- Author's Name Barbara Soukup
Austrian listeners ' perceptions of standard-dialect shifting: an experimental approach Recent 'speaker-design ' approaches to sociolinguistic variation analyze how speakers' communicative strategies and goals drive their use of different linguistic varieties in interaction (Schilling-Estes 2002). Thus, speakers may use a shift from one variety into another as a 'contextualization cue ' (Gumperz 1982) that indexes and highlights the set of social meanings (language attitudes) attaching to the newly-introduced variety as relevant for utterance interpretation. For example, Austrian native-speakers in TV discussions often perform strategic shifts from socially prestigious standard ('Hochsprache') into more negatively regarded dialect to express antagonistic footings (contempt,...
The Mystery of Vínarterta: In Search of an Icelandic Ethnic Identity
- Jón Karl Helgason
ABSTRACT: Does there exist a distinct Icelandic ethnic identity in contemporary Canada? To what degree is it similar and to what degree is it different from the traditional Icelandic national identity? Referring to poetry, telepathic messages andworks of scholarship, aswell as interviewswith Canadians of Icelandic origin, this paper tackles these questions. A special emphasis is placed on what Herbert J. Gans has defined as “ethnic symbols, ” such as linguistic ethnic markers, ceremonial holidays and ethnic food. Some of these symbols, in particular the pastry known as “vínarterta”, suggest not only how different Icelandic ethnic identity in Canada is from...
The writing experience of Swedish industrial doctoral students: implications for writing tasks in the university
- Philip Shaw
The paper asks what the role of writing in the university might be in preparing students for writing in the engineering workplace. It reviews literature suggesting that although they use similar formats and mediating tools such as diagrams and equations university tasks are often essentially different from workplace ones. The roles and aims of writer and reader are very different, and the university cannot reproduce the conditions of workplace writing. It examines this conflict by looking at a new group, who are moving back into academe from the workplace rather than in the other direction: industridoktorander. Interviews with ten of...
- Alissa L. Ferry; Susan J. Hespos; Ra R. Waxman
2 Neonates prefer human speech to other non-linguistic auditory stimuli. However, it remains an open question whether there are any conceptual consequences of words on object categorization. Previous research shows that naming a distinct set of objects with a consistent label promotes categorization in 6-month-old infants. The current study examined the influence of words and tones on object categorization in 3- to 4-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized to different exemplars of a category accompanied by either a labeling phrase or a tone sequence. In test, infants viewed novel and new within-category exemplars. Infants who heard labeling phrases provided evidence of...
- Qiangic Languages
Zhangzhung (ZZ), a dead Sino-Tibetan language only known by fragmentary sources, has no living descendant. The area of the former Tibetan empire is home to many non-Tibetan languages, some of which could be related to ZZ, and therefore be of tremendous importance for interpreting ZZ data. However, the huge diversity of Sino-Tibetan (ST) languages, and the poor accessibility of data on many non-literary languages, makes it difficult for specialists of Old Tibetan philology to evaluate etymological claims regarding the ZZ vocabulary. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the degree of relationship between ZZ and Qiangic languages. Several...
Forum on Public Policy 1 Linguistic Diversity and Development: the Language Question and Social
- Justice In Southern Africa
Language is without doubt the most important factor in the learning process for the transfer of knowledge and skills is mediated through the spoken or written word. Ayo Bamgbose, 1992. The linguistic landscape of Southern African states, which includes South Africa, is diverse and complex. Multilingualism being a global norm today, this should be an advantage rather than a disadvantage for individual countries. However, the problem is that African countries in Southern Africa, which include South Africa, favour ex-colonial languages rather than indigenous African languages, but it is these tongues that the majority of Africans use in their day-to-day interaction....
Pronunciation verification of children’s speech for automatic literacy assessment
- Jorge Silva; Abe Kazemzadeh; Hong You; Sungbok Lee; Abeer Alwan; Shrikanth Narayanan
Arguably the most important part of automatically assessing a new reader’s literacy is in verifying his pronunciation of read-aloud target words. But the pronunciation evaluation task is especially difficult in children, non-native speakers, and pre-literates. Traditional likelihood ratio thresholding methods do not generalize easily, and even expert human evaluators do not always agree on what constitutes an acceptable pronunciation. We propose new recognition- and alignment-based features in a decision tree classification framework, along with the use of prior linguistic information and human perceptual evaluations. Our classification methods demonstrate a 91 % agreement with the voted results of 20 human evaluators...
Morphological Induction Through Linguistic Productivity
- Sarah A. Goodman
The induction program we have crafted relies primarily on the linguistic notion of productivity to find affixes in unmarked text and without the aid of prior grammatical knowledge. In do-ing so, the algorithm unfolds in two stages. It first finds seed affixes, to include infixes and circumfixes, by assaying the character of all possible internal partitions of all words in a small corpus no larger than 3,000 tokens. It then selects a small subset of these seed affixes by examining the distribution patterns of roots they fashion to, as demonstrated in a possibly larger second training file. Specifically, it hypothesizes...
Automatic Bilingual Lexicon Extraction for a Minority Target Language
- Eileen Pamela Tiu; Rachel Edita; O. Roxas
Abstract. An automated approach of extracting bilingual lexicon from comparable, non-parallel corpora was developed for a target language with limited linguistic resources. We combined approaches from previous researches which only concentrated on context extraction, clustering techniques, or usage of part of speech tags for defining the different senses of a word. The domain-specific corpora for the source language contain 381,553 English words, while the target language with minimal language resources contain 92,610 Tagalog word, with 4,817 and 3,421 distinct root words, respectively. Despite the use of limited amount of corpora (400k vs Sadat’s (2003) 39M word corpora) and seed lexicon...
Online handwritten Japanese character string recognition incorporating geometric context
- Xiang-dong Zhou; Jin-lun Yu; Cheng-lin Liu; Takeshi Nagasaki; Katsumi Marukawa
This paper describes an online handwritten Japanese character string recognition system integrating scores of geometric context, character recognition, and linguistic context. We give a string evaluation criterion for better integrating the multiple scores while overcoming the effect of string length variability. For measuring geometric context, we propose a statistical method for modeling both single-character and between-character plausibility. Our experimental results on TUAT HANDS databases show that the geometric context improves the character segmentation accuracy remarkably. 1.
Lexical Importation and Integration: The Case of English-rooted Polish Legalease1
- Edyta Więcławska-szymańska
The analysis proposed here deals with the phenomenon of lexical interference in the field of legislative and legal texts. The analysis focuses on examining the lexical loan terms found in the sample-text analysis and the scope of their adaptation in Polish. The linguistic profile of the lexical units analysed allows to formulate and draw certain specific conclusions. One has grounds to say that the adaptation process in the Polish legislative and legal text is not an ad hoc phenomenon but rather it follows specific patterns which are often not observed in case of the adaptation of the loan words belonging...
La metáfora como mecanismo de valoración: aproximación al estudio de las estrategias lingüísticas de expresión de la actitud en la interacción oral
- Vela Bermejo, Juan
The effects of complexity, accuracy, and fluency on communicative adequacy in oral task performance
- Revesz, Andrea; Ekiert, Monika; Torgersen, Eivend
Communicative adequacy is a key construct in second language research, as the primary goal of most language learners is to communicate successfully in real-world situations. Nevertheless, little is known about what linguistic features contribute to communicatively adequate speech. This study fills this gap by investigating the extent to which complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) predict adequacy, and whether proficiency and task type moderate these relationships. In all, 20 native speakers and 80 second language users from four proficiency levels performed five tasks. Speech samples were rated for adequacy and coded for a range of CAF indices. Filled pause frequency, a...
Conditionals: A Unifying Ranking-Theoretic Perspective
- Wolfgang Spohn
The paper takes an expressivistic perspective, i.e., it takes conditionals of all sorts to primarily express (features of) conditional beliefs. Therefore it is based on what it takes to be the best account of conditional belief, namely ranking theory. It proposes not to start looking at the bewildering linguistic phenomenology, but first to systematically study the various options of expressing features of conditional belief. Those options by far transcend the Ramsey test and include relevancies of various kinds and in particular the so-called “circumstances are such that” reading, under which also all conditionals representing causal relations can be subsumed. In...
Emmaus as a transnational imagined community language, interdiscursivity and stratification in a social movement
- Garrido Sardà, Maria Rosa
Aquesta tesi és una etnografia sociolingüística crítica d’un moviment social transnacional. Investiga la construcció discursiva i lingüística d’una identitat comuna així com de la diferència social dintre del moviment Emmaús des del punt de vista de dues comunitats de pràctica. Emmaús és un moviment de solidaritat fundat per l’Abbé Pierre durant la post-guerra que (re)insereix persones marginades que viuen i treballen amb d’altres en “comunitats” de vida que es dediquen al reciclatge i als projectes socials. La meva etnografia en múltiples contextos se centra en dues comunitats Emmaús, una en l’àrea metropolitana de Barcelona i una altra a Londres. Aquest...
Linguistic resistance on the New Brunswick-Maine border
- Wendy Burnett
Comparison of New Brunswick data from Scargill and Warkentin’s 1972 survey of Canadian English and from the Dialect Topography Project (1994-present) reveals a significant convergence over the past 30 years towards American English forms in seventy-eight percent of the items studied. This is noteworthy in itself, given that there is little evidence of sufficient contact to determine any pattern of linguistic diffusion. Still more remarkable, however, are the data from responses to the Dialect Topography questionnaire by younger speakers along one section of the New Brunswick-Maine border. There, in an area where there is significant social contact with Americans, the...
Arriving events in English and Spanish: a
- Maria Cristobal
This paper presents a detailed contrastive frame semantic analysis of arriving events in English and Spanish, attested through a corpus study. The framework and methodology of our research follows the FrameNet II Research Project housed at ICSI. First, we present a formal description of the Arriving frame as a subframe of the Motion frame: arriving encodes a basic subpart of our conceptualization of motion, namely the transition from moving to arriving at a goal. Second, we carry out a cross-linguistic analysis of this frame, based on a corpus study of English and Spanish arriving predicates. A first assumption would suggest...
EXPLORING THE CHALLENGES OF GAINING MEMBERSHIP IN A LINGUSTIC COMMUNITY
From a “feminisms ” theoretical perspective my exploratory research examines the challenges involved in the linguistic border crossing of an English-speaking science educator who volunteered to become a “teacher as second language learner”. Specifically, through narrative inquiry I examined the challenges I encountered as a second language learner at a Spanish speaking elementary school in Guatemala. I found that some of the challenges a second language learner might face not only includes acquiring linguistic proficiency, but also dealing with conflicting power and status issues centered around “linguistic disempowerment”. Because of this I suspect that voice (Voice at the Abstract Level)...
1 Tracking objects, Tracking agents
- Nicolas J. Bullot; Patrick Rysiew
Animals and humans have to keep track of individuals in their environment, both in perception (sensorimotor tracking) and in cognition (e.g., spatio-temporal localization and linguistic reference via memory, communication and reasoning). Items that are typical targets for tracking are things such as stationary physical objects (e.g., rocks, plants, trees, buildings, or attached artifacts), moving physical objects (e.g., animals, certain artifacts) and human
Language structure is a product of our interaction with the world around us. The way we build discourses and develop linguistic categories can immediately be derived from the way we experience our environment and use that experience in species-specific communication. (Heine, 1997:3) 1