Mostrando recursos 81 - 100 de 67,044

  1. How Age and Linguistic Competence Affect Memory for Heard Information

    Schneider, Bruce A.; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje
    The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both...

  2. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control

    McClung, Sarah N.; Kang, Ziho
    Characterization of air traffic controllers' (ATCs') visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades) over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1) defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2) developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human...

  3. Longitudinal development of speech motor control: Motor and linguistic factors

    Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

  4. Cortical Tracking of Hierarchical Linguistic Structures in Connected Speech

    Ding, Nai; Melloni, Lucia; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David
    The most critical attribute of human language is its unbounded combinatorial nature: smaller elements can be combined into larger structures based on a grammatical system, resulting in a hierarchy of linguistic units, e.g., words, phrases, and sentences. Mentally parsing and representing such structures, however, poses challenges for speech comprehension. In speech, hierarchical linguistic structures do not have boundaries clearly defined by acoustic cues and must therefore be internally and incrementally constructed during comprehension. Here we demonstrate that during listening to connected speech, cortical activity of different time scales concurrently tracks the time course of abstract linguistic structures at different hierarchical...

  5. Viewpoint in the Visual-Spatial Modality: The Coordination of Spatial Perspective

    Pyers, Jennie E.; Perniss, Pamela; Emmorey, Karen
    Sign languages express viewpoint-dependent spatial relations (e.g., left, right) iconically but must conventionalize from whose viewpoint the spatial relation is being described, the signer's or the perceiver's. In Experiment 1, ASL signers and sign-naïve gesturers expressed viewpoint-dependent relations egocentrically, but only signers successfully interpreted the descriptions non-egocentrically, suggesting that viewpoint convergence in the visual modality emerges with language conventionalization. In Experiment 2, we observed that the cost of adopting a non-egocentric viewpoint was greater for producers than for perceivers, suggesting that sign languages have converged on the most cognitively efficient means of expressing left-right spatial relations. We suggest that non-linguistic...

  6. Therapy for Cerebral Palsy by Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation Combined With Basic Rehabilitation Treatment: A Case Report

    Zhang, Che; Huang, Li; Gu, Jiaowei; Zhou, Xihui
    Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause leading to childhood disability. Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) transplantation is a promising alternative considering the safety and efficacy in current reports. This report represents a case of hUCB-MSCs transplantation combined with basic rehabilitation treatment beginning as early as age 6 months with follow-up as long as 5 years. Methods. A 6-year-old female patient was diagnosed with CP at age 6 months. The patient accepted 4 infusions of intravenous hUCB-MSCs in each course and received 4 courses of transplantation totally. A series of assessments were performed before the...

  7. Reduction in Prosodic Prominence Predicts Speakers’ Recall: Implications for Theories of Prosody

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.
    Repeated words are often reduced in prosodic prominence, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study contrasted two theories: does prosodic reduction reflect the choice of a particular linguistic form, or does ease of retrieval within the language production system lead to facilitated, less prominent productions? One test of facilitation-based theories is suggested by findings on human memory: Whether a second presentation of an item benefits later memory is predicted by the item’s availability at the time of the second presentation. If prosodic reduction partially reflects facilitated retrieval, it should predict later memory. One naïve participant described to another...

  8. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    Karns, Christina M.; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Neville, Helen J.
    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in human children across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, characterizing the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of...

  9. Single-Word Predictions of Upcoming Language During Comprehension: Evidence from the Cumulative Semantic Interference Task

    Kleinman, Daniel; Runnqvist, Elin; Ferreira, Victor S.
    Comprehenders predict upcoming speech and text on the basis of linguistic input. How many predictions do comprehenders make for an upcoming word? If a listener strongly expects to hear the word “sock”, is the word “shirt” partially expected as well, is it actively inhibited, or is it ignored? The present research addressed these questions by measuring the “downstream” effects of prediction on the processing of subsequently presented stimuli using the cumulative semantic interference paradigm. In three experiments, subjects named pictures (sock) that were presented either in isolation or after strongly constraining sentence frames (“After doing his laundry, Mark always seemed...

  10. The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect in ASL: the role of semantics vs. perception*

    Embodied theories of cognition propose that humans use sensorimotor systems in processing language. The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect (ACE) refers to the finding that motor responses are facilitated after comprehending sentences that imply movement in the same direction. In sign languages there is a potential conflict between sensorimotor systems and linguistic semantics: movement away from the signer is perceived as motion toward the comprehender. We examined whether perceptual processing of sign movement or verb semantics modulate the ACE. Deaf ASL signers performed a semantic judgment task while viewing signed sentences expressing toward or away motion. We found a significant congruency effect...

  11. Speakers of Different Languages Process the Visual World Differently

    Chabal, Sarah; Marian, Viorica
    Language and vision are highly interactive. Here we show that people activate language when they perceive the visual world, and that this language information impacts how speakers of different languages focus their attention. For example, when searching for an item (e.g., clock) in the same visual display, English and Spanish speakers look at different objects. Whereas English speakers searching for the clock also look at a cloud, Spanish speakers searching for the clock also look at a gift, because the Spanish names for gift (regalo) and clock (reloj) overlap phonologically. These different looking patterns emerge despite an absence of direct...

  12. Attachment-security priming attenuates amygdala activation to social and linguistic threat

    Norman, Luke; Lawrence, Natalia; Iles, Andrew; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Karl, Anke
    A predominant expectation that social relationships with others are safe (a secure attachment style), has been linked with reduced threat-related amygdala activation. Experimental priming of mental representations of attachment security can modulate neural responding, but the effects of attachment-security priming on threat-related amygdala activation remains untested. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study examined the effects of trait and primed attachment security on amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli in an emotional faces and a linguistic dot-probe task in 42 healthy participants. Trait attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were positively correlated with amygdala activation to threatening faces in the control...

  13. Neural bases of syntax–semantics interface processing

    Malaia, Evguenia; Newman, Sharlene
    The binding problem—question of how information between the modules of the linguistic system is integrated during language processing—is as yet unresolved. The remarkable speed of language processing and comprehension (Pulvermüller et al. 2009) suggests that at least coarse semantic information (e.g. noun animacy) and syntactically-relevant information (e.g. verbal template) are integrated rapidly to allow for coarse comprehension. This EEG study investigated syntax–semantics interface processing during word-by-word sentence reading. As alpha-band neural activity serves as an inhibition mechanism for local networks, we used topographical distribution of alpha power to help identify the timecourse of the binding process. We manipulated the syntactic...

  14. The Neural Computation of Scalar Implicature

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; Snedeker, Jesse; Azar, Stephanie Yen-Mun Liem; Kim, Albert E.
    Language comprehension involves not only constructing the literal meaning of a sentence but also going beyond the literal meaning to infer what was meant but not said. One widely-studied test case is scalar implicature: The inference that, e.g., Sally ate some of the cookies implies she did not eat all of them. Research is mixed on whether this is due to a rote, grammaticalized procedure or instead a complex, contextualized inference. We find that in sentences like If Sally ate some of the cookies, then the rest are on the counter, that the rest triggers a late, sustained positivity relative...

  15. Harmonic biases in child learners: In support of language universals

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L.
    A fundamental question for cognitive science concerns the ways in which languages are shaped by the biases of language learners. Recent research using laboratory language learning paradigms, primarily with adults, has shown that structures or rules that are common in the languages of the world are learned or processed more easily than patterns that are rare or unattested. Here we target child learners, investigating a set of biases for word order learning in the noun phrase studied by Culbertson, Smolensky & Legendre (2012) in college-age adults. We provide the first evidence that child learners exhibit a preference for typologically common...

  16. Linguistic Labels, Dynamic Visual Features, and Attention in Infant Category Learning

    Deng, Wei (Sophia); Sloutsky, Vladimir M.
    How do words affect categorization? According to some accounts, even early in development, words are category markers and are different from other features. According to other accounts, early in development, words are part of the input and are akin to other features. The current study addressed this issue by examining the role of words and dynamic visual features in category learning in 8- to 12- month infants. Infants were familiarized with exemplars from one category in a label-defined or motion-defined condition and then tested with prototypes from the studied category and from a novel contrast category. Eye tracking results indicated...

  17. The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution

    Benítez-Burraco, A; Murphy, E
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders involving a number of deficits to linguistic cognition. The gap between genetics and the pathophysiology of ASD remains open, in particular regarding its distinctive linguistic profile. The goal of this article is to attempt to bridge this gap, focusing on how the autistic brain processes language, particularly through the perspective of brain rhythms. Due to the phenomenon of pleiotropy, which may take some decades to overcome, we believe that studies of brain rhythms, which are not faced with problems of this scale, may constitute a more tractable route to interpreting language deficits...

  18. Extracción automática de nexos léxicos

    Sánchez Berriel, Isabel
    Programa de doctorado: Simulación numérica en Ciencias y Tecnología

  19. Linguistic knowledge and . . .

    Tanja Gaustad

  20. Evaluación psicométrica de la lista de comportamiento de Achenbach y Edelbrock en pre-escolares de 4.0 - 5.5 años de nivel socioeconómico bajo

    Zambrano Hernández, Sonia; Meneses Báez, Alba Lucía
    Se evaluó psicométricamente la Lista de Verificación de la conducta infantil de Achenbach y Edelbrock en un grupo de 100 preescolares entre 4.0 y 5.5 años de un colegio público de Suba en Bogotá, mediante la aplicación de los formatos de padres y maestros, previa traducción, adaptación lingüística y pilotaje. El coeficiente Alfa de Cronbach para la escala global fue de 0,94 para padres y para maestros 0,95. El análisis de factores por componentes principales saturó la varianza en el 87%, aunque no correspondió con los factores propuestos por el modelo original. Este instrumento proporciona información diagnóstica sobre la estructura...

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