LAMS, for some years now, to design activity sequences in higher education. Our learning sequences have fundamentally focussed on collaborative learning environments, however, we have realised that LAMS can be employed in many different online pedagogies. One of our main interests in LAMS is to point out its adaptability, as some of the designers/ teachers working with us can only see the use...

38050. La geografia della mediazione linguistico-culturale
I flussi migratori che stanno scuotendo e trasformando le nostre società incidono profondamente anche e soprattutto sul ruolo e sul concetto stesso di lingua. La lingua intesa come mezzo di comunicazione intra- e interculturale diventa sempre più e con maggior evidenza uno strumento di mediazione tra realtà spesso lontanissime –sia in senso geografico sia in senso culturale– dal quale dipende in larga misura l’esito di questo incontro/scontro di civiltà e culture. Il volume raccoglie una selezione degli interventi al convegno sulla Geografia della mediazione linguistico-culturale che il CeSLiC ha organizzato nel dicembre 2008. Mette in risalto tre assi principali attorno...

38051. La cohesió léxica en seqüències narratives. - Ribera i Condomina, Josep
RESUM Aquesta tesi doctoral socupa de les operacions discursivocognitives destabliment de referents i de represa lèxica de la referència en textos escrits destudiants de secundària. Partim dun corpus doble constituït per seqüències narratives produïdes, duna banda, per alumnes de quart curs dE.S.O (aprenents) i, daltra banda, per periodistes cinematogràfics (experts), que ens proporcionen el corpus de control i, doncs, la base de comparació de les produccions dels aprenents. En primer lloc, hem analitzat els diversos tipus destructures nominals i predicatives que vehiculen la introducció dels referents discursius. En segon lloc, ens hem ocupat de la represa lèxica dels referents mitjançant la repetició i els diferents tipus de reiteració (sinonímia, hiperonímia-hiponímia i...

38052. Lean formalisms, linguistic theory, and applications: Grammar development in alep - Paul Schmidt; Axel Theo Lidis
This paper describes results achieved in a project which addresses the issue of how the gap between uni cation-based grammars as a scienti c concept and real world applications can be narrowed down 1. Application-oriented grammar development has to take into account the following parameters: E ciency: The project chose a so called `lean ' formalism, a term-encodable language providing e-cient term uni cation, ALEP. Coverage: The project adopted a corpus-based approach. Completeness: All modules needed from text handling to semantics must be there. The paper reports on a text handling component, Two Level morphology, word structure, phrase structure, semantics...

38053. Measuring morphological productivity: Is automatic preprocessing sufficient - Stefan Evert; Anke Lüdeling
In this paper we want to focus on a small facet of morphological productivity: on quantitative measures and their applicability to “real life ” corpus data. 1 We will argue that – at least for German – there are at present no morphological systems available that can automatically preprocess the data to a quality necessary to apply statistical models for the calculation of productivity rates. 2 Before coming to the quantitative aspects we want to clarify the notion morphological productivity. Morphological productivity has long been a topic in theoretical morphology (see for example Schultink 1961, Aronoff 1976, van Marle 1985,...

38054. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 - Sven Grottke; Sabina Jeschke; Nicole Natho; Ruedi Seiler
Automated extraction of information from natural language texts remains a largely unsolved problem. Scientific texts in general and mathematical texts in particular, are characterised by the use of complex language constructs, often requiring extensive background knowledge for comprehension. Fortunately, many mathematical texts contain special types of text elements, such as definitions and theorems, which we call entities. As these entities are some of the principal carriers of mathematical information, they have been selected as the basic content elements of the mathematical eLearning platform Mumie. We present a method to retrieve mathematical information from scientific textbooks, based on a primarily linguistic...

38055. Objective - Rev Saúde Pública; Luiz Fern; O C Nascimento A; Neli Regina; S Ortega; Luiz Fernando; C. Nascimento Fuzzy linguistic model for evaluating the risk of neonatal death Modelo lingüístico fuzzy para estimação do risco de morte neonatal

38056. 2003b) Neural assembly binding in linguistic representation - Frank Van Der Velde; Marc De Kamps
Abstract. We present a neural architecture of sentence representation. Words are represented with neural cell assemblies. Relations between words are represented with ‘structure ’ assemblies. Word and structure assemblies are bound temporarily to form a sentence representation. We show how multiple sentences can be represented simultaneously, and we simulate how specific information can be retrieved from the architecture. The assemblies are simulated as populations of spiking neurons, in terms of the average firing rate of the neurons in the population. 1.

38057. 1.3 Arabic Morphology Processing
Building a morphological analyzer for Arabic has its own distinct motivations and challenges that add to those shared for all morphological analyzers. Arabic is a member of the Semitic group of language. Arabic ranks sixth in the world's league of languages, with an estimate of more than 200 million native speakers [52]. As the language of the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, it is also widely used throughout the world by Muslims. Some archeological evidence shows that Arabic may be the oldest (still used) language. This led some researchers- with the notice of similarity and loan phenomenon among languages-...

38058. A Framework for the Evaluation of Manual Annotations Abstract - Kornel Bangha; Petra Saskia Bayerl; Emmanuel Bellengier
Ordinary human interaction is often based on shared knowledge. This knowledge is not expressed in an explicit way however it is essential for Natural Language Processing. It is still a matter of debate in what extent it is linguistic or extra-linguistic. In this presentation, I argue that this explicit knowledge is in great extend linguistically encoded and can be formalised by Lexical Functions (LF). LF are used in Meaning-Text Theory in order to express in a formal way a frequent and precise relationship between lexical units; they include both semantic derivations and collocations. In a more specific way, I show...

38059. A Cognitive Architecture for Artificial Vision 1 - A. Chella A; M. Frixione B; S. Gaglio A
A new cognitive architecture for artificial vision is proposed. The architecture, aimed at an autonomous intelligent system, is cognitive in the sense that several cognitive hypotheses have been postulated as guidelines for its design. The first one is the existence of a conceptual representation level between the subsymbolic level, that processes sensory data, and the linguistic level, that describes scenes by means of a high-level language. The conceptual level plays the role of the interpretation domain for the symbols at the linguistic levels. A second cognitive hypothesis concerns the active role of a focus of attention mechanism in the link...

38060. Universals in Semantics ∗ - Kai Fintel; Lisa Matthewson
for a special issue of The Linguistic Review This article surveys the state of the art in the field of semantic universals. We examine potential semantic universals in three areas: (i) the lexicon, (ii) semantic “glue ” (functional morphemes and composition principles), and (iii) pragmatics. At the level of the lexicon, we find remarkably few convincing semantic universals. At the level of functional morphemes and composition principles, we discuss a number of promising constraints, most of which require further empirical testing and/or refinement. In the realm of pragmatics, we predict that Gricean mechanisms are universal, but suggest that the precise...


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