Tuesday, March 3, 2015

 

 



Soy un nuevo usuario

Olvidé mi contraseña

Entrada usuarios

Lógica Matemáticas Astronomía y Astrofísica Física Química Ciencias de la Vida
Ciencias de la Tierra y Espacio Ciencias Agrarias Ciencias Médicas Ciencias Tecnológicas Antropología Demografía
Ciencias Económicas Geografía Historia Ciencias Jurídicas y Derecho Lingüística Pedagogía
Ciencia Política Psicología Artes y Letras Sociología Ética Filosofía
 

rss_1.0 Clasificación por Disciplina

Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 52,757

41. Trading off Completeness for Efficiency - The PARSETALK Performance Grammar Approach to Real-World Text Parsing - Peter Neuhaus; Udo Hahn
We argue for a performance-based design of natural language grammars and their associated parsers in order to meet the constraints posed by real-world natural language understanding. This approach incorporates declarative and procedural knowledge about language and language use within an object-oriented specification framework. We discuss several message passing protocols for real-world text parsing and provide reasons for sacrificing completeness of the parse in favor of efficiency. 1 INTRODUCTION Over the past decades the design of natural language grammars and their parsers was almost entirely based on competence considerations (Chomsky, 1965). These hailed pure declarativism (Shieber, 1986) and banned procedural aspects...

42. The TreeBanker: a Tool for Supervised Training of Parsed Corpora - David Carter; Millers Yard; Mill Lane
I describe the TreeBanker, a graphical tool for the supervised training involved in domain customization of the disambiguation component of a speech- or languageunderstanding system. The TreeBanker presents a user, who need not be a system expert, with a range of properties that distinguish competing analyses for an utterance and that are relatively easy to judge. This allows training on a corpus to be completed in far less time, and with far less expertise, than would be needed if analyses were inspected directly: it becomes possible for a corpus of about 20,000 sentences of the complexity of those in the...

43. PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON OLD SPANISH AUXILIARIES: - Montse Batllori
The main purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with a preliminary description of the Old Spanish auxiliary system. As has been established in the literature, the future and conditional auxiliary is functional and the auxiliaries that constitute infinitival periphrases, either with temporal or modal meaning, and perfect compound tenses are lexical (cf. Rivero (in press)). From this standpoint, ow goal is to show that: (a) Old Spanish temporal and modal periphrases can hardly conform to an analysis in which a VP subcategorizes for another VP; (b) the non-finite verb of the periphrastic future and conditional constructions undergoes...

44. $rec.titulo
Ideophones in unexpected genres: what a varied corpus can tell us about the linguistic and cultural ecology of ideophony in Siwu (Kwa, eastern Ghana) Mark Dingemanse, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen Ideophones in unexpected genres: what a varied corpus can tell us about the linguistic and cultural ecology of ideophony in Siwu (Kwa, eastern Ghana) Ideophones are marked words that vividly depict sensory events. Although well-known for their phonological, morphological, phonosemantic and syntactic peculiarities (Voeltz and Kilian-Hatz 2001), the actual use of ideophones across discourse genres has so far escaped the scrutiny of linguists. Drawing from a multimedia corpus spanning several...

45. 1A dynamic network model of grammatical constructions1 - Holger Diessel; Friedrich-schiller-universität Jena
The theoretical framework used by most researchers of child language development is Chomsky’s theory of generative grammar. The theory has changed considerably in recent years. The older model, which is still often used in child language research, is called Principles and Parameters, while the newest version is known as Minimalism (cf. Chomsky 1981, 1986, 1995, 2000). Within this framework, it is commonly assumed that children are born with an innate universal grammar consisting of principles and parameters that define the space within which the grammars of individual languages may vary. Grammatical development is seen as a process whereby the parameters...

46. Limited English and Health Proficiency: A Call for Action to Promote Patient Safety - Bryan A. Liang
I n the United States, demographics regarding limited English proficiency and literacy are I sobering. Fully 47 million people speak a language other than English at home; included in this statistic are at least 28o/o of Spanish-speaking homes and 22.5oh of Asian Pacific Islander homes.r This translates into ll%o of the U.S. population experiencing limited English proficiency. The importance of this issue is growing. From 1990 to 2000, according to the U.S. census, a large percentage of Asian Pacific Islanders, the fastest growing population in the United States, and Latinos, the second fastest growing population, live in highly linguistically isolated...

47. Processing and Integrating Multimodal Material - The Influence of Color-Coding. In - Sonja Folker; Helge Ritter; Lorenz Sichelschmidt
Constructing effective learning material has always been a central issue in education, and is even more so in the time of international student assessment. In our experiment we concentrated on the processing of typical multimodal textbook material (i.e. a written text with accompanying illustrations) and on how the processing and integration of these different representational modalities can be improved by color-coding. Color-codes reduce search effort and thus produce similar effect to an increase in spatial or temporal contiguity (Kalyuga, Chandler & Sweller, 1999). In this context, contiguity is defined as the adjacency of distinct elements in general. By using eye-tracking...

48. 1 Literature development in minority language: Case study of Gutob-Gadaba Language - Herold Rajan; Herold Rajan
During the past several years linguists have become very concerned about ethno-linguistic groups that are either shifting from their original language to another more opportunistic one, or whose population is diminishing to the extent that the language is in danger of dying. In India, a many tribal languages are in the process of becoming extinct. Users of these languages are losing confidence and pride in their mother tongue as a result of the onslaught of what they consider ‘superior ’ languages. They do not feel that their language can be written or that it is valuable enough to attempt reviving...

49. Pragmatism and Constructivism in Contemporary Philosophical Discourse - Stefan Neubert
Pragmatism and Constructivism are allies in many contemporary philosophical debates. In my view, there are a great number of affinities between both traditions that by far exceed the differences. In this essay, I intend to discuss some of these affinities and differences from the perspective of the Cologne approach of interactive constructivism.1 Responding to recent debates among Dewey scholars about the core concepts of neopragmatism2 – “experience ” (e.g. Bernstein, Putnam) vs. “language ” (e.g. Rorty, Fish)-, I will argue that constructivism offers a third alternative that may be helpful for rethinking pragmatism today: the concept of the “observer”. On...

50. A Hybrid Adaptive Scheme of Fuzzy-Neural Iterative Learning Controller for Nonlinear Dynamic Systems ∗ - Y. -c. Wang; C. -j. Chien; D. -t. Lee
Key words: Iterative learning control; adaptive control; initial state errors; fuzzy neural network; nonlinear plants To deal with an iterative learning control (ILC) problem of unknown nonlinear systems with initial state errors and state dependent input gain, a hybrid adaptive scheme of fuzzy neural iterative learning controller is presented in this work. A new time-varying boundary layer with variable initial layer width is first introduced to design an error function in order to overcome the uncertainty from initial state errors. The hybrid adaptive learning controller is then constructed based on the above error function. This hybrid learning controller combines the...

51. $rec.titulo
Electrophysiological correlates of phonological processing: A cross-linguistic study G. Dehaene-Lambertz * **, E. Dupoux * & A. Gout* It is well-known that speech perception is deeply affected by the phoneme categories of the native language. Recent studies have found that phonotactics, that is, constraints on the co-occurrence of phonemes within words, also have a considerable impact on speech perception routines. For example, Japanese does not allow (non-nasal) coda consonants. When presented with stimuli that violate this constraint, as in /ebzo/, Japanese adults report that they hear a /u / between consonants, that is, /ebuzo/. We examine this phenomenon using event-related...

52. Enhancement of the nucleosomal pattern in sequences of lower complexity - Alex Bolshoy; Kevin Shapiro; Edward N. Trifonov; Ilya Ioshikhes
Intuitively, the complexity of a given DNA sequence is related to the number of various superimposed bio-logical messages it contains. Here we assess the expectation that in nucleosome DNA sequences of lower linguistic complexity, the nucleosome DNA positioning pattern would be more pronounced than in those of higher linguistic complexity. The nucleosome DNA positioning pattern is one of the weakest (highly degenerate) sequence patterns. It has been extracted recently by specially designed multiple alignment procedures. We applied the most sensitive of these procedures to nearly equal subsets of a nucleosome database separated according to linguistic complexity. The pattern extracted from...

53. $rec.titulo
IThe notion linguistic sign defined by Jan W. F. Mulder as “{pi...n R si} & {si ˇR pi...n}”1 ) is both an extremely enlightening and a highly refined concept which applies readily to the phonological elements of a language and is able to satisfy the purposes of grammar.2 ) However, in the case of semantics (i.e., linguistic semantics, not philosophi-cal semantics), there arises the need for establishing a link between the linguistic sign and its meaning (i.e., information value3)), which is wholly determined by the fixed conven-tions of the language system to which the linguistic sign belongs. What is meant...

54. The concomitant effects of phrase length and informational content in sentence comprehension - Robert Thornton; Maryellen C. Macdonald; Jennifer E. Arnold
Recent evidence suggests that phrase length plays a crucial role in modification ambiguities. Using a self-paced reading task, we extended these results by examining the additional pragmatic effects that length manipulations may exert. The results demonstrate that length not only modulates mod-ification preferences directly, but that it also necessarily changes the informational content of a sentence, which itself affects modification preferences. Our findings suggest that the same length manipulation affects multiple sources of constraints, both structural and pragmatic, which can each exert differing effects on processing. Much of the work in the comprehension literature has been concerned with ambiguity resolution....

55. 1 Syntactic Annotation of Non-Canonical Linguistic Structures - Hagen Hirschmann; Seanna Doolittle; Anke Lüdeling
This paper deals with the syntactic annotation of corpora that contain both ‘canonical ’ and ‘non-canonical ’ sentences. Consider Examples (1) and (2) from the German learner corpus Falko which will be

56. Helena Sousa e Sandra Marinho Lusocom: a Study of Communications Policies and Discourses in the Lusophone Space Lusocom: a Study of Communications Policies - Helena Sousa; Ra Marinho
Lusophony is the highly intricate construct we intend to interrogate. It is a geo-linguistic space, that is, dispersed regions, countries and societies whose official language is Portuguese

57. Automatic Construction and Validation of French Large Lexical Resources: Reuse of Verb Theoretical Linguistic Descriptions - Nabil Hathout; Fiammetta Namer; Chateau Du Montet; Rue Du Doyen Roubault; Université Nancy
We address in this paper some problems related to the reuse for NLP of LADL’s Lexicon-Grammar (LG). This major source of French verbs lexical knowledge has been publicly available on the Internet for several years. However, it has not been used by the NLP community, mainly because of its format: ASCII files each of them containing a table with binary values (+/). The interpretation of these tables is non trivial because large parts of the linguistic informations they contain are neither explicit nor represented in a uniform manner. The paper presents 3 aspects of the research: (1) The translation of...

58. INTERACTION, MEDIA CULTURE AND ADOLESCENTS AT SCHOOL - Ben Rampton; Roxy Harris; Caroline Dover
This paper describes the findings of a project that focused on an existing data-set of radio-microphone recordings, interviews and fieldnotes, collected in two London schools in 1997-8.2 The analysis provided a significant base for the research we are currently carrying out within the ESRC’s Identities & Social Action Programme.3 The project that we report in this paper aimed: • to map some of the principal ways in which young people spontaneously draw media culture into their daily lives at school • to explore some of the ways in which this either complements or conflicts with the instruction from their teachers.4...

59. Promisings and other Social Acts: their Constituents and Structures - Kevin Mulligan; Kevin Mulligan; Kevin Mulligan
One of the reasons why the subject of speech acts is so much fun, is that you don’t have to worry about what all the great figures from the past said, because most of the great philosophers had no theory of speech acts. You can’t go and find Kant’s view on apologising or congratulating, as far as I know... (Searle 1984, 251) The discovery of what Reinach called social acts (in 1913) and Austin speech acts (in 1962) was first and foremost the discovery of a type of linguistic action which, Reinach and Austin are convinced, had simply not been...

60. Can English-learning toddlers acquire and generalize a novel spatial word? Fir.st Language - Marianella Casasola; Makeba Parramore Wilbourn; Sujin Yang
English-learning toddlers of 21 and 22 months were taught a novel spatial word for four actions resulting in a tight-fit spatial relation, a relation that is lexically marked in Korean but not English (Choi & Bowerman, 1991). Toddlers in a control condition viewed the same tight-fit action events without the novel word. Toddlers ’ comprehension of the novel word was tested in a preferential-looking paradigm. Across four videotaped pairs of action events, a tight-fit event was paired with a loose-fit event. Only toddlers who were taught the novel spatial word looked significantly longer at the tight-fit events during the test...

Página de resultados:
 

Busque un recurso