Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 74,920

  1. Offline Handwritten Kannada Text Recognition by Integrating Multiple Contexts

    Sandhya C Sannamani; Bharath Kumar M; Nagesh H R
    Handwritten character recognition has received extensive attention in academic and production fields. The recognition system can be either online or off-line. There is a large demand for handwritten text recognition and hand written documents. This paper describes an effective approach for the offline recognition of handwritten Kannada texts. Under the general integrated segmentation-and-recognition benchmark with character over-segmentation and Recognizes the handwritten Kannada text, whenever there is multiple contexts in the text pattern and it is independent of size, slant, orientation, and translation, this approach investigates three important issues: candidate path evaluation, path search, and parameter estimation. In the path evaluation...


    Spons Agency; Edrs Price; Corwin Sylvia; Art Tool; Learning United; States History; Sylvia Corwin; John F. Kennedy; High School
    The purpose of this project was to design and implement a visual art course parallel to the U.S. history course required of all 11th grade students at the John F. Kennedy High School in New York City, New York. The study also attempted to determine if a non-linguistic, instructional methodology, such as that used in visual arts instruction, could be integrated with the traditional teaching approach in other disciplines. This project measured the effect of this parallel approach on students, as it determined the effect of the art instruction on the students' comprehension and retention of the social studies concepts...

  3. An Analysis of Cultural Substitution in English to Thai Translation

    Patcharee Pokasamrit; Patcharee Pokasamrit
    Cultural substitution refers to the translation of some known or unknown concepts in the source language by using the substitution from the culture of the receptor language rather than by other available means of meaning equivalence. For examples, a black sheep is translated into literal Thai as a cub outside a pen rather than a person with different and unacceptable characters, and a corner stone is translated as a supreme pole, rather than an indispensable and fundamental basis. This study analyzes cultural substitution in English to Thai translation in order to document its types, linguistic patterns, and cultural significance; and...


    Philip K. Robinson
    This thesis examines the optionality of Russian genitive case under negation, using native-speaker data and online resources, such as Internet search engines and linguistic corpora. Of special interest is assessing the role of negative intensifier phrases in selecting genitive or other grammatical case forms. The paper includes a discussion of the pros and cons of relying on online resources in linguistic research, as well as an overview of the use of the Russian National Corpus, a highly robust linguistics research tool. iii BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Philip Robinson has been interested in Slavic languages and culture since his undergraduate years at the...

  5. Promises and Problems of Teaching With Popular Culture: A Linguistic Ethnographic Analysis of Discourse Genre Mixing in a Literacy Lesson

    Adam Lefstein; Ben Gurion; Julia Snell
    A brief reference to popular culture led to mo-mentary disruption of the norms, roles, and discourse customary in Ms. Leigh’s (all teacher and student names are pseudonyms) Year 5 classroom. This event took place in a January literacy lesson, in the middle of a unit on writing short stories about a storm. Prior to this lesson the students wrote first drafts of “timed stories ” (written under conditions of limited time to simulate the national tests), which Ms. Leigh assessed, providing students with their assessment lev-els and targets for improvement. The students then re-drafted their stories. In the lesson we...

  6. Continuous dynamics in real-time cognition

    Michael J. Spivey; Rick Dale
    ABSTRACT—Real-time cognition is best described not as a sequence of logical operations performed on discrete symbols but as a continuously changing pattern of neu-ronal activity. The continuity in these dynamics indicates that, in between describable states of mind, mental activity does not lend itself to the linguistic labels relied on by much of psychology. We discuss eye-tracking and mouse-tracking evidence for this temporal continuity and provide geometric visualizations of mental activity, depicting it as a continuous trajectory through a state space (a multi-dimensional space in which locations correspond tomental states). When the state of the system travels toward a fre-quently...

  7. © North-Holland Publishing Company TOWARDS AN ANALYS IS OF LINGUISTIC MODELL ING*

    Walter J. M. Kickert
    In this paper an alternative to the numerical modelling approach, namely the linguistic modelling approach, will be analysed. Apart from a brief presentation of the main elements of the approach, the major part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the linguistic model. The most important issue in this analysis is the problem of convergency of the mode! to some stable state. This convergency problem is treated from the point of view of a fuzzy relation matrix. Analytical results concerning the powers of a fuzzy matrix and fuzzy eigenvectors are 0i~c:~g~ed.

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    Head Start; Jason Curry; Jason Curry
    This article presents the Working to Success (WTS) model as a structured format to help parents and Head Start personnel not only meet the performance indicators of the Head Start Regulations, but also look to other disciplines for creative ideas. The model is based on basic DACUM principles and asserts that these principles can potentially be incorporated into Head Start curricula via the WTS model and could potentially promote family and educational development. Literacy, following directions, organization, teamwork, symbolic thinking, and cognitive, social, and linguistic development are just a few of the potential, not yet proven, benefits for Head Start-aged...

  9. The error in the Second Language Acquisition

    Triancí Maicusi; Panayota Maicusí; María José; Carrillo López
    Making errors is the most natural thing in the world and it is evidently attached to the human being. But, how do we define error? There are different definitíons of the word and as EUis explains "leamers make errors in both comprehension and production, the first being rather scanüy investigated. Children leaming their first language (Ll), adult native speakers, second language leamers; they all make errors which have a different ñame according to the group committing the error. Children's errors have been seen as "transitional forms", the native speakers'ones are called "slips of the tongue " and the second language...

  10. TITLE Clarifying Goals in the Teaching of Reading

    Leffert Beatrice G
    Language From the perspective of a reading consultant, the processes of thinking and reading apply to efficient learning. Language teachers should know: (1) the difference between surface structure and deep meaning of an utterance, (2) the importance of "affect " on learning: the reader's personal involvement with the material and with its presentation, colored by prior knowledge of the subject and attitude toward it; and (3r theories regarding cognitive patterns in analysis of material, vocabulary load, and repetition interval. Teachers should be aware of linguistic differences between written and oral communication which cause writing to be variously interpreted by readers,...

  11. When color names are used metaphorically: the role of linguistic and chromatic information’, Metaphor and symbol 19(3

    Cristina Cacciari; Chromatic Information; Cristina Cacciari; Dipartmento Di Scienze Biomediche; Manfredo Massironi; Paola Corradini
    Four experiments investigated the integration of chromatic with linguistic and con-ceptual information in the interpretation of narratives where color names were used metaphorically. The texts were visually presented with 5 shades of the color meta-phorically used in the narratives. Participants were asked to choose the shade expres-sively most appropriate to the story content (Experiment 1) or to rank the appropri-ateness of each shade (Experiment 2). We then employed a completion task where participants were asked to complete the texts with the color name they felt more ap-propriate without any chromatic information provided to them (Experiment 3). In the final experiment,...

  12. 1The Impact of Migration on the Health of Voluntary Migrants in Western Societies A Review of the Literature

    Jane H. Lassetter; Lynn C. Callister
    The authors reviewed literature on the health of voluntary migrants to Western societies and factors affecting their health. Health indicators include mortality rates and life expectancy, birth outcomes, risk of illness, patterns of deteriorating health, cardiovascular disease, body mass index, hypertension, and depression. Multiple factors explain variability, including length of residence and acculturation, disease exposure, life style and living conditions, risky behaviors, healthy habits, social support networks, cultural and linguistic barriers, experiences with racism, and levels of awareness of cultural health practices among health care providers. Evidence exists for superior health among many migrants to Western countries relative to native-born...

  13. Cognitive-Linguistic Therapy: Comprehension and Problem Solving

    This paper offers therapeutic ideas for children in the age group 7 to 7 7 who are not ade-quately interpreting and adjusting to their environment. The techniques assist the children in comprehending problem situations, solving the problem, and talking about the solutions. During the Piagetian stage of concrete opera-tions (age range 7-11), children must learn to analyze complex interpersonal relationships in order to deal with problematic situations in home and school environments. Their inter-action with siblings, peers, parents, n.eighbors, school officials, and perhaps even law enforcers, may necessitate exercising sage judgment and certainly requires appropriate reaction. Lan-

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    Vocabulary test scores were obtained from a totalof 997 adults, all twins or a sibling of twins in this study. Some (N = 217) individuals were tested twice, around 6 years apart. Heritability varied from 50 % at the first test occasion to 63 % at the second test occasion. The correlation of scores across time was.74. Structural equation modelling showed that stabil-ity in vocabulary knowledge over time can largely (around 76%) be explained by genetic factors. Part of the non-shared environmental variance was stable over time also. Any influence from shared environ-mental factors could not be detected. Results were...

  15. Rule-based Automatic Post-processing of SMT Output to Reduce Human Post-editing Effort

    Human Post-editing Effort; Victoria Porro; Johanna Gerlach; Pierrette Bouillon; Violeta Seretan
    To enhance sharing of knowledge across the language barrier, the ACCEPT project focuses on improving machine translation of user-generated content by investigating pre- and post-editing strategies. Within this context, we have developed automatic monolingual post-editing rules for French, aimed at correcting frequent errors automatically. The rules were developed using the AcrolinxIQ technology, which relies on shallow linguistic analysis. In this paper, we present an evaluation of these rules, considering their impact on the readability of MT output and their usefulness for subsequent manual post-editing. Results show that the readability of a high proportion of the data is indeed improved when...

  16. Scaling descriptors for language proficiency scales. Language Testing 15

    Brian North; Eurocentres Foundation
    which aimed to develop a scale of language proficiency in the form of a ‘descriptor bank’. Up until now, most scales of language proficiency have been produced by appeal to intuition and to those scales which already exist rather than to theories of linguistic description or of measurement. The intention in this project was to use an item-banking methodology to develop a flexible scale of stand-alone criterion statements with known difficulty values. The project took place in two rounds: the first for English (1994), the second for French, German and English (1995). In each year pools of descriptors were produced...

  17. Knowledge-stating Verbs and Contexts of Accountability in Linguistic and Literary Academic Discourse1

    Hans Malmström
    In academic communication, the notion of accountability is central, because academic discourse essentially involves the communication of knowledge – knowledge for which someone must assume accountability. This paper considers the use of knowledge-stating verbs in knowledge statements. It investigates the accountability contexts (High accountability, Medium-to-High accountability, Medium-to-Low accountability and Low accountability) for seven knowledge-stating verbs in order to ascertain if different knowledge-stating verbs appear in different kinds of accountability contexts. The verbs investigated are argue, claim, suggest, propose, maintain, assume and believe. The empirical basis for the investigation comes from two different academic disciplines, linguistics and literary studies, and the...

  18. Journal of Semantics 25: 1–44 doi:10.1093/jos/ffm018 Coherence and Coreference Revisited

    Andrew Kehler; Laura Kertz; Hannah Rohde; Jeffrey L. Elman
    For more than three decades, research into the psycholinguistics of pronoun interpretation has argued that hearers use various interpretation ‘preferences ’ or ‘strategies ’ that are associated with specific linguistic properties of antecedent expressions. This focus is a departure from the type of approach outlined in Hobbs (1979), who argues that the mechanisms supporting pronoun interpretation are driven predominantly by semantics, world knowledge and inference, with particular attention to how these are used to establish the coherence of a discourse. On the basis of three new experimental studies, we evaluate a coherence-driven analysis with respect to four previously proposed interpretation...


    Brazauskienė E; Kilienė A; Siminauskienė K
    This article examines the problem of efficiency of education in modern childhood, emphasizes the need to strengthen the content of the education of children before the school attendance, perception of structure, in conjunction with the current period’s Lithuanian educational context. The focus is on the analysis of problems that arise for pre-school teachers, parents and children. The research is based on education efficiency perspective; the curriculum, the structure of the exact influence on the child's perception of the success and the quality of life in a pre-school institution and school attendance are discussed. The research highlighted the need to ensure...

  20. Grammatical devices for sharing points

    Brian Macwhinney; Brian Macwhinney
    Certain linguistic devices play a central role in facilitating the exchange of thoughts between the speaker and the listener in natural communication. These devices are designed to control the ebb and flow of knowledge, belief, narration, and assertion during both planned and unplanned discourse. The collection of such devices constitutes what I call the "point-sharing system. " From the speaker's point of view, the function of point sharing is realized through point making, because each attempt by the speaker to share his thoughts with his listener involves the making of a "point. " From the listener's point of view, the...

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