Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 16.893

  1. Descriptive Translation Studies

    Hermans, T
    The academic discipline of translation studies is of relatively recent date. While there has been profound and critical thought about matters of translation throughout history, traditionally much of it was ad hoc, evaluative, and concerned with particular genres such as literature or sacred texts. Sustained attention to translation in an academic context did not begin until around the mid-20th century, when, as a result of technological and socioeconomic developments, the volume of translations increased substantially, especially in the industrialized world, and consequently the need arose to train professional translators. The fi rst generation of academically trained translation scholars consisted primarily of linguists involved in translator training. In the...

  2. From Revolt to Riches: Culture and History of the Low Countries, 1500–1700


    This collection investigates the culture and history of the Low Countries in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries from both international and interdisciplinary perspectives. The period was one of extraordinary upheaval and change, as the combined impact of Renaissance, Reformation and Revolt resulted in the radically new conditions – political, economic and intellectual – of the Dutch Republic in its Golden Age. While many aspects of this rich and nuanced era have been studied before, the emphasis of this volume is on a series of interactions and interrelations: between communities and their varying but often cognate languages; between different but overlapping spheres of human activity; between culture and history. The...

  3. From Revolt to Riches: Culture and History of the Low Countries, 1500–1700


    This collection investigates the culture and history of the Low Countries in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries from both international and interdisciplinary perspectives. The period was one of extraordinary upheaval and change, as the combined impact of Renaissance, Reformation and Revolt resulted in the radically new conditions – political, economic and intellectual – of the Dutch Republic in its Golden Age. While many aspects of this rich and nuanced era have been studied before, the emphasis of this volume is on a series of interactions and interrelations: between communities and their varying but often cognate languages; between different but overlapping spheres of human activity; between culture and history. The...

  4. The Functional architecture of language comprehension mechanisms : fundamental principles revealed with fMRI

    Blank, Idan (Idan Asher)
    A key requirement from cognitive models of language comprehension is that they specify the distinct computational mechanisms that are engaged in language processing and the division of linguistic labor across them. Here, I address this requirement from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by employing functional MRI to study the neural implementation of comprehension processes. My experimental approach, unprecedented in studies of language, combines available methods to simultaneously achieve (i) increased functional resolution, via localization of functional brain regions at the single-participant level; (ii) ecological validity, through datadriven, model-free paradigms using naturalistic stimuli; and (iii) statistical rigor, by explicit comparison of functional...

  5. SNAP judgments: A small N acceptability paradigm (SNAP) for linguistic acceptability judgments

    Graff, Peter; Hartman, Jeremy; Gibson, Edward; Mahowald, Kyle Adam
    While published linguistic judgments sometimes differ from the judgments found in large-scale formal experiments with naive participants, there is not a consensus as to how often these errors occur nor as to how often formal experiments should be used in syntax and semantics research. In this article, we first present the results of a large-scale replication of the Sprouse et al. 2013 study on 100 English contrasts randomly sampled from Linguistic Inquiry 2001–2010 and tested in both a forced-choice experiment and an acceptability rating experiment. Like Sprouse, Schütze, and Almeida, we find that the effect sizes of published linguistic acceptability...

  6. Cultural factors that affected the spatial and temporal epidemiology of kuru

    Whitfield, JT; Pako, WH; Collinge, J; Alpers, MP
    Kuru is a prion disease which became epidemic among the Fore and surrounding linguistic groups in Papua New Guinea, peaking in the late 1950s. It was transmitted during the transumption (endocannibalism) of dead family members at mortuary feasts. In this study, we aimed to explain the historical spread and the changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affected its transmission. We also examined what cultural group principally determined a family's behaviour during mortuary rituals. Our investigations showed that differences in mortuary practices were responsible for the initial pattern of the spread of kuru and the ultimate shape of...

  7. Cultural factors that affected the spatial and temporal epidemiology of kuru

    Whitfield, JT; Pako, WH; Collinge, J; Alpers, MP
    Kuru is a prion disease which became epidemic among the Fore and surrounding linguistic groups in Papua New Guinea, peaking in the late 1950s. It was transmitted during the transumption (endocannibalism) of dead family members at mortuary feasts. In this study, we aimed to explain the historical spread and the changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affected its transmission. We also examined what cultural group principally determined a family's behaviour during mortuary rituals. Our investigations showed that differences in mortuary practices were responsible for the initial pattern of the spread of kuru and the ultimate shape of...

  8. Acquiring variation in an artificial language: children and adults are sensitive to socially conditioned linguistic variation

    Samara, A; Smith, K; Brown, H; Wonnacott, EA

  9. Legislative Drafting e lingua: ipotesi di semplificazione del testo normativo

    Xanthaki, H; Pennisi, G
    La legislazione rappresenta un importante strumento di regolamentazione normativa (regulation), che a sua volta costituisce un metodo di governo. Attraverso la legislazione il governo disciplina le attività dei cittadini nel rispetto del manifesto elettorale della forza politica che lo sostiene. L'attenzione si sposta così dalla legislazione come unico scopo del legislative drafting (scrittura della legge), alla legislazione come parte del processo legislativo e come una parte ancora minore del processo politico. Così, quando si guarda più in generale all’intero processo politico, il ruolo di dei legislative drafters può esser visto per quello che realmente è: un semplice, per quanto fondamentale,...

  10. WHAT NON-NATIVE NARRATIVES CAN TELL US ABOUT SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    O'CONNOR, NADINE
    Second language acquisition research has shown the importance of viewing learner language as a legitimate linguistic system. However, the ways in which this system functions and changes as it evolves towards the target language system have yet to be discovered. This dissertation examines the interlanguage system of 20 Americans learning to speak French in France through a variation analysis of their use of tense in narratives. The selection of narrative as the discourse unit of study has permitted a comparison of tense use in various structural contexts and rhetorical functions across the non-native population. The relative contribution of these structural...

  11. Prolegomena to the automated analysis of a bilingual poetry corpus, with particular reference to an annotated edition of The Cantos of Ezra Pound

    Seguy, Robin
    Standing at the intersection of a theoretical investigation into the possibilities of applying the tools and methods of automated analysis to a large plurilingual poetry corpus and of a set of observables gleaned along the creation of a digitally annotated edition of The Cantos of Ezra Pound—a robust test-case for the TEI—the present dissertation can be read under different guises. ^ One of them, for instance, would be that of a comedy, divina commedia or comédia de Deus, in which the computer plays—Leibnizian harmonics!—the part of supreme intellect. ^ A: The selva oscura is that of newly born “Digital Humanities”—burgeoning...

  12. The acquisition of sociolinguistic variation in a Mexican immigrant community

    Lerner, Marielle
    In language change originating within the speech community, child acquisition begins with “faithful transmission of the adult system” (Labov 2007:346). On entering their peer group, children participate in incrementation of change. Input from multiple generations of speakers is arguably necessary for children to advance a language change. With stable variable input, children are reported to acquire their parents’ probabilistic usage, then maintain it among peers. This dissertation asks what can be learned about the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation from a case where children receive limited generational evidence about their community’s linguistic variables. I examine whether these youngest speakers participate in...

  13. Social and Structural Constraints on a Phonetically-Motivated Change in Progress: (str) Retraction in Raleigh, NC

    Wilbanks, Eric
    The current project examines the status of (str) retraction, an ongoing, phonetically-motivated sound change, in the Raleigh, NC corpus of sociolinguistic interviews (Dodsworth & Kohn, 2012). Investigating the status of this sound change in apparent time, acoustic analyses of 140 Raleigh-natives was carried out. All tokens of /s/ and /S/ were automatically extracted and the spectral characteristics of the resulting 99,150 tokens were analyzed. Results demonstrate the retracted variant in the speech of the youngest Raleigh women and it is argued that the emergence of (str) retraction in the community in the 1960s corresponds with massive demographic shifts caused by...

  14. Multi-Value Asymmetry in Number Agreement and Concord

    Shen, Zheng
    In this paper I present cross-linguistic data of NRNR, TP RNR, and composed plurality to argue for the multi-value asymmetry between the N and the T domain. I propose that the asymmetry can be accounted for by assuming that T heads have multiple unvalued number features while N heads have only one. The proposal is compatible with the unified Agree analysis of concord and agreement and it is further supported by the mismatch cases of multi-valuation.

  15. Toward the Parameter Hierarchy of Embedded Imperatives

    Saito, Hiroaki
    This paper investigates cross-linguistic variation in embedded imperatives in terms of syntactic environments in which they can(not) appear, focusing on the availability of embedded imperatives in the clausal complement of verbs and nouns, and relative clauses. I demonstrate that there are four distinct types of languages regarding the possibility of embedded imperatives. I also suggest that there is an implicational relation among these types, which is captured through a parameter hierarchy.

  16. Toward the Parameter Hierarchy of Embedded Imperatives

    Saito, Hiroaki
    This paper investigates cross-linguistic variation in embedded imperatives in terms of syntactic environments in which they can(not) appear, focusing on the availability of embedded imperatives in the clausal complement of verbs and nouns, and relative clauses. I demonstrate that there are four distinct types of languages regarding the possibility of embedded imperatives. I also suggest that there is an implicational relation among these types, which is captured through a parameter hierarchy.

  17. Morpho-pragmatic Faithfulness Interacts with Phonological Markedness in Appalachian A-prefixing

    McQuaid, Goldie Ann
    This paper examines so-called a-prefixing in the speech of dialect speakers living in Appalachia. Building on existing empirical work, and leveraging results from a GoldVarb analysis, I posit the a-prefix realizes a morpho-pragmatic feature which expresses a range of related meanings, including surprise, unexpectedness, and newsworthiness. This range of meanings is encompassed in the linguistic category mirativity. The prefix is therefore suggested to spell out the feature [MIRATIVE]. Variable insertion of the a-prefix is blocked when the base does not meet certain phonological requirements. In particular, prefixing is blocked with forms beginning with a lax vowel (*‘a-ask-ing’), and with forms...

  18. Measuring Cross-Linguistic Influence in First- and Second-Generation Bilinguals: ERP vs. Acceptability Judgments

    Martohardjono, Gita; Phillips, Ian; Madsen, Christen N., II; Otheguy, Ricardo; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.
    Two types of Spanish-English bilinguals were tested in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment on a contrast in the two languages exemplified in (1) and (2) in order to investigate linguistic permeability during processing of Spanish (1a and 2a). In Spanish, but not English, absence of the complementizer que is ungrammatical. (1) a. Qué hermana confesó Inés que había comido la tarta? b. *What sister did Inés confess that had eaten the cake? (2) a. *Qué hermana confesó Inés Ø había comido la tarta? b. What sister did Inés confess Ø had eaten the cake? In a first analysis, we grouped subjects by generation and compared...

  19. The Social Perception of a Sound Change

    Lawrence, Daniel
    A core finding of sociolinguistic research is that phonological changes may become subject to social evaluation as they propagate through a speech community. Much work has analyzed the social evaluation of innovations by categorizing them in terms of their salience, or the degree of stigma/prestige attached to them. However, recent studies have attempted to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the types of social-indexical meaning which can attach to linguistic variation. In particular, it is argued that speaker-listeners' social perceptions of variation tend to be structured around locally-relevant stereotypical figures such as the `valley girl' or `burnout' (Eckert, 2008; Moore...

  20. Alternatives and Focus: Distribution of Chinese Relative Clauses Revisited

    Hsu, Yu-Yin
    The syntax and the function of Chinese relative clauses have been a hot issue in linguistic studies, given that typologically modifiers of nominals rarely occur before a demonstrative (cf. Greenberg 1963, Cinque 2005), and yet pre-demonstrative relative clauses are common in Chinese. This paper presents an analysis of syntax and information structure of Chinese relative clauses and shows results of a corpus study and a production experiment. It is argued that pre-demonstrative relative clauses structurally express Focus at the nominal periphery, similar to Focus Phrase at the left-periphery of a sentence à la Rizzi (1997), deriving by nominal-internal Focus movement....

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