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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística
Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística
Texts as well as dialogues originated a number of analysis at discourse level from various perspectives, such as: modelling of nominal, temporal or spatial reference resolution [1, 5], of rhetorical structure , argumentative structure, and of cooperative discourse structure . So far, little has been done to formally represent the structure of instructional (also called procedural) texts, besides [4, 6]. However, from an applied perspective, the study of instructional text structure is most useful for answering questions in How to?. While research in question- answering (QA) mainly focussed on responding to factoid-like questions using stochastic processes, a more recent trend...
Jerry M. Mendel
A fuzzy logic system (FLS) is unique in that it is able to simultaneously handle numerical data and linguistic knowledge. It is a nonlinear mapping of an input data (feature) vector into a scalar output, i.e.. it maps numbers into numbers. Fuzzy set theory and fuuy logic establish the speciJics of the nonlinear mapping. This tutorial paper provides a guided tour through those aspects offuzzy sets and fuzzy logic that are necessary to synthesize a FLS. It does this by starting with crisp set theory and dual logic and demonstrating how both can be extended to their fuzzy counterparts. Because...
An Information Retrieval (IR) model defined using an ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach is proposed. It accepts ordinal linguistic weighted queries based on two weighting elements: the query terms and the query sub-expressions. In such a way, users may easily express simultaneously several semantic restrictions in a query. A symmetrical threshold semantic is associated to the weights of the query terms and an importance semantic is associated to the weights of the query sub-expressions. The advantage of this IR model with respect to others is the facility for expressing different semantic restrictions on the desired documents simultaneously, incorporating more flexibility in...
Shih-wei Lee; Shyi-ming Chen
In this paper, we present a new method to estimate null values in relational database systems based on genetic algorithms. It can tune the membership functions of the linguistic values of the attributes in relational database systems for estimating null values. The proposed method can get a higher average estimated accuracy rate than the existing methods for estimating null values in relational database systems. 1.
The provision of summaries is of crucial importance for fully effective retrieval of information, but research on summarization has been relatively neglected, After an outline of the basic linguistic and cognitive complexities of text understanding and summarizing, the paper reviews some current projects towards automating various aspects of summarization, and discusses future prospects. 1.
Carsten Brockmann; Surface Realizer; Surface Text
Abstract: We propose a natural language generation (NLG) system parameterizable for the linguistic personality of dialogue partners and for interactive alignment between them.
Athanasios Karalopoulos; Margarita Kokla; Marinos Kavouras
Geographic concept definitions are a rich source of knowledge with special structure and content. Conceptual Graphs are a visual, advanced knowledge based representation formalism grounded on philosophical, linguistic and object-oriented principles (Sowa, 1984 & 2000). We introduce a straightforward and easy-to-implement methodology for the representation of geographic knowledge, expressed by definitions, using conceptual graphs. The proposed methodology consists of two steps: tagging and parsing. In the first step, we follow appropriate rules to tag every word in the concept definition expressing specific geographic knowledge. In the second step, we apply a deterministic algorithm in order to parse the tagged definition...
Antonio Morillas; Bárbara Díaz
In this work, we reflect on some questions about the measurement problem in economics and, especially, their relationship with the scientific method. Statistical sources frequently used by economists contain qualitative information obtained from verbal expressions of individuals by means of surveys, and we discuss the reasons why it would be more adequately analyzed with soft methods than with traditional ones. Some comments on the most commonly applied techniques in the analysis of these types of data with verbal answers are followed by our proposal to compute with words. In our view, an alternative use of the well known Income Evaluation...
The nature of ellipsis resolution has long been the topic of a heated discussion in the linguistics literature. Ellipsis is a widespread linguistic phenomenon. I show here that an adequate account of ellipsis will have to make use of context in the sense of previous discourse. “Syntactic” accounts of ellipsis are no way out of this. This will be an argument for contextualists who claim that “what is said ” depends largely on surrounding context. It also sheds light on the status of subsentential speech, in particular it shows that subsuming it under ellipsis can’t save a semantic minimalist account...
The possibility is pursued that a single mental program underlies both sentence comprehension and generation. The Horn-logic formalism is exploited here to modelize the mental representation of the linguistic knowledge, as a bundle of constraints rather than as a patchwork of procedures. A notion of dependency in a Horn program is defined so that eliminating dependency amounts to solving the problem (of sentence comprehension or generation) represented in terms of that program. Thus, formulated is a problem-solving paradigm called Dependency Propagation (DP): Local dependency in some parts of the program invokes execution, which may cause dependency again in some neighboring...
Carlos Kavka; San Luis; Ejercito De Los Andes; Marc Schoenauer; Équipe Tao; Inria Futurs
A fuzzy controller is usually designed by formulating the knowledge of a human expert into a set of linguistic variables and fuzzy rules. One of the most successful methods to automate the fuzzy controllers development process are evolutionary algorithms. In this work, we propose the Recurrent Fuzzy Voronoi (RFV) model, a representation for recurrent fuzzy systems. It is an extension of the FV model  that extends the application domain to include temporal problems. The FV model is a representation for fuzzy controllers based on Voronoi diagrams that can represent fuzzy systems with synergistic rules, fulfilling the ǫ-completeness property and...
Branimir Boguraev; Rachel Bellamy; Calvin Swart
Socially, hand-held devices are becoming ubiquitous; technologically, they are already in a position to mediate access to on-line news. We argue that current frameworks for news delivery to hand-helds, typically involving transcoding methods by remote proxies layered over generic summarisation techniques are not well suited to the task. This work addresses two questions in this context: the specialised ‘transcoding’ strategy for a well-defined sub-type of content, namely that of primarily text-based news documents, and the emergence of a ‘summary-for-a-hand-held’ genre, which exploits advanced linguistic analysis to meet the particular requirements of news skimming on hand-helds. Directly related is the issue...
In this paper I will discuss the role of computational linguistics to develop language technology for user-applications. Early attempts to implement fundamental linguistic models in computers did not result in software that was useful for people. Various reasons can be given, among which that they tried to solve too many problems, that
Roberto Bartolini; Caterina Caracciolo; Emiliano Giovanetti; Ro Lenci; Simone Marchi
In this paper we present an original approach to natural language query interpretation which has been implemented within the FuLL (Fuzzy Logic and Language) Italian project of BC S.r.l. In particular, we discuss here the creation of linguistic and ontological resources, together with the exploitation of existing ones, for natural language-driven database access and retrieval. Both the database and the queries we experiment with are Italian, but the methodology we broach naturally extends to other languages. 1.
In this paper, a word alignment approach is presented which is based on a combination of clues. Word alignment clues indicate associations between words and phrases. They can be based on features such as frequency, part-of-speech, phrase type, and the actual wordform strings. Clues can be found by calculating similarity measures or learned from word aligned data. The clue alignment approach, which is proposed in this paper, makes it possible to combine association clues taking different kinds of linguistic information into account. It allows a dynamic tokenization into token units of varying size. The approach has been applied to an...
Fei Huang; Ying Zhang; Stephan Vogel
Key phrases are usually among the most information-bearing linguistic structures. Translating them correctly will improve many natural language processing applications. We propose a new framework to mine key phrase translations from web corpora. We submit a source phrase to a search engine as a query, then expand queries by adding the translations of topic-relevant hint words from the returned snippets. We retrieve mixedlanguage web pages based on the expanded queries. Finally, we extract the key phrase translation from the secondround returned web page snippets with phonetic, semantic and frequencydistance features. We achieve 46 % phrase translation accuracy when using top...
J. Couto L. Lundquist
In this article we present a language, which models ways of visualizing and navigating in texts, together with its implementation in a workstation, NaviTexte. We show how this implementation demands a text model, for which we therefore propose a linguistic description. Finally we show how the language can be used to build an application in text linguistics. This application aims to teach foreign language students to identify different coherence creating units in a text and to navigate between them.
Although employees ’ expertise has for some time been seen as a vital knowledge asset in organisations, it is only lately that it started to attract researchers ’ attention. As a result, interest in automated systems that aim at enhancing the visibility and traceability of employees with particular expertise is growing. This research focuses on one critical everyday organisational business tool-email, as an information source to help locate employees with particular expertise within the organisation. This paper presents the process for keyphrase extraction from email messages. The process uses machine learning to tag new text by its part of speech,...
This paper investigates the automatic evaluation of text coherence for machine-generated texts. We introduce a fully-automatic, linguistically rich model of local coherence that correlates with human judgments. Our modeling approach relies on shallow text properties and is relatively inexpensive. We present experimental results that assess the predictive power of various discourse representations proposed in the linguistic literature. Our results demonstrate that certain models capture complementary aspects of coherence and thus can be combined to improve performance. 1
Gaston G. Burek; Maria Vargas-vera
A full understanding of text is out of reach of current human language technology. However, a shallow Natural Language Processing (NLP) approach can be used to provide automated help in the evaluation of essays. The main idea of this paper is that Latent Semantic Indexing (LSA) can be used in conjunction with ontologies and First order Logic (FOL) to locate segments relevant to a question in a student essay. Our test bed, in a first instance, is a set of ontologies such the AKT reference ontology (describing academic life), Newspaper and a Koala ontology (concerning koalas ’ habitat). 1