Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 66,673

  1. The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect in ASL: the role of semantics vs. perception*

    SECORA, KRISTEN; EMMOREY, KAREN
    Embodied theories of cognition propose that humans use sensorimotor systems in processing language. The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect (ACE) refers to the finding that motor responses are facilitated after comprehending sentences that imply movement in the same direction. In sign languages there is a potential conflict between sensorimotor systems and linguistic semantics: movement away from the signer is perceived as motion toward the comprehender. We examined whether perceptual processing of sign movement or verb semantics modulate the ACE. Deaf ASL signers performed a semantic judgment task while viewing signed sentences expressing toward or away motion. We found a significant congruency effect...

  2. Speakers of Different Languages Process the Visual World Differently

    Chabal, Sarah; Marian, Viorica
    Language and vision are highly interactive. Here we show that people activate language when they perceive the visual world, and that this language information impacts how speakers of different languages focus their attention. For example, when searching for an item (e.g., clock) in the same visual display, English and Spanish speakers look at different objects. Whereas English speakers searching for the clock also look at a cloud, Spanish speakers searching for the clock also look at a gift, because the Spanish names for gift (regalo) and clock (reloj) overlap phonologically. These different looking patterns emerge despite an absence of direct...

  3. Attachment-security priming attenuates amygdala activation to social and linguistic threat

    Norman, Luke; Lawrence, Natalia; Iles, Andrew; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Karl, Anke
    A predominant expectation that social relationships with others are safe (a secure attachment style), has been linked with reduced threat-related amygdala activation. Experimental priming of mental representations of attachment security can modulate neural responding, but the effects of attachment-security priming on threat-related amygdala activation remains untested. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study examined the effects of trait and primed attachment security on amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli in an emotional faces and a linguistic dot-probe task in 42 healthy participants. Trait attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were positively correlated with amygdala activation to threatening faces in the control...

  4. Neural bases of syntax–semantics interface processing

    Malaia, Evguenia; Newman, Sharlene
    The binding problem—question of how information between the modules of the linguistic system is integrated during language processing—is as yet unresolved. The remarkable speed of language processing and comprehension (Pulvermüller et al. 2009) suggests that at least coarse semantic information (e.g. noun animacy) and syntactically-relevant information (e.g. verbal template) are integrated rapidly to allow for coarse comprehension. This EEG study investigated syntax–semantics interface processing during word-by-word sentence reading. As alpha-band neural activity serves as an inhibition mechanism for local networks, we used topographical distribution of alpha power to help identify the timecourse of the binding process. We manipulated the syntactic...

  5. The Neural Computation of Scalar Implicature

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; Snedeker, Jesse; Azar, Stephanie Yen-Mun Liem; Kim, Albert E.
    Language comprehension involves not only constructing the literal meaning of a sentence but also going beyond the literal meaning to infer what was meant but not said. One widely-studied test case is scalar implicature: The inference that, e.g., Sally ate some of the cookies implies she did not eat all of them. Research is mixed on whether this is due to a rote, grammaticalized procedure or instead a complex, contextualized inference. We find that in sentences like If Sally ate some of the cookies, then the rest are on the counter, that the rest triggers a late, sustained positivity relative...

  6. Harmonic biases in child learners: In support of language universals

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L.
    A fundamental question for cognitive science concerns the ways in which languages are shaped by the biases of language learners. Recent research using laboratory language learning paradigms, primarily with adults, has shown that structures or rules that are common in the languages of the world are learned or processed more easily than patterns that are rare or unattested. Here we target child learners, investigating a set of biases for word order learning in the noun phrase studied by Culbertson, Smolensky & Legendre (2012) in college-age adults. We provide the first evidence that child learners exhibit a preference for typologically common...

  7. Linguistic Labels, Dynamic Visual Features, and Attention in Infant Category Learning

    Deng, Wei (Sophia); Sloutsky, Vladimir M.
    How do words affect categorization? According to some accounts, even early in development, words are category markers and are different from other features. According to other accounts, early in development, words are part of the input and are akin to other features. The current study addressed this issue by examining the role of words and dynamic visual features in category learning in 8- to 12- month infants. Infants were familiarized with exemplars from one category in a label-defined or motion-defined condition and then tested with prototypes from the studied category and from a novel contrast category. Eye tracking results indicated...

  8. The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution

    Benítez-Burraco, A; Murphy, E
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders involving a number of deficits to linguistic cognition. The gap between genetics and the pathophysiology of ASD remains open, in particular regarding its distinctive linguistic profile. The goal of this article is to attempt to bridge this gap, focusing on how the autistic brain processes language, particularly through the perspective of brain rhythms. Due to the phenomenon of pleiotropy, which may take some decades to overcome, we believe that studies of brain rhythms, which are not faced with problems of this scale, may constitute a more tractable route to interpreting language deficits...

  9. Extracción automática de nexos léxicos

    Sánchez Berriel, Isabel
    Programa de doctorado: Simulación numérica en Ciencias y Tecnología

  10. Linguistic knowledge and . . .

    Tanja Gaustad

  11. Evaluación psicométrica de la lista de comportamiento de Achenbach y Edelbrock en pre-escolares de 4.0 - 5.5 años de nivel socioeconómico bajo

    Zambrano Hernández, Sonia; Meneses Báez, Alba Lucía
    Se evaluó psicométricamente la Lista de Verificación de la conducta infantil de Achenbach y Edelbrock en un grupo de 100 preescolares entre 4.0 y 5.5 años de un colegio público de Suba en Bogotá, mediante la aplicación de los formatos de padres y maestros, previa traducción, adaptación lingüística y pilotaje. El coeficiente Alfa de Cronbach para la escala global fue de 0,94 para padres y para maestros 0,95. El análisis de factores por componentes principales saturó la varianza en el 87%, aunque no correspondió con los factores propuestos por el modelo original. Este instrumento proporciona información diagnóstica sobre la estructura...

  12. O papel do professor na inclusão de alunos especiais na escola pública : um estudo de caso

    Beltrão, Rosane Rodrigues
    Este é um trabalho de conclusão do curso de pedagogia da UFRGS, que tem como objetivo, descrever e analisar o caso de inclusão, abordando o tema sobre o papel do professor como mediador na inclusão de alunos portadores de necessidades especiais na escola pública. Durante o estágio curricular do curso, realizei a prática de ensino com uma turma de 2º ano, com 30 alunos, na Escola Estadual de Educação Básica Monsenhor Leopoldo Hoff, localizada na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, onde vivenciei uma situação com um aluno especial. A escolha por desenvolver a minha proposta de trabalho com este aluno...

  13. Propuesta de intervención en el aula para la estimulación del lenguaje oral

    Puchkov Justamante, María
    El lenguaje oral es una de las principales herramientas utilizadas para la adquisición de los conocimientos fundamentales que se producen en la etapa de Educación Infantil. A través del lenguaje, los niños y niñas son capaces de estructurar su pensamiento, ampliar sus conocimientos sobre el mundo que les rodea y establecer relaciones con sus iguales y adultos. Un objetivo fundamental de la Educación Infantil es el desarrollo de habilidades comunicativas en diferentes lenguajes y formas de comunicación. En la adquisición del lenguaje expresivo y comprensivo tiene un papel fundamental el contexto de desarrollo del niño/a en el que la acción...

  14. Comparative evaluation of tools for Arabic corpora search and analysis

    Alfaifi, A; Atwell, ES
    As the number of Arabic corpora is constantly increasing, there is an obvious and growing need for concordancing software for corpus search and analysis that supports as many features as possible of the Arabic language, and provides users with a greater number of functions. This paper evaluates six existing corpus search and analysis tools based on eight criteria which seem to be the most essential for searching and analysing Arabic corpora, such as displaying Arabic text in its right-to-left direction, normalising diacritics and Hamza, and providing an Arabic user interface. The results of the evaluation revealed that three tools: Khawas,...

  15. A aprendizagem da língua portuguesa, como língua não materna em sala de jardim-de-infância

    Fernandes, Dulce
    Nos últimos anos, a população portuguesa tem vindo a sentir o aumento do número de imigrantes provenientes dos mais variados países, nomeadamente da Europa do Leste, Brasil, China e Africa. Este facto motivou nas escolas e demais entidades competentes a preocupação por garantir o sucesso e uma boa integração dos alunos estrangeiros que ingressavam no sistema de ensino português. Com efeito, as escolas portuguesas têm entre os seus alunos uma diversidade linguística e cultural muito alargada. Dentro de uma sala, podemos encontrar crianças com varias línguas não maternas de origem que interagem entre si e são desafiados a realizar as suas aprendizagens...

  16. Nacemento e evolución da Universidade de Vigo (1989-2014). Un motor para as tres cidades do sur de Galicia

    Cid Fernández, Xosé Manuel
    RESUMO] Este traballo é un intento por analizar a breve e recente historia da Universidade de Vigo, (1990-2015), empezando por factores contextuais das décadas anteriores que favorecen o nacemento da institución, para entrar de seguido na evolución da vida universitaria, agrupando os temas en cinco áreas: aspectos organizativos e de goberno democrático da universidade; campus, centros, titulacións, docencia e alumnado; profesorado e investigación; financiamento; Servizos á Comunidade, P.A.S. e extensión universitaria (Cultura, deporte, proxección social, normalización lingüística, servizos a estudantes e comunidade en xeral). O proceso de democratización consistiu nun alto nivel de participación da comunidade universitaria, tanto no feito...

  17. Octavio Paz: traducción y relaciones literarias

    García Ávila, Celene; Solís Carrillo, Luis Juan
    Not only did Octavio Paz was a poet, but he also proved to be a poetry translator. The aim of this article is to analyze Paz’s proposals on translation. Paz was not mainly focused on the linguistic aspects of this activity, but he was determined to translate poetry in order to broaden his cultural, literary and philosophical horizons. Some letters by Paz and Tomas Segovia are discussed to highlight the cultural impact the poet wanted to make on Vuelta’s readers by introducing from 40 to 30 percent of translations in his literary magazine. Finally, two French prose poems are brought into comparison with Paz’s translations.

  18. GARCIA-PAGE, Mario 2008 Introducción a la fraseología española. Barcelona: Anthropos (col. Autores, textos y temas: Lingüística) (525 pp. ISBN 978-84-7658-867-3

    Pamies Bertrán, Antonio

  19. El abate Marchena (1768-1821): un caso particular de traducción y censura

    Montes, Melanie
    This study will centre on the writings of José Marchena, who made it his life's work to disseminate French thought in Spanish territories, as key to understanding translation in 19th century Spain. Marchena had a complex method of translation, which he adapted depending on the type of work in hand, as well as a pragmatic approach to his texts, which were always used as an intellectual foil to the outdated political system in which he lived. His translations will therefore be analyzed from a linguistic and comparative perspective, whilst retaining a sharp focus on the militant stance informing his translations.

  20. DYNAMICITY OF INTERLANGUAGE ERRORS: A CASE STUDY OF INDONESIAN STUDENTS LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Endang Fauziati
    ABSTRACT: Interlanguage errors are an inevitable sign of human fallibility; therefore, they always exist in foreign language learning. They are very significant since they become the source for studying the system of the learners’ second language (interlanguage). As a language system, interlanguage has at least three prominent characteristics, namely, systematicity, permeability, and fossilization. Applied linguistic researchers are no longer in disagreement with the view that interlanguage is systematic and permeable. However, the premise that interlanguage is fossilized is still debatable. This study deals with interlanguage errors; in particular, this tries to investigate whether the learners’ grammatical errors are fossilized (in...

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