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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 50,038

38041. Natural Language Understanding
Reference Anaphora: (Macquarie Dict.) The explication of a word by words appearing previous to it in the text: Mary died. She was very old. (She is explained by Mary). The World World Model Linguistic Description The blue triangle 2 Examples of Non-anaphoric Reference John Howard is standing for Pope. The lion is the king of beasts. ---generic use of the lion A frictionless ball of radius r lies on an infinite plane. ---Make a new instance of a ball in the world model; ditto plane Pick up a green block. ---Find an example in the world model and pick it up A triangle has three sides ---" " " " x[trangle(x) sides(x) = 3]

38042. Discourse and Application Modeling for Dialogue Systems - Yves Forkl,Martin Klarner
Spoken { and even written { language dialogue systems become of increasing importance for various information gathering and device controlling tasks. With an example taken form the EMBASSI joint project, after a brief discussion of the linguistic processing part, we describe how description logics are used in modeling the application domain as well as the linguistic domain. Linking lexical semantics with application specic concepts is a nontrivial problem, in particular in cases where there is no direct correspondence. So, the paper ends presenting our approach to solve this linking problem.

38043. Statistical Models of Language Learning and Use - Mark Johnson,Stefan Riezler
This paper summarizes our recent work in developing statistical models of language which are compatible with the kinds of linguistic structures posited by current linguistic theories. In a series of papers we have developed tools for estimating or learning" such models from data (Johnson et al., 1999; Johnson and Riezler, 2000; Riezler et al., 2000) and this paper provides a high-level overview of both the general approach and the methods we developed

38044. Dealing With Ambiguities in an Answer Extraction System - Michael Hess
We report on the treatment of ambiguity in ExtrAns, a system that performs an exhaustive linguistic analysis of UNIX manpages to do answer extraction over them. Disambiguation is performed in two stages. The rst stage consists of a set of simple rules that delete some of the wrong interpretations that can be spot with purely syntactic information. The second stage extends the use of Brill and Resnik's algorithm to disambiguate several types of attachment ambiguities. Ambiguities that pass the disambiguation procedures are handled by ExtrAns by displaying the answers to the user with graded selective highlighting.

38045. Database Design for American Sign Language - Jacob Furst,Karen Alkoby,Andre Berthiaume,Pattaraporn Chomwong,Mary Jo,Brian Konie,Glenn Lancaster,Steven Lytinen,John Mcdonald,Jorge Toro,Noriko Tomuro,Rosalee Wolfe
This paper presents a nexus of the system: the database for storing geometric and linguistic information about signs and the transcription interface for creating signs

38046. Electronic Dictionaries for Languages of the Southwest - Sonya Bird,Melody Jeffcoat,Michael Hammond
This paper outlines a project currently underway in the Linguistics Department at the University of Arizona to create electronic dictionaries of indigenous languages of the southwest US, and to make them available over the web for language instruction as well as linguistic, psycholinguistic, and anthropological research. Working with three different languages - Tohono O'odham, Hiaki, and Navajo, we have created an XML scheme that serves as a template for structuring language databases, and are working on general Java-based interfaces to access the dictionaries. As well as introducing the dictionary project, this paper provides a discussion of Navajo's verbal morphology - which is particulary complex - as it relates to dictionary construction. We argue that the...

38047. Complete Answer Aggregates for Tree-like Databases: A Novel Approach to Combine Querying and Navigation - Holger Meuss,Klaus U. Schulz
The use of markup languages like SGML, HTML, or XML for encoding the structure of documents or linguistic data has lead . . .

38048. The Use of a High-Dimensional, "environmental" Context Space to Model Retrieval in Analogy and Similarity-Based Transfer - Michael Ramscar,Daniel Yarlett
Current models of the retrieval of analogies from a longterm memory store assume mental representations that are generally either underspecified or implausible. In this paper we conduct two experiments which demonstrate that an `environmental' approach to retrieval can produce appropriate retrieval patterns on cognitively plausible styles of representation, utilising information that can be easily learned from a linguistic environment.

38049. Mental Representation, Conceptual Spaces And Metaphors - Peter Grdenfors
this article is to present an alternative framework for mental representations that is based on using topological or geometric structures rather than linguistic or logical. The bearing constructions of this 1 Here I am referring to the traditional sequential kind of computer programs with 'explicit' symbol representations and not to parallel distributed processing which may use 'intrinsic' representations (cf. Palmer1978). More about this in Section 4

38050. Multi-Component TAG and Notions of Formal Power - William Schuler,David Chiang,Mark Dras
This paper presents a restricted version of Set-Local Multi-Component TAGs (Weir, 1988) which retains the strong generative capacity of Tree-Local MultiComponent TAG (i.e. produces the same derived structures) but has a greater derivational generative capacity (i.e. can derive those structures in more ways). This formalism is then applied as a framework for integrating dependency and constituency based linguistic representations.

38051. Linguistic Databases of the American Linguistic Atlas Project (ALAP) - William A. Kretzschmar
During the 1980s we began to store and manipulate linguistic data from ALAP on computers.

38052. Context Modeling and the Generation of Spoken Discourse - Van Deemter,Kees Van Deemter,Jan Odijk
This paper presents the Dial-Your-Disc (dyd) system, an interactive system that supports browsing through a large database of musical information and generates a spoken monologue once a musical composition has been selected. The paper focuses on the generation of spoken monologues and, more specifically, on the various ways in which the generation of an utterance at a given point in the monologue requires modeling of the linguistic context of the utterance.

38053. Representing and Reasoning with Events from Natural Language - Miguel Leith,Jim Cunningham
Linguistic categories such as progressives, perfectives, tense and temporal adverbials are at the heart of our ability to describe events in natural language. Following on from the work of Moens and Steedman and the later work of Kent, we have identified a fragment of an interval tense logic of Halpern and Shoham that is expressive enough to represent the temporal readings of many simple sentences involving the linguistic categories listed above, and computable enough for entailment checking to be manageable in a reasonable time scale. We show how one can model the semantics of formulae from the fragment using simple timelines and how one can support entailment checking by...

38054. Perspectives of DBMT for monolingual authors on the basis of LIDIA-1, an implemented mock-up - Herv Blanchon
DBMT is researched here in the context of future systems for the general public, where a monolingual author wants to translate into several languages. We have produced a complete mock-up, LIDIA-1, which demonstrates how a French HyperCard" stack could be translated into German, Russian and English. We present the computational, linguistic and ergonomic aspects of the mock-up, and discuss them in the perspective of building an operational prototype in the future. Keywords Interactive MT, DBMT for monolingual author, Interactive disambiguation, Production of disambiguation dialogues, Distributed architecture, Whiteboard approach

38055. If HPSG were a dependency grammar ... - Sylvain Kahane
The purpose of this paper is to show how HPSG can be favourably simulated by a dependency grammar. We will be specially interested in the translation of the SLASH feature and we will see that, providing we accept to not put the constituency structure forward, linguistic phenomena using the SLASH feature can be interpreted in various ways, including a fondamental notion which will be named, following Tesniere, nucleus. 1 HEAD-MARKED PHRASE-STRUCTURE GRAMMARS AND DEPENDENCY GRAMMARS It is sometimes forgotten that a head marked phrase-structure tree can be canonically converted into a dependency tree. Much better, Gaifman 1965 proves that a (head marked) phrase-structure grammar which verifies a special...

38056. Adaptive Information Extraction from Online Messages - Max Hfferer,Bernd Knaus,Werner Winiwarter
An information filtering system is described which extracts e-mail messages from on-line resources. The proposed solution applies (1) linguistic analysis to obtain consistent representations of the contents of interesting e-mails, (2) an evolutionary algorithm for prioritizing morphologically parsed messages and (3) a monitor to simulate a user's behavior. 1.

38057. Automatic Event Generation From Multi-lingual News Stories - Kin Hui,Wai Lam,Helen M. Meng
We propose a novel approach for automatic generation of topically-related events from multi-lingual news sources. Named entity terms are extracted automatically from the news content. Together with the content terms, they constitute the basis of representing the story. We employ transformation-based linguistic tagging approach for named entity extraction. Two methods of gross translation on Chinese story representation into English have been implemented. The first approach uses only a bilingual dictionary. The second method makes use of a parallel corpus as an additional resource. Unsupervised learning is employed to discover the events. Keywords Event Discovery, Event Detection, Multi-lingual Text Processing 1.

38058. Objektorienterad Programvaruutveckling - Jrgen Brstler
things Events Interactions ... OOPU--ht00 Copyright ' 73 Domain Analysis Goals Identify common objects/classes in a particular problem domain Uncover risks Done as the need arises Methods Study similar systems Study literature on the domain Talk to domain experts Build a generic model of the systems in the domain Build an operational model (prototype) OOPU--ht00 Copyright ' 74 Linguistic Analysis First proposed in [Abbot 83] and popularised by Booch (for Ada!); later refined in [SHE 89] Initial list of candidates using textual analysis: Noun phrases => objects / classes Verb phrases => methods Adjectives => attributes ... Review analysis results Keep only candidates which are meaningful and useful in the problem domain Document results in class diagrams Often criticised, but works well for small documents OOPU--ht00 Copyright ' 75 Linguistic...

38059. Susan W. McRoy Songsak Channarukul Syed S. Ali - Susan W. Mcroy,Songsak Channarukul,Syed S. Ali
Introduction YAG (Yet Another Generator) is a real-time, general-purpose, template-based generation system that will enable interactive applications to adapt natural language output to the interactive context without requiring developers to write all possible output strings ahead of time or to embed extensive knowledge of the grammar of the target language in the application. Currently, designers of interactive systems who might wish to include dynamically generated text face a number of barriers; for example designers must decide (1) How hard will it be to link the application to the generator? (2) Will the generator be fast enough? (3) How much linguistic information will the application need to provide in order to get reasonable quality output? (5) How...

38060. Concurrent, Object-Oriented Natural Language Parsing: The - Udo Hahn,Susanne Schacht,Norbert Brker,Albert-ludwigs-universitt Freiburg
The ParseTalk model of concurrent, object-oriented natural language parsing is introduced. It builds upon the complete lexical distribution of grammatical knowledge and incorporates inheritance mechanisms in order to express generalizations over sets of lexical items. The grammar model integrates declarative well-formedness criteria constraining linguistic relations between heads and modifiers, and procedural specifications of the communication protocol for establishing these relations. The parser's computation model relies upon the actor paradigm, with concurrency entering through asynchronous message passing. We consider various extensions of the basic actor model as required for distributed natural language understanding and elaborate on the semantics of the actor computation model in terms of event type networks (a...


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