Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 68,273

  1. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00560 Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule

    Iris Berent; A Dupuis; Diane Brentari; Hugh Rabagliati; Iris Berent
    Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated...

  2. Development of a Serial Order in Speech Constrained by Articulatory Coordination

    Hiroki Oohashi; Hama Watanabe; Gentaro Taga
    Universal linguistic constraints seem to govern the organization of sound sequences in words. However, our understanding of the origin and development of these constraints is incomplete. One possibility is that the development of neuromuscular control of articulators acts as a constraint for the emergence of sequences in words. Repetitions of the same consonant observed in early infancy and an increase in variation of consonantal sequences over months of age have been interpreted as a consequence of the development of neuromuscular control. Yet, it is not clear how sequential coordination of articulators such as lips, tongue apex and tongue dorsum constrains...

  3. CASE REPORT Open Access Atypical cerebral and cerebellar language organisation: a case study

    Kim Van Dun; Elke De Witte; Wendy Van Daele; Wim Van Hecke; Mario Manto; Peter Mariën
    Background: In the majority of right-handed subjects, language processing is subserved by a close interplay between the left cerebral hemisphere and right cerebellum. Within this network, the dominant fronto-insular region and the contralateral posterior cerebellum are crucially implicated in oral language production. Case Presentation: We report atypical anatomoclinical findings in a right-handed patient with an extensive right cerebellar infarction and an older left fronto-insular stroke. Standardised neurolinguistic and neurocognitive test batteries were performed. In addition, fMRI, DTI, and SPECT results are reported. In this patient, disruption of the cerebellocerebral language network due to vascular damage in the left fronto-insular region...

  4. New Genetic and Linguistic Analyses Show Ancient Human Influence on Baobab Evolution and

    Haripriya Rangan; Karen L. Bell; David A. Baum; Rachael Fowler; Patrick Mcconvell; Thomas Saunders; Stef Spronck; Christian A. Kull; Daniel J. Murphy
    The following information is missing from the Funding section: DB acknowledges NSF grant 1354793. The complete, correct funding information is as follows: The genetics and

  5. Variedades lingüisticas en Italia (a los ciento cincuenta años de la unidad nacional)

    Romani, Patrizia
    Ensayo monográfico sobre las variedades diatópicas del italiano moderno, las cuales se clasifican en cuatro categorías: italiano estándar, italiano regional, dialecto regional y dialecto local.

  6. El retorno a lo humano en Gravedad, de Alfonso Cuarón

    Morales Campos, Arturo
    From a social and semiotic perspective,  Gravity, the movie (2013), by Alfonso Cuarón, within its signifier structure shows some signs of different codes (visual, musical, sonic, linguistic, etc.), which group themselves together into semantic sets. These sets refer to a fundamental microstructure of opposite and complementary poles: the scientific–technological environment in which the visual text’s diegesis repeatedly finds its opposite in a possibility of return to the human essentials: life.

  7. La influencia de la ansiedad lingüística (motivación y autoestima) sobre el aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera francés

    Jarie, Laurane
    Inside the scene of a new educational politic orientated towards the development of the languages, the present article takes as a general aim the study of the influence of the affective - emotional components in the level of students’ learning of Frenchman as foreign language and in bilingual context. To carry out the investigation we will appear different variables as the affectibility and especially we will centre on the different affective - emotional components that are the motivation, the selfesteem and the anxiety, emphasizing in the linguistic anxiety. We establish since variable helps the level of students’ learning of a bilingual French centre. Our problem of investigation...

  8. Contacto lingüístico, heterogeneidad discursiva e identidad en la educación de adultos

    Rizzi, Analía Dilma
    Este trabajo tiene como propósito plantear una discusión en torno a la relación entre contacto lingüístico, heterogeneidad discursiva e identidad en la educación del adulto. Partimos de la noción de que el estudio de las lenguas en contacto es un campo de análisis que habilita la elaboración de estrategias para una educación intercultural. Este tipo de educación resulta imprescindible en el contexto de la educación del adulto, caracterizado por la heterogeneidad. Reconocemos esa heterogeneidad tanto en la composición social, etárea, de origen y de escolaridad previa de los alumnos, como en el discurso específico de los alumnos en situación de contacto...

  9. La narración en el aula de lengua extranjera

    Niedojadlo, Esteban
    En este trabajo presentamos algunas estrategias para la enseñanza de la escritura de textos narrativos en el aula de lengua extranjera. Enmarcamos el estudio en la Lingüística Sistémico Funcional, en particular en la Teoría de Género (Martin 1992, Martin y Rose 2008) y la Teoría de la Valoración (White 2003, Martin y White 2005). Tomamos además en consideración las Dimensiones de la Narración presentadas por Ochs y Capps (2001) Trabajamos con un corpus de 10 narraciones producidas por estudiantes de nivel A2-B1 del MCER. En esta oportunidad, por razones de tiempo, seleccionamos una de las producciones, que reúne las características comunes...

  10. La atenuación: consideraciones y propuestas para la clase de ELSE

    Castiñeiras, Noemí
    “El aprendiz de una segunda lengua -sostiene Félix-Brasdefer (2004)- requiere no sólo de un conocimiento gramatical sino que también necesita poseer un conocimiento pragmalingüístico y sociocultural sobre las formas lingüísticas y las normas sociales de la cultura meta para producir y comprender actos de habla”. Esta consideración, de validez general, adquiere aún mayor relevancia para los estudiantes en contexto de inmersión ya que tal conocimiento facilita la creación y el sostenimiento de vínculos sociales en un marco que es potencialmente más sensible a los malentendidos, fuente de conflictos y de estereotipos negativos. Así, el presente trabajo se propone, por un lado,...

  11. Fundamentos teóricos para una didáctica del español en contextos de interculturalidad

    Martínez, Mario Gustavo
    En el texto El dinamismo lingüístico en el aula intercultural. Su aplicación en talleres para docentes (en prensa),Angelita Martínez, Adriana Speranza y Guillermo Fernández brindan fundamentos conceptuales para la construcción de secuencias didácticas en el contexto de la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera. En el capítulo ―Diversidad lingüística y enseñanza de la lengua: hacia la concreción de una práctica educativa que contemple la realidad multicultural de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la Provincia de Buenos Aires‖, se refieren a la consideración de antecedentes de intervención en el marco de políticas educativas vinculadas con la educación intercultural en Argentina....

  12. The Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition: A Statistical Critique and a Reanalysis

    In second language acquisition research, the critical period hypothesis (CPH) holds that the function between learners ’ age and their susceptibility to second language input is non-linear. This paper revisits the indistinctness found in the literature with regard to this hypothesis’s scope and predictions. Even when its scope is clearly delineated and its predictions are spelt out, however, empirical studies–with few exceptions–use analytical (statistical) tools that are irrelevant with respect to the predictions made. This paper discusses statistical fallacies common in CPH research and illustrates an alternative analytical method (piecewise regression) by means of a reanalysis of two datasets from...

  13. Reviewed by:

    Shannon L. M. Heald; Howard C. Nusbaum; Jonathan E. Peelle; Matthew H. Davis; Mrc Cognition; Lori L. Holt; Carnegie Mellon; Howard C. Nusbaum; Department Of
    One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this...

  14. Book Reviews

    Eeva A. Elliott; Arthur M. Jacobs; Veronica Figueroa Goethe-universität; Eeva A. Elliott; Department Of
    Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various con-texts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise ” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly. ” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the envi-ronment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial...

  15. S (2013) Genome-wide landscapes of human local adaptation in Asia. PLoS One 8: e54224

    Wei Qian; Lian Deng; Dongsheng Lu; Shuhua Xu
    Genetic studies of human local adaptation have been facilitated greatly by recent advances in high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies. However, few studies have investigated local adaptation in Asian populations on a genome-wide scale and with a high geographic resolution. In this study, taking advantage of the dense population coverage in Southeast Asia, which is the part of the world least studied in term of natural selection, we depicted genome-wide landscapes of local adaptations in 63 Asian populations representing the majority of linguistic and ethnic groups in Asia. Using genome-wide data analysis, we discovered many genes showing signs of local adaptation...

  16. $rec.titulo

    In machine translation, document alignment refers to finding correspondences between documents which are exact translations of each other. We define pseudo-alignment as the task of finding topical—as opposed to exact—correspondences between documents in different languages. We apply semisupervised methods to pseudo-align multilingual corpora. Specifically, we construct a topicbased graph for each language. Then, given exact correspondences between a subset of documents, we project the unaligned documents into a shared lower-dimensional space. We demonstrate that close documents in this lower-dimensional space tend to share the same topic. This has applications in machine translation and cross-lingual information analysis. Experimental results show that...

  17. Browsing multilingual information with the multisemcor web interface

    Marcello Ranieri; Emanuele Pianta; Luisa Bentivogli
    Parallel and comparable corpora represent a crucial resource for different Natural Language Processing tasks like machine translation, lexical acquisition, and knowledge structuring but are also suitable to be consulted by humans for different purposes, such as linguistic teaching, corpus linguistics, translation studies, lexicography, multilingual information browsing. To enhance their exploitation by human users, specially designed interfaces need to be developed. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the MultiSemCor Web Interface. MultiSemCor is a parallel English/Italian corpus, which is being developed at ITC-irst starting from the English corpus SemCor. In MultiSemCor the texts are aligned at word...

  18. Over-answering Yes-No Questions: Extended Responses in a NL Interface to a Vision System

    Wolfgang Wahlster; Heinz Marburger; Anthony Jameson; Stephan Busemann
    This paper addresses the problem of overanswering yes-no questions, i.e. of generating extended responses that provide additional information to yes-no questions that pragmatically must be interpreted as wh-questions. Although the general notion of extended responses has already been explored, our paper reports on the first attempt to build a NL system able to elaborate on a response as a result of anticipating obvious follow-up questions, in particular by providing additional case role fillers, by using more specific quantifiers and by generating partial answers to both parts of questions containing coordinating conjunctions. As a further innovation, the system explicitly deals with...

  19. Ποῖον τὸν μῦθον ἔειπες;—Rhetorical Questions in Ancient Greek Masterscriptie Griekse en Latijnse Taal en Cultuur Evert van Emde Boas (0118478)

    In Ancient Greek, as in any other language, the interrogative sentence type is not always used in what we would consider ‘normal ’ questions, those that elicit information from the addressee. If we take that function to be the default, basic value of the interrogative sentence type, the fact that questions can also be used to assert something (rhetorical questions), to make a request (question-requests), to give a command (question-commands), etc., calls for an explanation. Such explanations for what I will call non-standard questions has normally been sought in linguistic pragmatic theory on speech acts and implicatures, the original expression...

  20. A PDP architecture for processing sentences with relative clauses

    Risto Miikkulainen
    A modular parallel distributed processing architecture for parsing, representing and paraphrasing sentences with multiple hierarchical relative clauses is presented. A lowel-level network reads the segments of the sentence word by word into partially speci ed case-role representations of the acts. A higher-level network combines these representations into a list of complete act representations. This internal representation stores the information conveyed by the sentence independent of its linguistic form. The information can be output in natural language in di erent form or style, e.g. as a sequence of simple sentences or as a complex sentence consisting of relative clauses. Generating output...

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