Tuesday, September 2, 2014

 

 



Soy un nuevo usuario

Olvidé mi contraseña

Entrada usuarios

Lógica Matemáticas Astronomía y Astrofísica Física Química Ciencias de la Vida
Ciencias de la Tierra y Espacio Ciencias Agrarias Ciencias Médicas Ciencias Tecnológicas Antropología Demografía
Ciencias Económicas Geografía Historia Ciencias Jurídicas y Derecho Lingüística Pedagogía
Ciencia Política Psicología Artes y Letras Sociología Ética Filosofía
 

rss_1.0 Clasificación por Disciplina

Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 48,914

38041. Fuzzy Conceptual Knowledge Processing - Christoph S. Herrmann,Steffen Holldobler,Antje Strohmaier
We introduce fuzziness to conceptual knowledge processing by using linguistic variables instead of a two-valued representation. The attribute/object table for conceptual lattices holds fuzzy membership values rather than TRUE/FALSE entries and can be mapped into a graph of dependencies. From this graph implications can be extracted together with the method to compute truth values for the inferible conclusions. Hence, fuzzy conclusions can be drawn from interpreting the fuzzy concept values of the graph. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by computing patient data from a medical diagnosis example. 1 Introduction The analysis of large data sets can be achieved in a way that is closer to human knowledge representation than simple lists of...

38042. A Feature-Relevance Heuristic for Indexing and Compressing Large Case Bases - Walter Daelemans,Antal Van Den Bosch,Jakub Zavrel
. This paper reports results with igtree, a formalism for indexing and compressing large case bases in Instance-Based Learning (ibl) and other lazy-learning techniques. The concept of information gain (entropy minimisation) is used as a heuristic feature-relevance function for performing the compression of the case base into a tree. igtree reduces storage requirements and the time required to compute classifications considerably for problems where current ibl approaches fail for complexity reasons. Moreover, generalisation accuracy is often similar, for the tasks studied, to that obtained with information-gain-weighted variants of lazy learning, and alternative approaches such as c4.5. Although igtree was designed for a specific class of problems --linguistic disambiguation problems with symbolic...

38043. The Role of Morphology in Machine Translation - Bowen Hui
this paper: to apply various aspects of morphology to MT. The outline of this paper follows. Section 2 provides an overview of three linguistic approaches in machine translation. These methods are direct, transfer, and interlingua. A summary with a comparison of the three approaches is given. We observe that many problems arise from lack of morphological theories, which leads to the discussions in section 3 and 4. Section 3 briefly introduces various aspects of morphology in linguistics. It reviews different types of word formation processes, such as derivation, inflection, compounding, clipping, and blending, as well as motivating the need for a two-level morphological theory for accurate performance. Section...

38044. -- A Unified Platform for Parsing and Generation - Shuly Wintner,Evgeniy Gabrilovich,Nissim Francez
Contemporary linguistic theories (in particular, HPSG) are declarative in nature: they specify constraints on permissible structures, not how such structures are to be computed. Grammars designed under such theories are, therefore, suitable for both parsing and generation. However, practical implementations of such theories don't usually support bidirectional processing of grammars. We present a grammar development system that includes a compiler of grammars (for parsing and generation) to abstract machine instructions, and an interpreter for the abstract machine language. The generation compiler inverts input grammars (designed for parsing) to a form more suitable for generation. The compiled grammars are then executed by the interpreter using one control strategy, regardless of whether the grammar is the original or the inverted...

38045. Semantic Hidden Markov Networks - G. A. Fink,F. Kummert,G. Sagerer,E. G. Schukat-talamazzini,H. Niemann
Although much effort has been put into speech understanding systems there still exists a rather wide gap between acoustic recognition and linguistic interpretation. We propose a formalism for an extremely close interaction of acoustic recognition and higher level analysis. Instead of a strict horizontal interface at the level of hypothesized word sequences or lattices, a vertical interface to the acoustic component is used that can be accessed from linguistic concepts of any degree of abstraction. As the linguistic knowledge is represented in the formalism of Semantic Networks and acoustic recognition is based on Hidden Markov Models the close interaction between the two components was termed Semantic Hidden Markov Networks. 1 INTRODUCTION Because...

38046. Intelligent Agents with Subjective Experience - Ana Pasztor
In this paper I am presenting a model of human communication which allows a decomposition of our subjective experience into units called strategies. Strategies are systematically ordered sequencesof representations in our sensory modalities, endowed with so called submodality distinctions, orientation, effect, and links to other representations. As certain people prove more successful in performing given tasks than others, we want to model their strategies and transfer them to other intelligent agents. Unlike most philosophers who have written about qualia and believe that subjective experience condemns us to "solitary confinement," I believe strategies are accessible to us. Here is how. All behavior, from learning to communication and change, is the result of our...

38047. Programming with Structures, Functions, and Objects - Fritz Henglein,Konstantin Laufer
We describe program structuring mechanisms for integrating algebraic, functional and objectoriented programming in a single framework. Our language is a statically typed higher-order language with specifications, structures, types, and values, and with universal and existential abstraction over structures, types, and values. We show that existential types over structures generalize both the necessarily homogeneous type classes of Haskell and the necessarily heterogeneous object classes of object-oriented programming languages such as C++ or Eiffel. Following recent work on ML, we provide separate linguistic mechanisms for reusing specifications and structures. Subtyping is provided in the form of explicit type conversions. The language mechanisms are introduced by examples to emphasize their pragmatic aspects. We...

38048. SRI International, 23 Millers Yard, Cambridge CB2 1RQ United Kingdom - Ian Lewin,Ralph Becket,Johan Boye,David Carter,Manny Rayner
With maturing speech technology, spoken dialogue systems are increasingly moving from research prototypes to fielded systems. The fielded systems however generally employ much simpler linguistic and dialogue processing strategies than the research prototypes. We describe an implemented spoken-language dialogue system for a travel planning domain which supports a mixed initiative dialogue strategy. The system accesses a commercially available travel information web-server. The system architecture combines both shallow and deep linguistic processors, partly so that a robust if shallow analysis is always available to the dialogue manager, and partly so that we can begin to examine where significant gains can be made by employing more advanced linguistic processing. We present the results of a preliminary investigation...

38049. Lexicalization of Context - Graham Wilcock
We propose lexical rather than phrasal amalgamation of contextual features. On a theoretical level, the lexicalization of context naturally follows other recent revisions concerned with lexicalization of set-valued features (nonlocal features, quantifier storage). On a computational level, it offers advantages in using HPSG with head-driven generation algorithms. On a linguistic level, we sketch a lexical context approach to register variation in English relative clauses.

38050. Test Environment for the Two Level Model of Germanic Prominence
In this work we present a test bed designed to verify the two level model of Germanic prominence. We give an introduction to the linguistic background of the model and derive the features that the test environment should possess. Finally we describe the details of the implementation in the ESPS/xwaves 1 environment. The implementation is based on resynthesis using PSOLA algorithm. As a linguistic application the Tone Sequence Model (TSM) is implemented and tested. Keywords: Prosody, Modelling of F0, PSOLA, Tone-Sequence-Model (TSM). 1. LINGUISTIC-PHONETIC BACKGROUND Recent developments in the theory of prominence [1][3] rigorously restrict the number of categories upon which prominence relations may be expressed. Of the number of prosodic constituents proposed in the early 80s (see [4]...

38051. A Note on the Complexity of Restricted Attribute-Value Grammars - Leen Torenvliet,Marten Trautwein
The recognition problem for attribute-value grammars(AVGs) was shown to be undecidable by Johnson in 1988. Therefore, the general form of AVGs is of no practical use. In this paper we study a very restricted form of AVG, for which the recognition problem is decidable (though still NP-complete), the R-AVG. We show that the R-AVG formalism captures all of the context free languages and more, and introduce a variation on the so-called off-line parsability constraint , the honest parsability constraint , which lets different types of R-AVG coincide precisely with well-known time complexity classes. 1 Introduction Although a universal feature theory does not exist, there is a general understanding of its objects....

38052. History Integration Into Semantic Classification - M. Cettolo,A. Corazza
In spoken language systems, the classification of coherent linguistic/semantic phrases in terms of semantic classes is an important part of the whole understanding process. Basically, it relies on the plain text of the segment to be classified. Nevertheless, another important source of useful information is the dialogue context. In this paper, a number of different ways to integrate the dialogue history into the semantic classification are presented and tested on a corpus of person-to-person dialogues. Best result gives a 3.6% reduction of the error rate with respect to the performance obtained without using history. 1. INTRODUCTION In machine-mediated person-to-person communication, care should be devoted to preserve communication in a robust way. The task considered...

38053. Presuppositions in Context: Constructing Bridges - Paul Piwek,Emiel Krahmer
this article, we want to get a formal grip on the way in which context influences the behaviour of presuppositions. Before we describe how we intend to do this, let us first describe the notion of context we are interested in. There are various uses of the term `context'. Bunt (1995) characterizes context as all those factors which are relevant to the understanding of communicative behaviour, and he goes on to distinguish five major dimensions: the linguistic context, the semantic context, the physical context, the social context and the cognitive context. For presuppositions in general, and for bridging in particular, the following seem most relevant: the linguistic context,...

38054. What Have the Breasts of a Running Woman Got to Do With Relevance? - Katalin Egri Ku-mesu
The aim of this paper is to investigate, through the analysis of interpretations of African proverbs, how different audiences in different sociolinguistic contexts may interpret `hybrid texts', i.e. texts written by authors of a particular cultural and linguistic background in a language of a different culture, which, therefore, raise the question of how cultural experience is, or can be, communicated in an `alien' language. The data were collected from twenty subjects by means of a questionnaire. In hybrid literary texts, along with riddles, dirges, praise names and different forms of address, one relatively often encounters proverbs. These constitute what Zabus calls the ethno-text, `which is grafted on the...

38055. Towards a Systematic Evaluation of Machine Translation Systems - Melchior Amgarten,Dominic A. Merz
There are still a lot of uncertainties about the evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems. In this report, we try to establish a catalog of criteria which we consider to be crucial for a systematic assessment of MT systems; the paper is divided into three parts: technical, linguistic and entrepreneurial criteria. Furthermore, we give hints on how to organize an evaluation project. 1 Introduction It is not easy to decide on the right criteria for evaluating machine translation (MT) systems (cf. [Kin96]), but it is even more difficult to find precise measures which objectively describe what a good system consists of, or to find a suitable evaluation setup. Before...

38056. Computing Spatio-Temporal Representations of Human Faces - Yaser Yacoob,Larry Davis
An approach for analysis and representation of facial dynamics for recognition of facial expressions from image sequences is proposed. The algorithms we develop utilize optical flow computation to identify the direction of rigid and non-rigid motions that are caused by human facial expressions. A mid-level symbolic representation that is motivated by linguistic and psychological considerations is developed. Recognition of six facial expressions, as well as eye blinking, on a large set of image sequences is reported. 1 Introduction Human visual communication has been extensively studied in the social and psychology literature, mainly as a means to describe the emotional state of the subject [3,5,11,15]. Research in psychology has indicated that at least six emotions are...

38057. Measuring the Complexity of Writing Systems - Walter Daelemans,Beatrice De Gelder
this paper, we take the latter approach and disregard the complexity of converting phonemic representations to spelling. Based on the (disputed) view that reading aloud involves two independent processes, viz. direct word pronunciation using lexical retrieval, and rulebased grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (i.e., the dual-route model, Coltheart, 1978), cross-linguistic experiments seem to indicate that the balance between these two processes varies as a function of the orthographic depth of the language. More specifically, several authors claim that in shallow orthographies, such as Serbo-Croatian, the analytic rule-based route, operating on grapheme--phoneme correspondences (GPCs), is used more intensively than the lexical retrieval route (cf. Frost et al., 1987). The rationale behind this claim is that using the GPC-based route in a...

38058. Interpreting Changes In The Fuzzy Sets Of A Self-Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Controller - Detlef Nauck,Rudolf Kruse
We describe a procedure for the adaptation of membership functions in a fuzzy control environment by using neural network learning principles. The changes in the fuzzy sets can be easily interpreted. By using a fuzzy error that is propagated back through the architecture of our fuzzy controller, we receive an unsupervised learning technique, where each rule tunes the membership functions of its antecedent and its consequence. INTRODUCTION Classical control theory is based on mathematical models that describe the behaviour of the plant under consideration. The main idea of fuzzy control [9, 10], which has proved to be a very successful method [5], is to build a model of...

38059. Elementary Principles of HPSG - Georgia M. Green
Introduction This chapter describes the theoretical foundations and descriptive mechanisms of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), as well as proposed treatments for a number of familiar grammatical phenomena. The anticipated reader has some familiarity with syntactic phenomena and the function of a theory of syntax, but not necessarily any expertise with modern theories of phrase-structure grammar. Section 1 describes the character of HPSG grammars, and the elements and axioms of the system. Section 2 describes how linguistic entities are modelled, and how grammars describe the modelled entities. The third section describes the structure of featurestructure descriptions in HPSG, and Section 4 deals with the expression of constraints, especially those...

38060. Syriac Morphology: From a Linguistic Model to a Computational Implementation - George Anton Kiraz,Syriac Grammar
This paper proposes a linguistically-motivated model of Syriac morphology which can be implemented in a computational environment. My aim is to formalise the derivation of Syriac stems based on the data provided in Noldeke (1904: x92 ff., x160

 

Busque un recurso