A philosophical semantic intentionality theory of metaphor
- Deibler, Timothy Alan; Deibler, Timothy Alan
This dissertation investigates some philosophical theories of metaphor, those of Aristotle, Black, Lakoff and Johnson, Kittay, Mac Cormac, Searle, and Davidson, then proposes a theory that incorporates some of their insights while seeking to avoid their weaknesses. Part I constitutes exposition and critique of these theories; Part II presents the outline of a resulting philosophical theory of metaphor, a semantic intentionality theory that mediates primarily between the theories of Searle and Kittay.
This semantic intentionality theory of metaphor is grounded in a compositional general semantic account and claims that for metaphor to be present, there must be (1) an appropriate conventional...
Perspectives on nominalization
- Spruiell, William Craig; Spruiell, William Craig
Discussion of nominalization (NZN) is possible only within a general theory of grammatical categories and processes. For a cross-linguistic analysis, it is preferable to adopt a function-based definition of categories, in which nominals are considered arguments of predications and verbals as predications. In such a view, nouns are lexical items specialized for nominal usage. NZNs may be divided into four types: Act(ion), Participant, Adverbial, and Expression. Participant NZNs are a superset of Argument NZNs, while Expression NZNs are hypostases. Nominalization processes may be considered in terms of formation strategies and differentiation strategies. Formation of NZNs may be accomplished by a...
Deconstructing general hermeneutics / (re)constructing a Biblical hermeneutic
- Khushf, George Peter; Khushf, George Peter
The post-modern predicament can be seen in the conflict between general hermeneutics and deconstruction. General hermeneutics seeks to develop the "modern" project of understanding understanding. It is concerned with universality and meaning, sublimating otherness and difference in the "merging of horizons". Deconstruction subverts such a drive to universality, seeking to open up differences where there is a presumed unity. It tears horizons apart.
Protestant interpretation of Scripture has been closely associated with general hermeneutics. However, an evaluation of Rudolf Bultmann's thought shows how any so-called general hermeneutic involves implicit commitments to natural theology which conflict with doctrines of special revelation that...
Dissolving classifications: Rethinking linguistic typology
- Cummings, Elisabeth Alma; Cummings, Elisabeth Alma
The three traditional strands of linguistics--theoretical, typological, and genealogical--are discussed as constructed systems of classification seeking to impose order in various ways on the world's rambunctious languages. All three strands are based on Indo-European grammatical expectations, they are enabled by literacy, and they have been empowered by a scientific mode of thought which has been dominant in the West. The postulation of "Language" as an abstract object of study is seen to emanate from an epistemology of logico-mathematics, alphabetic literacy, and the demands of a scientific methodology; note is made of the power of the Platonic metaphor. There is a...
The description of Chinese substantives using an analogical approach to syntax
- Fu, Qiying; Fu, Qiying
This thesis is a conceptual description of Chinese substantives. The method used here is based on the analogical approach, proposed by Sydney Lamb for language description and language processing.
According to the analogical approach, syntax is considered to be an epiphenomenon rather than a reality in the cognitive linguistic system of humans. All traditionally identified syntactic functions may be implemented by an analogical procedure using conceptual frames.
In this thesis, all conceptual descriptions are formulated in dictionary-like entries, that may be used easily either by human being or by a computer. Each such entry is constructed as a tabular frame corresponding to...
The controversy between Russell and Bradley concerning the doctrine of internal relations
- Eichhoefer, Gerald Werner; Eichhoefer, Gerald Werner
More than any other philosopher Bertrand Russell is thought to have refuted the Absolute Idealism of Francis Herbert Bradley. He is supposed to have done this by showing that Bradley's doctrine of internal relations is contradictory and inadequate. In this thesis I reexamine the controversy between Russell and Bradley concerning the doctrine of internal relations in an attempt to determine whether Russell did, in fact, refute Bradley. In the first chapter I show how Bradley's internal relations reside on the level of understanding which is between the level of feeling and the level of the Absolute. In the second chapter...
Affinities of forms: Chinese poets and Pope, Pound, Eliot and Williams
- Liu, Wan; Liu, Wan
Despite the tremendous linguistic particularities and cultural differences, Chinese poetry shares some formal and technical similarity with Anglo-American poetry. Through an effective use of the couplet-based verse form well suited for the play of parallelism and antithesis, classic Chinese poets and Alexander Pope achieve precision and concision in emotional and intellectual communications, making extremely precise distinctions between the elements of their thoughts or feelings. In terms of the "aesthetic form," "the relation between the sensuous nature of the art medium and the conditions of human perceptions," a certain type of Chinese Tang poetry and poetry by T. S. Eliot, Ezra...
Strategies for natural language processing using stratified grammar
- Zhijun, Wu; Zhijun, Wu
Using the theory of stratified grammar proposed by Sydney Lamb (1966), I developed a computer system to simulate the human language-using process. A new approach to representing linguistic knowledge, a goal-directed parsing strategy and a method of combining bottom-up processing with the top-down expectation are proposed and implemented. The system can automatically translate English sentences into Chinese sentences in a small task domain. Some linguistic information like syntactic structure, semantic interpretation and dynamic relations of the input sentence can also be obtained by using the system.
Evidencias lexicas del euskera en el castellano de Pamplona
- Faires, Nancy Dean; Faires, Nancy Dean
El objetivo de esta investigacion es el estudio de las evidencias lexicas euskeras del castellano de la ciudad de Pamplona, ea vascuence Iruna o Irunea, Navarra/Nafarroa. Pamplona es una comunidad urbana en la zona de habla vasca de Espana. He centrado mi investiacion en la recopilacion del material teorico-linguistico, su estudio, y la clasificacion y el analisis de ciertas peculiaridades lexicas del castellano actual de Pamplona en relacioin con el vascuence. Se incluyen los antecedentes de la lengua vasca. Se presentan las teorias mas significativas de la influencia del vascuence en el castellano y se muestra la relacion de los...
"C'est either que tu parles francais, c'est either que tu parles anglais": A cognitive approach to Chiac as a contact language
- Young, Hilary Adrienne Nicole; Young, Hilary Adrienne Nicole
This thesis concerns Chiac, a dialect of Acadian French (AF) that emerged in a small speech community of AF-English bilingual teenagers in Moncton, Canada. Syntactically and morphologically, Chiac closely resembles AF, but it also makes use of a number of English lexical items and other English-influenced constructions. This thesis addresses two related questions with regard to Chiac: how (and why) did it emerge, and what is its structure?
I answer the first question in Chapters 2--3, arguing that Chiac emerged as a result of a confluence of social factors. Speakers' age, their bilingualism, their urban environment and their attitudes toward the...
Cortical processing of real words, pseudowords and nonwords as measured by magnetoencephalography
- Novak, Barbra Jean; Novak, Barbra Jean
The research described here involved a study of cortical responses to real words, pseudowords and nonwords as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Multiple subjects were tested in order to investigate inter-subject variability. Each subject was tested multiple times in order to investigate the reliability of MEG for this type of study. The reliability of MEG as a measure of linguistic processing has not previously been fully established. Consistent cortical activation patterns at the group level were found across 5 replications of the task, indicating that MEG is a reliable measure of language processing.
Furthermore, real words, pseudowords, and nonwords elicited different cortical...
"Don't breathe the air": Air pollution and the evolution of environmental policy and politics in the United States, 1945-1970
- Dewey, Scott Hamilton; Dewey, Scott Hamilton
This thesis discusses the rise of air pollution to become a major public and official concern in America during the 25 years after 1945. What had been largely ignored as a sporadic local smoke nuisance was seen as a nationwide crisis demanding federal intervention by 1970.
Although air pollution was among the most salient issues creating a sense of environmental crisis and facilitating the emergence of environmentalism before Earth Day, 1970, recent environmental history studies have largely overlooked it, focusing instead on traditional conservation and wilderness preservation organizations and often criticizing these for their white, male, affluent, "elitist" character. However, the...
Gray matters: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding the experience of Alzheimer's disease
- Kutac, Julie Elizabeth; Kutac, Julie Elizabeth
Since the latter half of the twentieth century, the number of people with Alzheimer's disease has grown to epidemic proportions. My project investigates the cognitive devastation of Alzheimer's disease from several perspectives. I first outline some medical models of Alzheimer's disease, incorporating Richard Dawkins' selfish gene theory. Next, I explore the linguistic experience of the patient. I study Arthur W. Frank's analysis of patient narratives and Elaine Scarry's theory of torture to explore the way in which Alzheimer's disease tortures the patient, stealing the patient's ability to speak and deconstructing the world of the patient. Finally, I think about the...
Paul Smail's "Casa, la casa": A critical translation
- Kilpatrick, James; Kilpatrick, James
This work examines principles and theories of literary translation such as literal and non-literal fidelity to the original writing, translational transparency and visibility, and the concepts of "foreignization" and "domestication" in a translated text. Conclusions drawn here are used as a basis to perform a critical evaluation of Smile, the 2000 version of Paul Smail's Vivre me tue . A comparative analysis of the French novel to the English discusses some of the problematic areas of this translation and endeavors to provide alternative translations that would prove more accurate and effective. Subsequent chapters of the dissertation consider the cultural and...
Old Japanese in the "Man'yousyuu", books one and two: Grammar, translations, and analytical concordance
- Wiedrick, Jack Terry; Wiedrick, Jack Terry
I created a comprehensive analytic concordance of the first two books of the Man'yousyuu, an Old Japanese anthology of poetry. In addition, I transcribed all 234 poems in the corpus using a transcription system which faithfully and consistently indicates consonant and vowel distinctions reflected in the orthography, and likewise shows where these are not so reflected. The poems were also translated into English.
Using the concordance as a database of linguistic forms, I wrote a short grammatical sketch of Old Japanese, including discussions of historical phonology, inflection, and syntax, and furthermore, I briefly explored a few selected topics of relevance to...
Spanglish as a marker of identification among Hispanics in the United States: A case study of two Tejano radio stations
- Phillips, Rebecca K.; Phillips, Rebecca K.
Although critics believe the language variety Spanglish to be a corruption of one or both of the standard languages with which it is associated as well as a language of inadequacy spoken by the poor and uneducated, this thesis seeks to support the idea that it is used by Hispanics in the United States as a marker of identity. An examination of previous studies shows that it is not associated with a lack of linguistic ability on the part of its speakers. Demographic information provided by two Tejano stations that broadcast in Spanglish, KQQK of Houston and KXTN of San...
"Going native" in the twentieth century
- Fontaine, Dorothy Ann; Fontaine, Dorothy Ann
Originally a pejorative label assigned to someone who has left a structured, civilized, sophisticated society for one (presumably) less responsible, less structured, and less industrious than the original, going native seems deceptively simple to define in its implications. However, it raises critical questions about one's sense of self within a group or nationality, opening up new categories within old oppositions. As the term's pejorative nature seems to continue to moderate, this text seeks to find the spaces in which the term "going native" places itself in the writing and film of the 1900's.
The term is originally a British term for...
A reference grammar of Trumai
- Guirardello, Raquel; Guirardello, Raquel
Trumai is a genetic isolate language spoken in Brazil. This grammar describes the main aspects of Trumai, with hopes of contributing to typological studies. In describing and analyzing the linguistic data, I begin with synchrony, but I sometimes utilize internal reconstruction to help understand certain grammatical patterns.
Trumai is basically an isolating language. There are few inflectional morphemes and words usually consist of a single morpheme. There are four open classes in Trumai: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Nouns and verbs clearly constitute two different classes; adjectives share some characteristics with nouns and verbs, but constitute a class on their own.
Separate short-term memory buffers for input and output phonology
- Wu, Hsien; Wu, Hsien
Evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests that there are separate buffers for input and output phonological retention in verbal short-term memory (STM). This possible distinction was investigated with college students (Experiment 1 to 3) and deaf signers of American Sign Language (ASL) (Experiment 4) using different verbal materials in a serial probed recall paradigm. It is reasoned that natural linguistic input (speech for hearing people and ASL for deaf people) would be stored in an input phonological buffer whereas internally generated phonology derived from reading, naming pictured objects, or lip-reading would be stored in an output phonological buffer. In this study,...
Zauro'nodok agawayo yau: Variants of Akawaio spoken at Waramadong
- Caesar-Fox, Desrey Clementine; Caesar-Fox, Desrey Clementine
This dissertation is intended as a contribution to the study and understanding of how language is used among the Akawaio peoples of Guyana, South America. It is a first attempt, limited to one Amerindian village, Waramadong, a community that has not been studied very much. The study begins by analysing four Akawaio speech genres, tareng 'ritual healing chant', mire aburobodi 'praising rhymes for children', pandong 'story', and zegareme'no 'personal narratives', at the levels of both content and grammar. The first entails making anthropological, ethnographical, sociolinguistic and general cultural commentaries on the content and social context within which speech is performed....