Inducing constraint-based grammars from a small semantic treebank
- Smaranda Muresan; Tudor Muresan; Judith L. Klavans
We present a relational learning framework for grammar induction that is able to learn meaning as well as syn-tax. We introduce a type of constraint-based grammar, lexicalized well-founded grammar (lwfg), and we prove that it can always be learned from a small set of seman-tically annotated examples, given a set of assumptions. The semantic representation chosen allows us to learn the constraints together with the grammar rules, as well as an ontology-based semantic interpretation. We per-formed a set of experiments showing that several frag-ments of natural language can be covered by a lwfg, and that it is possible to choose...
ModiQing Weighted Fuzzy Subsethood-based Rule Models with
- K. A. Rasmani
Abstract- The use of fuzzy quantifiers in linguistic fuzzy models helps to build fuzzy systems that use linguistic terms in a more natural way. Although several fuzzy quantification techniques have been developed, the application of the existing techniques seems very limited. This paper proposes an application of fuzzy quantification to replace crisp weights in subsethood-based fuzzy rule models. I n addition to the concern that fuzzy models should have high accuracy rate, attention has also been taken t o maintain the simplicity of the generated fuzzy model. The objective is to produce quantifier-based fuzzy models which a re not only...
Representing coordination and non-coordination in an american sign language animation
- Matt Huenerfauth
While strings and syntax trees are used by the Natural Language Processing community to represent the structure of spoken languages, these encodings are difficult to adapt to a signed language like American Sign Language (ASL). In particular, the multichannel nature of an ASL performance makes it difficult to encode in a linear single-channel string. This paper will introduce the Partition/Constitute (P/C) Formalism, a new method of computationally representing a linguistic signal containing multiple channels. The formalism allows coordination and non-coordination relationships to be encoded between different portions of a signal. The P/C formalism will be compared to representations used in...
Factors Influencing Development of Down Syndrome Children in The First Three Years of Life: Siriraj Experience
- Pornswan Wasant Md; Boonchai Boonyawat Md; Samruay Tritilanunt Md; Nithiwat Vatanavicharn Md; Achara Sathienkijakanchai Md; Pisanu Ratanarak Msc; Onanong Malilum Msc; Somporn Liammongkolkul Msc
Objective: To analyze factors influencing development of Down syndrome children in the first three years of life. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 Down syndrome (DS) children attending at the Genetics clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital between January 2002 and December 2005. All individuals were three to six years of age. The data was collected from January to December 2006, including general information and factors on the child and their families. The child developmental quotient (DQ) was evaluated by Capute Scales Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic & Auditory Milestones Scale (CAT/CLAMS) at three years of age....
Automatic adaptive understanding of spoken language by cooperation of syntactic parsing and semantic priming
- Jean-yves Antoine; Jean Caelen
This paper focuses on the modelling of the linguistic level of MICRO, a multi-agents speech understanding system largely inspired by cognitive models. It describes the cooperation between, on the one hand a syntactic parser using a Lexical Functional Grammar, and on the other hand an semantic analyser. The semantic analysis is achieved through a mechanism semantic priming carried out by a incremental associative network. We emphasize the adaptive abilities of such a cooperation, particularly in case of ungrammatical utterances, which are very common in spoken language. I.
Comparison of selected methods for the retrieval of neologisms
- Piotr Paryzek
The paper discusses and compares several semi-automatic methods used to extract neologisms from linguistic corpora. All the methods are based on the concept of discriminants, or textual features (both lexis and punctuation), that either precede (lexical discriminants) or confine (punctuation discriminants) phrases in which the occurrence of neologisms is higher than elsewhere in the text. Excerption and comparison was conducted on a corpus of 45 million words, articles from Nature scientific magazine. The putative neologisms were extracted using morphological analysis and frequency of their occurrence in the Google search engine. The result is a list of 1000 neologisms and assessment...
Grammatical errors and feedback: some theoretical insights
- Mathias Schulze
Abstract: This article discusses selected theoretical aspects of providing error feedback for language learners. The discussion focuses on feedback for grammatical errors, but many of its tenets appear to be of broader relevance. The theoretical considerations concerning the dialog with the learner about linguistic errors are discussed and some conclusions for CALL system design will be drawn. This discussion focuses on errors in written text production and occasionally draws on examples from parser-based CALL, in particular on insights gained during the work on Textana – a prototype of a grammar checker for English-speaking learners of German.
Syntax and Prosody in Language Contact and Shift
- Raymond Hickey
It is true that scholars concentrate on a certain linguistic level in order to reach the greatest depth in their research. But this general stance should not lead to a complete neglect of other levels. When considering a multi-level phenomenon such as language contact and shift, concentration on a single linguistic level can have the unintended and unfortunate consequence of missing linguistically sig-nificant generalisations. This is especially true of the main division of linguistic research into a phonological and a grammatical camp, where syntacticians miss phonological generalisations and phonologists syntactic ones. In the present pa-per the interrelationship of syntax and...
2005), Does it Pay to Watch Central Bankers’ Lips? The Information
- Friedrich Heinemann; Katrin Ullrich; Prepared National; Bank Pol; Conference “central Bank Transparency; Friedrich Heinemann; Katrin Ullrich
In this analysis, the informational content of central bank rhetoric is assessed based on the experience with the ECB since 1999. Among the ECB’s communication channels we focus on the monthly press conferences. Based on a counting of certain signal words we construct a wording indicator reflecting the “hawkishness ” of monetary rhetorics. We then integrate this indicator into a standard Taylor type ordered probit model for the explanation of the interest rate. We show that the wording indicator can improve the model’s fit when added to the standard explanatory variables. However, a model based solely on this indicator performs...
For a structured meaning account of questions and answers
- Manfred Krifka
In the logical, philosophical and linguistic literature, a number of theoretical frame-works have been proposed for the meaning of questions (see Ginzburg (1995), Groenendijk & Stokhof (1997) for recent overviews). I will concentrate on two general approaches that figured prominently in linguistic semantics, which I will call the
Automatic Variation of Swedish Text by Syntactic Fronting
- Kenneth Wilhelmsson
Ongoing work with a prototype imple-mentation for automatic fronting of pri-mary (main clause) constituents in Swed-ish input text is described. Linguistic con-straints and some technical aspects are also discussed. 1
Bisensoty response to temporal frequency in 4-month-old infants
- David J. Lewkowicz
To investigate detection of auditory-visual equivalence of rate, in the first two studies 4-month-old infants were shown pairs of check patterns flashing at 2, 4, and 8 Hz either in silence or while listening to a tone corresponding in rate to one member of the pair. In Study 1, rate of stimulation varied, whereas duty cycle (i.e., intensity) was kept constant. No evidence of bisensory matching of rate was found. In Study 2, rate and duty cycle covaried. Although no matching was found, the presence of the two most intense sounds led to a shift in looking toward lower rates...
Studies in African Linguistics Volume 24, Number 1,1995 ASPECTS OF AVATIME PHONOLOGY*
- Russell G. Schuh
Remnant Languages") spoken in the Volta Region of Ghana and contiguous areas of Togo. The most striking typological feature of these languages compared to their closest Kwa relatives is the fact that they have active noun class systems. The present paper is a description of Avatime phonology, with emphasis on certain features which have been poorly described and/or are of general linguistic interest. Within the consonant system, Avatime has bilabial fricatives and a full series of labiovelar obstruents, including fricatives. Consonants with following glides are considered to be segment sequences rather than consonants with secondary articulations. The vowel system has...
Measuring children’s visual access to social information using face detection
- Michael C. Frank
Other people are the most important source of information in a child’s life, and one important channel for social information is faces. Faces can convey affective, linguistic, and referential information through expressions, speech, and eye-gaze. But in order for children to apprehend this information, it must be accessible. How much of the time can children actually see the faces of the people around them? We use data from a head-mounted camera, in combination with face-detection methods from computer vision, to address this question in a scalable, automatic fashion. We develop a detection system using off-the-shelf methods and show that it...
The Dying Linguistic Heritage of the Kashmiris: Kashmiri Literary Culture and Language
- Braj B. Kachru
The literary culture in Kashmiri has developed over the centuries in essentially two vital contexts of contact: cultural and linguistic. These two types of interactions have not always been harmonious or indeed welcome. The ultimate result of this contact and convergence, however, is the development of a literary culture in
WRITING LITERACY INTO THE CURRICULUM
- Patricia A. Prelock; Julie J. Masterson; Lynne Hewitt
Understanding the linguistic basis of literacy has led to an exponential growth in clinical practice involving literacy for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Children with a history of language impairment are at high risk for failure in reading achievement (Catts, Fey, Tomblin, & Zhang, 2002) indicating a strong role for our collaboration with educators who are supporting
Towards Tierless Web Development without Tierless Languages
- Laure Philips; Coen De; Van Cutsem; Wolfgang De Meuter
© Australasian Journal of Peer Learning Who am I now? Accommodating New Higher Education Diversity in Supplemental Instruction
- Judith A. Couchman
Supplemental Instruction (SI) has undergone many adaptations over its 35 year history as it has evolved to meet new developments in higher education while still maintaining its “original genetic code ” (Martin and Blanc, 1995). During this time there have been some additions to its theoretical base to accommodate these developments. However, this paper contends that recent transformations of higher education challenge the adequacy of this base and call for complementing SI’s theoretical base with notions of student learning and literacy as situated social practice. It is argued that SI’s suite of principles lacks reference to research in what can...
MIRACLE-GSI at ImageCLEFphoto 2008: Experiments on Semantic and Statistical Topic Expansion
- Julio Villena-román; Sara Lana-serrano; José C. González-cristóbal
This paper describes the participation of MIRACLE-GSI research consortium at the ImageCLEFphoto task of ImageCLEF 2008. For this campaign, the main purpose of our experiments was to evaluate different strategies for topic expansion in a pure textual retrieval context. Two approaches were used: methods based on linguistic information such as thesauri, and statistical methods that use term frequency. First a common baseline algorithm was used in all experiments to process the document collection: text extraction, tokenization, conversion to lowercase, filtering, stemming and finally, indexing and retrieval. Then this baseline algorithm is combined with different expansion techniques. For the semantic expansion,...
Linguistic Approaches in Information Retrieval of Medical Texts
- Anne-marie Currie; Jocelyn Cohan; Larisa Zlatić
treatment of individual patients. Much of the specific medical information remains buried in semi-structured electronic text reports, and is difficult for health care providers or medical researchers to find. This paper discusses the linguistic approaches used in retrieving the relevant information from electronic medical records. It is shown how the professional areas of linguistics, information technology and medicine