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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 49,440

41. Qualitative Modeling and Controller Design using Dynamic Fuzzy Systems - Klaus Schmid; Volker Krebs
: Qualitative modeling may be applied when knowledge about a system is only available in linguistic form. The knowledge might be processed by a dynamic fuzzy system consisting of a rule base and an inference method modeling human reasoning. Conventional fuzzy inference methods do not consider this association to human reasoning and therefore are not suitable for the dynamic processing of linguistic knowledge. Inference has to provide both, quantitative and qualitative information about the model output. In this paper a new inference method based on the concept of interpolating rules is presented. It results in a mapping of fuzzy inputs...

42. What Conceptual Graph Workbenches Need for Natural Language Processing - Graham A. Mann
. An important capability of the conceptual graph knowledge engineering tools now under development will be the transformation of natural language texts into graphs (conceptual parsing) and its reverse, the production of text from graphs (conceptual generation). Are the existing basic designs adequate for these tasks? Experience developing the BEELINE system's natural language capabilities suggests that good entry/editing tools, a generous but not unlimited storage capacity and efficient, bidirectional lexical access techniques are needed to support the supply of data structures at both the linguistic and conceptual knowledge levels. An active formalism capable of supporting declarative and procedural programs containing...

43. Recognition of Problem-solving Plans in Dialogue Interpretation - Liliana Ardissono Guido; Guido Boella; Leonardo Lesmo
The paper addresses the role of problem solving plans in the interpretation of natural language dialogues. It introduces a library of actions which describes in a declarative way the different steps made in the process of planning and executing an action. The library is used to trace the activity of a speaker: the recognition of her plans and goals is driven by the problem solving library, which specifies how domain and linguistic actions have been connected to each other. Introduction This paper aims at clarifying the role of problemsolving plans in modeling the process of plan and goal recognition of...

44. Towards A Formal Framework For Linguistic Annotations - Steven Bird; Mark Liberman
`Linguistic annotation' is a term covering any transcription, translation or annotation of textual data or recorded linguistic signals. While there are several ongoing efforts to provide formats and tools for such annotations and to publish annotated linguistic databases, the lack of widely accepted standards is becoming a critical problem. Proposed standards, to the extent they exist, have focussed on file formats. This paper focuses instead on the logical structure of linguistic annotations. We survey a wide variety of annotation formats and demonstrate a common conceptual core. This provides the foundation for an algebraic framework which encompasses the representation, archiving and...

45. COLOR-X: Validating Linguistically-based Conceptual Models - J. F. M. Burg; R.P. van de Riet
This paper discusses a requirements engineerings method that makes heavy use of linguistic instruments. The paper focuses on the validation phase in which syntactically verified conceptual models are checked for their correspondence with the original intentions of the users. It is quite clear that the users themselves are the only ones who are capable of doing so. However, the users have severe problems reading and understanding the conceptual models created by software analysts. Therefore, two validation techniques have been incorporated in the requirements engineerings method, that transform the models in formats that are understandable for the users. The first technique...

46. Multidimensional Exploration of Online Linguistic Field Data - Steven Bird
Advances in storage technology make it possible to house virtually unlimited quantities of recorded speech data online. Advances in character-encoding technology make it possible to create platform-independent transcriptions. Advances in web technology make it possible to publish this data for essentially no marginal cost. These developments have profound consequences for the accessibility, quality and quantity of linguistic field data. Recordings become accessible. Transcriptions become verifiable. Large corpora become manageable. In order to illustrate the potential for this mode of operation in field linguistics, I describe a piece of online fieldwork involving a tone language of Cameroon. A complex verb paradigm...

47. Modeling the Retrieval Process of an Information Retrieval System Using an Ordinal Fuzzy Linguistic Approach - E. Herrera-viedma
A linguistic model of an Information Retrieval System (IRS) dened using an ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach is proposed. The ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach is presented and the use of it for modeling the imprecision and subjectivity that appears in the user-IRS interaction is studied. The user queries and IRS responses are modeled linguistically using the concept of fuzzy linguistic variable. The system accepts Boolean queries whose terms are weighted by means of ordinal linguistic values according to three semantics at a time: threshold semantic, quantitative semantic and importance semantic. The threshold and importance semantics are used by the users in...

48. A Formal Framework for Linguistic Annotation - Steven Bird; Mark Liberman
`Linguistic annotation' covers any descriptive or analytic notations applied to raw language data. The basic data may be in the form of time functions -- audio, video and/or physiological recordings -- or it may be textual. The added notations may include transcriptions of all sorts (from phonetic features to discourse structures), part-of-speech and sense tagging, syntactic analysis, `named entity' identification, co-reference annotation, and so on. While there are several ongoing efforts to provide formats and tools for such annotations and to publish annotated linguistic databases, the lack of widely accepted standards is becoming a critical problem. Proposed standards, to the...

49. COLOR-X: Object Modeling profits from Linguistics - J. F. M. Burg; R.P. van de Riet
This paper describes a linguistically based object modeling technique for modeling Information and Communication Systems. This technique is a combination of a linguistically based, formal conceptual modeling language and a high-level graphical analysis and design method. The process of modeling Information and Communication Systems is interactively supported by a Lexicon, which delivers correct information that the analyst and designer use as a base for their final models. Our modeling technique and the supporting lexicon facilitates the modeling process and results in models that are consistent and complete. Keywords: Object Model, Linguistics, Cpl, Information and Communication Systems, Lexicon 1 INTRODUCTION This...

50. Integrating Different Learning Approaches into a Multilingual Spoken Language Translation System - P. Geutner; B. Suhm; F.-D. Buø; T. Kemp; L. Mayfield; A. E. Mcnair; I. Rogina; T. Schultz; T. Sloboda; W. Ward; M. Woszczyna; A. Waibel
Building multilingual spoken language translation systems requires knowledge about both acoustic models and language models of each language to be translated. Our multilingual translation system JANUS-2 is able to translate English and German spoken input into either English, German, Spanish, Japanese or Korean output. Getting optimal acoustic and language models as well as developing adequate dictionaries for all these languages requires a lot of hand-tuning and is time-consuming and labor intensive. In this paper we will present learning techniques that improve acoustic models by automatically adapting codebook sizes, a learning algorithm that increases and adapts phonetic dictionaries for the recognition...

51. The Impact of Linguistics on Conceptual Models: Consistency and Understandability - J. F. M. Burg; R.P. van de Riet
This paper describes a vision in which linguistic knowledge and theories are introduced into conceptual modeling, and it sums up the advantages achieved by this approach. We will show how the extension of conceptual modeling techniques with linguistic theories increases their expressive power, the capability to formalize wellknown conceptual aspects, like object roles and constraints, and their internal consistency. Furthermore, we will explain the advantages gained from using such an extended conceptual modeling technique by describing the adjustments and improvements of the modeling process itself and the extensions to the validation and verification process of the sophisticated models. We will...

52. A Fuzzy Approach to Complex Linguistic Query Based Image Retrieval - Swarup Medasani And; Swarup Medasani; Raghu Krishnapuram
The current trend in the rapid growth of on-line image databases has brought forth several innovative approaches to content-based image retrieval. Most current techniques retrieve images based on an example image or object shapes/features extracted from images. Retrieval based on linguistic queries has not recieved much attention. In this paper, we present a fuzzy connective approach to handle complex linguistic queries consisting of multiple attributes. We represent each (fuzzy) attribute in a complex query by a (multi-dimensional) membership function. The degree to which an image satisfies the attribute is obtained by finding the membership value of the feature vector corresponding...

53. GETESS - Searching the Web Exploiting German Texts - Steffen Staab; Christian Braun; Ilvio Bruder; Antje Düsterhöft; Andreas Heuer; Meike Klettke; Günter Neumann; Bernd Prager; Jan Pretzel; Hans-Peter Schnurr; Rudi Studer
. We present an intelligent information agent that uses semantic methods and natural language processing capabilites in order to gather tourist information from the WWW and present it to the human user in an intuitive, user-friendly way. Thereby, the information agent is designed such that as background knowledge and linguistic coverage increase, its benefits improve, while it guarantees state-of-the-art information and database retrieval capabilities as its bottom line. 1 Introduction Due to the vast amounts of information in the WWW, its users have more and more difficulties finding the information they are looking for among the many heterogeneous information resources....

54. Statistical Analysis of Dialogue Structure - Ye-Yi Wang; Alex Waibel
We introduce a statistical model for dialogues. We describe a dynamic programming algorithm that can be used to bracket a dialogue into segments and label each segment with its speech act. We evaluate the performance of the model. We also use this model for language modelling and get perplexity reduction. 1 INTRODUCTION Dialogue structure provides important information for spoken language understanding. This structure comprises the current topic, discourse state, and speech act, etc. Many researchers used topic information to reduce the perplexity of a task [1, 2]. In our experiments, we also found that dialogue structure information also helps to...

55. Experiments With Lvcsr Based Language Identification - T. Schultz; I. Rogina; A. Waibel
Automatic language identification is an important problem in building multilingual speech recognition and understanding systems. We have developed a front-end LID module based on LVCSR to identify English, German, and Spanish language for use in spontaneous speech-to-speech translation. We studied the constitution of different levels of knowledge to identify a language, i.e. the phonetic, phonotactic, lexical, and syntactic-semantic knowledge. A comparison of LID systems using different levels of these knowledge sources is presented. We showed that the incorporation of lexical and linguistic knowledge leads to a reduction of the language identification error by up to 50%. 1. INTRODUCTION In recent...

56. Lvcsr-Based Language Identification - T. Schultz; I. Rogina; A. Waibel
Automatic language identification is an important problem in building multilingual speech recognition and understanding systems. Building a language identification module for four languages we studied the influence of applying different levels of knowledge sources on a large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) approach, i.e. the phonetic, phonotactic, lexical, and syntactic-semantic knowledge. The resulting language identification (LID) module can identify spontaneous speech input and can be used as a frontend for our multilingual speech-to-speech translation system JANUS-II. A comparison of five LID systems showed that the incorporation of lexical and linguistic knowledge reduces the language identification error for the 2-language tests...

57. Plan-based Event Representations for the Analysis of Tense and Aspect - Guido Boella; Rossana Damiano
. In this paper, a representation formalism based on actions and hierarchical plans is proposed to model the aspectual and temporal composition of sentences. Action verbs are interpreted as (possibly underspecified) instances of action schemata that include a plan body; the interpretation process is carried out in an incremental way: the other linguistic elements, like tense and adverbs, are evaluated by means of rules that add constraints to event representations. Pragmatic factors related to the communicative situations are accounted for by introducing defeasible rules for conversational implicatures that determine the telicity of a given description. 1 Introduction According to [10],...

58. Associating semantic components with intersective Levin classes - Hoa Trang Dang; Joseph Rosenzweig; Martha Palmer
This paper examines the question of differences between a traditional interlingua approach and a transferbased approach that uses cross-linguistic semantic features to generalize its transfer lexicon entries, and concludes that the two approaches share a common interest in lexical classifications that can be distinguished by cross-linguistic semantic features. The paper goes on to discuss current approaches to English classification, Levin classes [8] and WordNet [9]. We present a refinement of Levin classes - Intersective Classes - that shows interesting correlations to WordNet and that makes more explicit the semantic components that serve to distinguish different classes. Tradition holds that an...

59. Definiteness in the Hebrew Noun Phrase - Shuly Wintner
This paper suggests an analysis of Modern Hebrew noun phrases in the framework of HPSG. It focuses on the peculiar properties of the definite article, including the requirement for definiteness agreement among various elements in the noun phrase, definiteness inheritance in construct-state nominals, the fact that the article does not combine with constructs and the similarities between construct-state nouns and adjectives. Central to our analysis is the assumption that the Hebrew definite article is an affix, rather than a clitic or a stand-alone word. Several arguments, from all levels of linguistic representation, are provided to justify this claim. Adopting the...

60. Multidimensional Exploration of Online Linguistic Field Data - Steven Bird
Advances in storage technology make it possible to house virtually unlimited quantities of recorded speech data online. Advances in character-encoding technology make it possible to create platform-independent transcriptions. Advances in web technology make it possible to publish this data for essentially no marginal cost. These developments have profound consequences for the accessibility, quality and quantity of linguistic field data. Recordings become accessible. Transcriptions become verifiable. Large corpora become manageable. In order to illustrate the potential for this mode of operation in field linguistics, I describe a piece of online fieldwork involving a tone language of Cameroon. A complex verb paradigm...

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