Currently, there is increasing empirical and clinical interest in the integrity of nonlinguistic, cognitive processes (e.g., attention, working memory) in aphasia (Kalbe et al., 2005; Lesniak, 2008; Zinn et al., 2007), and the relationship between these processes and aphasic symptoms, prognosis, and response to language treatment (Fillingham et al., 2006; Seniow et al., 2009a; Yeung & Law, 2010). Indeed, some conceptualizations of aphasia specify that deficits in cognitive functions other than language may generate or intensify linguistic impairments (Hula & McNeil, 2008; Murray & Kean, 2004). Although prior aphasia research has identified co-existing cognitive deficits and an association between language...
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, afflicting approximately 1 % of adults by age 65 (Shulman et al., 2011). Whereas PD typically presents with a variety of motoric symptoms, including rigidity and bradykinesia, a growing literature describes the cognitive and linguistic effects of PD. Within the limited language literature, however, there has been nominal investigation of reading abilities beyond the isolated word or sentence level even though several lines of evidence suggest this language modality may be vulnerable in PD. First, PD patients have been shown to have difficulties with a variety of comprehension tasks....
reports/671 THE LINGUISTIC RELEVANCE OF TREE ADJOINING GRAMMAR*
- Adjoining Grammar; Anthony S. Krocht; Aravind K. Joshi Tt
1.2 Factoring recursion and co-occurrence restrictions 1.3 The plan of the paper
Treatment and Generalization of Functional Category Production in Agrammatic Aphasia
Recent research focused on treatment of agrammatism suggests that training more complex linguistic structures generalizes to less complex, but related, structures. For example, several studies have shown that training more complex sentences with ‘wh’ movement such as object clefts (e.g. It was the artist who the thief chased) results in
the requirements of the University of Liverpool
- Michael Thomas; Leonce Pace-sigge; Michael Pace-sigge
This thesis is about two things. Firstly, drawing on Michael Hoey’s Lexical Priming, it aims to extend the research represented in that book – into the roots of the concept of priming and into how far Hoey’s claims are valid for spoken English corpora. The thesis traces the development of the concept of priming, which was initially work done by computational analysts, psychologists and psycho-linguists, to present a clearer picture of what priming means and in how far the phenomenon of priming has been proven to be a salient model of how man’s mind works. Moving on from that, I...
Real-time Processing in Reading Sentence Comprehension for Normal Adult Individuals and Persons with Aphasia
The current study investigated whether persons with aphasia (PWA) exhibit longer processing times than normal adult individuals (NAI) in conditions that require more complex linguistic integration, using a self-paced word-by-word sentence reading method. The word-category comparison revealed that PWA show significantly longer reading times for nouns with high integration cost than for determiners with least linguistic integration cost compared to NAI. These results are consistent with the findings that PWA exhibit language-processing difficulties at points of high processing demand (Caplan, et al., 1985; McNeil, 1982).
Actions and Reactions: Exploring International Students ’ Use of Online Information Resources
- Hilary Hughes
The trends in higher education towards internationalisation and increasing dependence on ICTs (information and communication technologies) are contributing to the diversification of the student population and their learning needs. In this context learners encounter an array of educational and technological challenges. For international students these challenges may be compounded by: differences in cultural and linguistic backgrounds; and limited previous experience of independent learning and library and online information use. This article discusses the interim findings of a research project into the use of online information resources by a group of international students at an Australian university. It describes the students...
Visual Reliance and Visual Advantage
Visual input improves speech comprehension when auditory signals are degraded due to background noise (Sumby & Pollack, 1954) or hearing impairments (Walden, Prosek, & Worthington, 1975). Listeners strategically put greater focus on visual information to augment impoverished auditory information. This advantage of visual reliance is routinely utilized at clinical settings for adults with neurogenic communication disorders. Individuals experiencing auditory comprehension deficits are frequently encouraged by clinicians to look at speakers’ faces during daily conversations. Despite the presumed advantage of visual information and the routine recommendation on the use of visual cues, there is a lack of research regarding the way...
Social Organizations as Reconstitutable Networks of Conversations
This essay intends to recover human agency from holistic, abstract, even oppressive conceptions of social organization, common in the social sciences, social systems theory in particular. To do so, I am taking the use of language as simultaneously accompanying the performance of and constructing reality (my version of social constructivism). The essay starts with a definition of human agency in terms of its linguistic manifestation. It then sketches several leading conceptions of social organization, their metaphorical origin and entailments. Finally, it contextualizes the use of these metaphors in conversation, which leads to the main thesis of this essay that the...
GER FI JSYRH EX (3- < Using Genetic Algorithms to Create Meaningful Poetic Text
- Ruli Manurung; Graeme Ritchie; Henry Thompson
This paper presents a series of experiments in automatically generating poetic texts. We confined our attention to the generation of texts which are syntactically well-formed, meet certain pre-specified patterns of metre, and broadly convey some given meaning. Such aspects can be formally defined, thus avoiding the complications of imagery and interpretation that are central to assessing more free forms of verse. Our implemented system, McGonagall, applies the genetic algorithm to construct such texts. It uses a sophisticated linguistic formalism to represent its genomic information, from which can be computed the phenotypic information of both semantic representations and patterns of stress....
Title: The linguistic construction of interpersonal processes among people with dementia: A application of Systemic Functional Linguistics
Positive social interactions and relationships have been shown to be important for persons with dementia, promoting the general sense of well-being for the person with dementia in longterm
Reaction time procedures have been reported in the literature as potentially assisting in determining the presence of subtle differences in cognitive-linguistic processing following a mild traumatic brain injury due to the on-line nature of the task
Lexical elaboration – A single case study of narratives produced two times in succession The task of orally producing a narrative is a complex one which requires interaction among various linguistic levels. As such, analysis of narratives produced by a person with aphasia (PWA) can shed light on the contribution of the individual factors contributing to the process of producing a coherent and informative narrative. Without the appropriate words – in particular, nouns, verbs and adjectives – narratives about depicted scenes will remain incomplete and reduced in informational content. Thus, lexical accessibility and lexical retrieval play a crucial role in...
Diction and Social Strata in Charles Chesnutt‟s “The Wife of his Youth”
- Mark Benedict; Benedict Mark; Mark Benedict
Diction and Social Strata in Charles Chesnutt‟s “The Wife of his Youth” Since Charles Chesnutt was on both the color and caste lines, his linguistic precision reflects a variety of cultural aspects. In “The wife of his Youth, ” one can explore the caste differences between Mr. Ryder and Liza Jane through Chesnutt‟s choice of diction. The opening of the story postpones the plot to introduce and characterize Mr. Ryder in the context of the Blue Veins Society. Once established as a Blue Vein, Mr. Ryder necessarily exhibits a more varied and more studied diction than Liza Jane. This disparity...
A DIGITAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH TO SPEECH RECOGNITION By
- Najmi Ghani Haider
recognition based on sub-word component". A digital neural network is the fundamental processing strategy in beth methods. The first design is based on the 'Separate Segmentation & Labelling ' (SS&L) approach. The spectral data of the input utterance is first segmented into phoneme-like units which are then time normalised by linear time normalisation. The neural network labels the time-normalised phoneme-like segments./8.36 % recognition accuracy is achieved for the phoneme-like unit. In the second design, no time no-malisation is required. After segmentation, recognition is performed by classifying the data in a window as it is slid one frame at a time,...
FUNCTIONS OF MULTILINGUAL LEARNERS ’ LANGUAGES IN AN L3 FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM by
- Caroline A. Payant; Caroline Payant; Under Direction; Youjin Kim; Diane Belcher
Since the mid 90s, an increasing number of researchers have adopted a sociocultural theory (SCT) of mind to investigate the social and cognitive functions of language during learnerlearner interaction (Lantolf & Thorne, 2007). Researchers from an SCT perspective have identified that first languages (L1s) serve important cognitive functions (Alegría de la Colina & García Mayo, 2009; Storch & Aldosari, 2010). Swain and colleagues (Swain, 1995; Swain & Lapkin, 1995, 1998) have also illustrated that languaging, a form of verbalization, facilitates the completion of complex linguistic tasks which leads to second language (L2) development (Swain, Brooks, & Tocalli-Beller, 2002). Moreover, researchers...
- O. De Vel; A. Anderson; M. Corney; G. Mohay
In this paper we describe an investigation of forensic authorship identification or categorisation undertaken on multitopic e-mail documents. We use an extended set of e-mail document features such as structural characteristics and linguistic patterns together with a Support Vector Machine learning algorithm. Experiments on a number of e-mail documents generated by different authors on a set of topics gave promising results for both inter- and intra-topic author categorisation. 1.
- Ahmad Saleh
This research aims to study the relationship between economic performance, economic reforms, corruption, ethnic diversity and business environment. In chapter two, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis methods are applied to study the relationship between economic growth and corruption. This shows that despite severe publication bias, there seems to be a genuine negative effect of corruption on growth. This impact is systematically affected by whether the authors are academics and whether the study controls for endogeneity and heterogeneity. As for mechanisms, the findings show that corruption significantly undermines the positive influence of institutions and trade openness on economic growth. Chapter three investigates...
TASKS: A VALIDATION STUDY by
- Liang Guo; Liang Guo; Under Direction; Sara Weigle
This study was conducted to compare the writing performance (writing products and writing processes) of the TOEFL iBT integrated writing task (writing from source texts) with that of the TOEFL iBT independent writing task (writing from prompt only). The study aimed to find out whether writing performance varies with task type, essay scores, and academic experience of test takers, thus clarifying the link between the expected scores and the underlying writing abilities being assessed. The data for the quantitative textual analysis of written products was provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS). The data consisted of scored integrated and independent essays...
95 Challenges for College-Level Learners of Academic English Writing in China
- Xuan Jiang
Abstract: English learners in Chinese universities feel it is difficult to write academically. The difficulty lies in but not limited to linguistic differences; it also stems from other factors including cultural origins, educational values, rhetorical strategies, and reader awareness. Recommendations towards overcoming these barriers are put forward in this paper. Differences between the first language (L1) and the second language (L2) may generate transfer hindrances and challenges for English as a foreign language (EFL) students. These challenges in L2 learning or narrowed down to L2 academic writing are rooted not only in a linguistic arena, but also deeply and essentially...