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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 38,041 - 38,060 de 48,631

38041. Linguistic Measures Based on Fuzzy Coincidence for Reaching Consensus in Group Decision Making - F. Herrera,E. Herrera-viedma,J. L. Verdegay
Assuming a linguistic framework, a model for the consensus reaching problem in heterogeneous group decision making is proposed. This model contains two types of linguistic consensus measures: linguistic consensus degrees and linguistic proximities to guide the consensus reaching process. These measures evaluate the current consensus state in three levels of action: level of the pairs of alternatives, level of the alternatives, and level of the relation. They are based on a fuzzy characterization of the concept of coincidence and they are obtained by means of several conjuction functions for handling linguistic weighted information, the LOWA operator for aggregating linguistic information, and linguistic quantifiers representing the concept of fuzzy majority. KEYWORDS:...

38042. Linguistic Decision Analysis: Steps for Solving Decision Problems under Linguistic Information - F. Herrera,E. Herrera-viedma
A study on the steps to follow in linguistic decision analysis is presented in a context of multi-criteria/multi-person decision making. Three steps are established for solving a multi-criteria decision making problem under linguistic information: (i) the choice of the linguistic term set with its semantic in order to express the linguistic performance values according to all the criteria, (ii) the choice of the aggregation operator of linguistic information in order to aggregate the linguistic performance values, and (iii) the choice of the best alternatives, which is made up by two phases: (a) the aggregation of linguistic information for obtaining a collective linguistic performance value on the alternatives,...

38043. Sentence Extraction and Rhetorical Classification for Flexible Abstracts - Simone Teufel,Marc Moens
Knowledge about the discourse-level structure of a scientific article is useful for flexible and sub-domain independent automatic abstraction. We are interested in the automatic identification of content units ("argumentative entities") in the source text, such as Goal or Problem Statement, Conclusions and Results. In this paper, we present an extension of Kupiec et al.'s methodology for trainable statistical sentence extraction (1995). Our extension additionally classifies the extracted sentences according to their argumentative status; because only low-level properties of the sentence are taken into account and no external knowledge sources other than meta-level linguistic ones are used, it achieves robustness and partial domain-independence. Introduction Motivation Until recently, the world of research publications was heavily paper-oriented. One of the roles...

38044. A Linguistic Characterization of Bounded Oracle Computation and Probabilistic Polynomial Time - J. Mitchell,M. Mitchell,A. Scedrov
We present a higher-order functional notation for polynomial-time computation with an arbitrary 0; 1- valued oracle. This formulation provides a linguistic characterization for classes such as NP and BPP, as well as a notation for probabilistic polynomialtime functions. The language is derived from Hofmann 's adaptation of Bellantoni-Cook safe recursion, extended to oracle computation via work derived from that of Kapron and Cook. Like Hofmann's language, ours is an applied typed lambda calculus with complexity bounds enforced by a type system. The type system uses a modal operator to distinguish between two sorts of numerical expressions. Recursion can take place on only one of these sorts. The proof that the language captures precisely oracle...

38045. A Computational Formalization for Partial Evaluation - John Hatcl,I Ff
this paper, we illustrate that the computational meta-language can be a useful framework for partial evaluation. It allows a clear distinction between static computation steps (to be performed at specialization time) and dynamic computation steps (to be residualized at specialization time and performed at run time). Moreover, it allows an evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization. To this end, we present a PCF-like version of the computational metalanguage, and give it a structural operational semantics. We specify binding-time analysis as a nonstandard type inference, and then a specializer using structural operational semantics. We prove the correctness of the binding-time analysis and of the specializer. The computational...

38046. The GALEN Project - Galen European,Community Aim,A The Galen,Hewlett-packard Computers,Al Rector,Wa Nowlan,The Galen Consortium
The GALEN project is developing language independent concept representation systems as the foundations for the next generation of multilingual coding systems. It aims to support the flexibility required to cope with the diversity amongst medical applications, while ensuring the coherence necessary for integration and re-use of terminologies. GALEN is developing a fully compositional and generative formal system for modelling concepts --- the GALEN Representation and Integration Language (GRAIL) Kernel. Its goal is to overcome many of the problems with traditional coding and classification systems, in particular the combinatorial explosion of terms in enumerative systems and the generation of nonsensical terms in partially compositional systems. It will also provide...

38047. Relations to Support Reuse of Specifications
The ROSA project investigates the use of analogy to enhance reuse of objectoriented specifications. The repository stores analysis information about software system projects, as well as semantic information found through an analysis of the concepts that describe the different parts of these specifications. This semantic information is organized in a term space, or semantic net, as part of the repository. In this term space the concepts are linked through different types of relationships. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how linguistic knowledge, can be used to organize the term space. We study areas where semantic relations have been studied to draw on their findings. The structure needs...

38048. Context Effects on Interpretation and Intonation - Jonas Kuhn
"Association-with-focus" data suggest an influence of intonational focus on the interpretation of quantificational adverbs. Recent theories explain this as an effect mediated by the discourse topic in the context: focus constrains the topic, and domain restriction in quantification is dependent on the topic. However, some focus projection data make the former dependence implausible. I argue for a theory assuming different types of context-dependence for focus and quantification. This difference has been concealed by the fact that the two effects often coincide, especially in the small contexts of linguistic examples. "Association-with-focus"-Daten lassen auf einen Einfluß von intonatorischem Fokus auf die Interpretation von quantifikationellen Adverbien schließen. Neuere Theorien erklaren dies als einen Effekt,...

38049. Generating Multilingual Proofs - Xiaorong Huang,Armin Fiedler
This paper outlines the microplanner of PROVERB , a system that generates multilingual text from machine-found mathematical proofs. The main representational vehicle is the text structure proposed by Meteer. Following Panaget, we also distinguish between the ideational and the textual semantic categories, and use the upper model to replace the former. Based on this, a further extension is made to support aggregation before realization decisions are made. While our the framework of our macroplanner is kept language independent, our microplanner draws on language specific linguistic sources such as realization classes and lexicon. Since English and German are the first two languages to be generated and because the sublanguage...

38050. A Qualitative Growth Model For Real-World Text Knowledge Bases - Udo Hahn,Klemens Schnattinger
We introduce a knowledge-based approach to the analysis of real-world natural language texts, which addresses the particular needs of dealing with new knowledge items. In order to incrementally expand the underlying conceptual knowledge base, we exploit two kinds of evidence from the text understanding process, viz. qualitative knowledge about linguistic constructions in natural language texts and that about structural patterns in the emerging text knowledge base. These clues are used to generate concept hypotheses, rank them according to plausibility, and select the most credible ones for assimilation into the conceptual knowledge base. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach and discuss the results of an empirical evaluation in...

38051. Automating Feature Set Selection for Case-Based Learning of Linguistic Knowledge - Claire Cardie
This paper addresses the issue of "algorithm vs. representation" for case-based learning of linguistic knowledge. We first present empirical evidence that the success of case-based learning methods for natural language processing tasks depends to a large degree on the feature set used to describe the training instances. Next, we present a technique for automating feature set selection for case-based learning of linguistic knowledge. Given as input a baseline case representation, the method modifies the representation in response to a number of predefined linguistic biases by adding, deleting, and weighting features appropriately. We apply the linguistic bias approach to feature set selection to the problem of relative pronoun disambiguation and show that the casebased learning algorithm improves...

38052. Learning the Semantics of Aspect - Gabriele Scheler
The main point of this paper is to show how we can extract semantic features, describing aspectual meanings, from a syntactic representation. Aspectual meanings are represented as sets of features in an interlingua. The goal is to translate English to Russian aspectual categories. This is realized by a specialized language processing module, which is based on the concept of vertical modularity. The results of supervised learning of syntactic-semantic correspondences using standard back-propagation show that both learning and generalization to new patterns are successful. Furthermore, the correct generation of Russian aspect from the automatically created semantic representations is demonstrated. The results are relevant to machine translation in a hybrid systems approach...

38053. Une Automatisation Informatique De L'analyse Distributionnelle - Universit Caen,Basse Norm
The distributional method allows the discovery of syntactic structures of a given natural language without the use of "sence" of the utterances neither specific knowledge about the studied lanague. This method is not a linguistic theory but offer tools in order to allow the discovery of structural properties of the natural language. The aim of this word is not to achive a syntactic analysis of the corpus used, but to check all the morphological cues this method required. We claim that this method obtain very interesting results about linguistics and computational processing of natural languages, Keywords : distributional analysis, segmentation into morphemes, discovery of syntactic structures. 1 Introduction Nous allons...

38054. Towards A Formal Framework For Linguistic Annotations - Steven Bird,Mark Liberman
`Linguistic annotation' is a term covering any transcription, translation or annotation of textual data or recorded linguistic signals. While there are several ongoing efforts to provide formats and tools for such annotations and to publish annotated linguistic databases, the lack of widely accepted standards is becoming a critical problem. Proposed standards, to the extent they exist, have focussed on file formats. This paper focuses instead on the logical structure of linguistic annotations. We survey a wide variety of annotation formats and demonstrate a common conceptual core. This provides the foundation for an algebraic framework which encompasses the representation, archiving and query of linguistic annotations, while remaining consistent with many alternative file formats. 1....

38055. Unknown - Walter Daelemans,Antal Van Den Bosch
In the traditional (knowledge-based) approach to the design of grapheme-to-phoneme modules in text-to-speech systems, it is claimed that various explicitly coded, language-specific, linguistic knowledge sources are necessary for a good performance. Due to knowledge acquisition bottlenecks, this implies long development cycles. As an alternative, we propose to use inductive methods from machine learning in a simple combined Trie Search and Similarity-Based Reasoning approach and show that, for Dutch, its performance is better than that of the knowledge-based approach and backpropagation learning. Furthermore, we show that our approach is reusable for any language for which a training corpus exists. Keywords: grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, text-tospeech, trie search, similarity-based reasoning, machine learning INTRODUCTION The larger part of research on grapheme-to-phoneme conversion focuses...

38056. Evaluating Parsing Schemes with Entropy Indicators - Caroline Lyon
This paper introduces an objective metric for assessing the effectiveness of a parsing scheme. Information theoretic indicators can be used to show whether a given scheme captures some of the structure of natural language text. We then use this method to support a proposal to decompose the parsing task into computationally more tractable subtasks. The principle on which the grammar evaluator is based is derived from Shannon's original work with letter sequences [1]. We show how his ideas can be extended to other linguistic entities. We describe a method of representation that enables the entropy of sentences to be measured under different parsing schemes. The entropy is...

38057. A Three-stage Method for Designing Genetic Fuzzy Systems by Learning from Examples - Francisco Herrera,Manuel Lozano
. In this paper, we present a three step method for designing Genetic Fuzzy Systems combining an iterative and increasing rule derivation stage and two genetic-based simplification and tuning processes. The performance of the method proposed is shown by measuring the accuracy of the Fuzzy Logic Controllers designed in the fuzzy modeling of two three-dimensional control surfaces and comparing them with others generated by using Wang and Mendel's method, one of the most widely known iterative rule derivation processes. 1 Introduction Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) are now considered as one of the most important applications of Fuzzy Set Theory proposed by Zadeh in [10]. FLCs are knowledgebased controllers that make use...

38058. Efficient Implementation of a Semantic-based Transfer Approach - Michael Dorna,Martin C. Emele
. This article gives an overview of a new semantic-based transfer approach developed and applied within the Verbmobil Machine Translation project [22]. We present the declarative transfer formalism and discuss its implementation. The results presented in this paper have been integrated successfully in the Verbmobil system. 1 Introduction The application domain of the Verbmobil Machine Translation (MT) project [16, 22] is spontaneous spoken language in face-to-face dialogs. The scenario is restricted to the task of arranging business meetings, but the approach is intended to be extensible to other topics as well. The languages involved are English, German and Japanese. Apart from linguistic and cognitive research, this project is also a software-engineering challenge....

38059. Identifying Procedural Relations in Text - Donia R. Scott,Anthony Hartley,Judy Delin,Simon Attfield
We have developed a methodology for analysing corpora of instructional text to record the mappings from aspects of the underlying task being described to surface linguistic expressions (Delin et al., 1994). We describe here an investigation of the reliability of judgements of two procedural relations, GENERATION and ENABLEMENT, from text. Our results show that such judgements can be reliably made by non-trained subjects, thus providing support for the validity of our methodology.

38060. Resistance is Futile; Formal Linguistic Observations on Design Patterns - Peter Van Emde Boas
Inspection of the current literature on Design Patterns shows that the Prime Directive for this community is Pragmatics. It hardly matters what patterns are, or how Patterns are represented formally or syntactically. What does matter is their role in enhancing the reuse of good solutions to recurring problems. In this article I want to show that minimal assumptions about the pragmatic use of Patterns suffice to show that Design Patterns form just another formal language, which can be shown to be at least Recursively enumerable. Whether the language is Recursive depends on further conditions on the actual relation which is assumed to hold between a pattern and its...

 

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