Soft Data Analysis within a Decision Support
- Claire Laudy; Bénédicte Goujon
Abstract- This paper presents a work achieved within a decision support system. The aim is to support an operator in his/her task of analyzing soft data to monitor and anticipate a geopolitical crisis. The incoming data is filtered and analyzed so as to retain only the relevant events. Therefore, the system extracts the relevant events from the incoming soft data and produces synthetic descriptions of these events. The approach is divided into three steps. First the domain of interest is modeled with an ontology. It describes the events that are relevant to monitor, as well as geographical and political concepts...
Sentence and token splitting based on conditional random fields
- Katrin Tomanek; Joachim Wermter; Udo Hahn
Natural language processing systems which deal with real-world documents require several low-level tasks such as splitting a text into its constituent sentences, and splitting each sentence into its constituent tokens. These basic text segmentation services are usually supplied by some preprocessor prior to linguistic analysis. While this task is often considered as unsophisticated clerical work, in the natural sciences and engineering domains it poses particular problems due to complex naming con-ventions. In this paper, we first introduce an annotation framework for sentence and token splitting underlying a newly constructed sentence- and token-tagged biomedical text corpus. This corpus serves as a...
- Idan L; Rosalind Thornton; Idan Landau; Rosalind Thornton
Early development of control and Raising to Object (RtO) structures in English is investigated by focusing on the complementation of the verb want in diary data from one child from age 1;6 to 2;6. The child progresses through several stages of acquisition that cannot easily be explained as a function of the input or by processing limitations. The child data find explanation in Landau’s (2000, 2004, 2006) Agree-based theory of control, which analyzes the cross-linguistic range of complement types as resulting from different combinations of Tense and Agreement features on the I and C heads. The acquisition stages reflect changing...
Toward a dialect theory: Cultural differences in the expression and recognition of posed facial expressions
- Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Ursula Hess
Two studies provided direct support for a recently proposed dialect theory of communicating emotion, positing that expressive displays show cultural variations similar to linguistic dialects, thereby decreasing accurate recognition by out-group members. In Study 1, 60 participants from Quebec and Gabon posed facial expressions. Dialects, in the form of activating different muscles for the same expressions, emerged most clearly for serenity, shame, and contempt and also for anger, sadness, surprise, and happiness, but not for fear, disgust, or embarrassment. In Study 2, Quebecois and Gabonese participants judged these stimuli and stimuli standardized to erase cultural dialects. As predicted, an in-group...
Handling the Subclassing Anomaly with Object Teams
- Furlong, Jeff; Radenski, Atanas
Existing Java software or libraries can evolve via subclassing. Unfortunately, subclassing may not properly support code adaptation when there are dependencies between classes. More precisely, subclassing in collections of related classes may require reimplementation of otherwise valid classes. This problem is defined as the subclassing anomaly, which is an issue when software evolution or code reuse is a goal of the programmer who is using existing classes. Object Teams offers an implicit fix to this problem and is largely compatible with the existing JVM’s. In this paper, we evaluate how well Object Teams succeeds in providing a solution for a...
A Viterbi-based morphological analysis for speech and natural language integration
- Geunbae Lee; Jong-hyeok Lee; Byungchang Kim; Youngjik Lee
This paper presents a statistical/symbolic hybrid morphological analysis, called Vmorph, for large scale speech and natural language integration for Korean. In the V-morph approach, statistical Viterbi-based lexical decoding and symbolic morphological modeling are integrated together on top of connectionist phoneme recognition engine. Linguistic characteristics of Korean are appropriately considered in this speech and language modeling. Unlike word-based speech and language integration for most of the Indo-European language researches, we developed a morpheme-graph as a speech and language integration model for agglutinative languages. Preliminary experiments on morpheme spotting and sentence recognition based on connectionist phoneme recognition results verify that the V-morph...
TAG and Raising in VSO Languages
- Heidi Harley Seth; Seth Kulick
n the embedded clause. In the formal system of basic TAG, it is generally true that no VSO language is predicted to exhibit a true raising structure, since the finite raising verb must appear in initial position. I' (3) I seems VP V' e I' IP I' (4) I seems VP V' e I' I -fin VP Mary V' V prefer NP Unix The linguistic question, then, is whether it can be shown that a VSO language does exhibit a true raising structure in which the subject is in the matrix clause. This is a non-trivial question for two reasons....
The Nature of Pragmatic Information
- Georgia M. Green
this paper is that the nature of the pragmatic information available from the use of linguistic signs does not parallel the more specifically linguistic information carried by signs. For one thing, even including the indexical information (i.e., indices for speaker, hearer, time and location of the act of uttering something that the sign represents), pragmatic information is not so much information about the sign as it is about the relation between the user of the sign and the act of using the sign. First and foremost, pragmatic information is information about mental models: speaker's and addressee's mental models of each...
Visual Femininity and Masculinity in Synthetic Characters and Patterns of Affect
- Agneta Gulz; Felix Ahlner; Magnus Haake
Abstract. It has been shown that users of a digital system perceive a more ‘masculine-sounding ’ female voice as more persuasive and intelligent than a corresponding but more ‘feminine-sounding ’ female voice. Our study explores whether a parallel pattern of affectively colored evaluations can be elicited when femininity and masculinity are manipulated via visual cues instead of via voice. 80 participants encountered synthetic characters, visually manipulated in terms of femininity and masculinity but with voice, spoken content, linguistic style and role of characters held constant. Evaluations of the two female charac-ters differed in accordance with stereotype predictions – with the...
The whole woman: sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change 1:245–267
- Penelope Eckert
Speaker's sex has emerged as one of the most important social factors in the quantitative study of phonological variation. However, sex does not have a uni-form effect on variables or even on variables that represent sound change in progress. This is because sex is not directly related to linguistic behavior but reflects complex social practice. The correlations of sex with linguistic variables are only a reflection of the effects on linguistic behavior of gender —the com-plex social construction of sex—and it is in this construction that one must seek explanations for such correlations. Sociolinguists generally treat sex in terms of...
Language System – Linguistics as an Empirical Science
- Radek Čech
This paper examines two general approaches to language system. First, the traditional approach is based on the langue-parole dichotomy and assumes that real communication is centered around the system (langue) which exists “behind ” all speech acts and that only the system makes communication possible. However, there is no direct method how to observe the system. Second, the empirical approach rejects the langue-parole dichotomy because of the impossibility of direct observation of language system (in the sense of langue). According to this approach the system is only a testable theoretical construct. Traditional approach to language system Language is the system...
Papers from the Parasession on Theory and Data in Linguistics Chicago Linguistic Society 32:77-106, 1996 When Intuitions Fail
- William Labov
The title of this article looks in two different directions. It asks, "When do intuitions fail? " hoping to locate the conditions under which intuitions are likely to beunreliable.But it can also be the subordinate clause, of the question, "When intuitions fail, what can we do?": Both approaches, the remedial and the prophylactic, will be considered here. In 1951, Carl Voegelin and Zellig Harris outlined the basic opposition between two methods of gathering data. They characterized the method of Boas and Sapir as simply "Ask the informant, " and pointed out the many biases introduced into the data by this...
PRIORITIZING HIGHER EDUCATION BALANCED SCORECARD PERFORMANCE INDICATORS USING FUZZY APPROACH IN AN IRANIAN CONTEXT
- Dr. Daryush Farid; Dr. Heydar Mirfakhredini; Mehran Nejati
Higher education institutes are facing new challenges in order to improve the quality of education. There is a pressure for restructuring and reforming higher education in order to provide quality education and bring up graduates who become fruitful members of their societies. In higher education as in business there are acceptable conventions of measuring excellence. As a result, the implementation of Balanced Scorecard in higher education has been a target of interest in recent years. However, rather than emphasizing on financial performance, higher education has emphasized on academic measures in its Balanced Scorecard. This paper aims to prioritize performance indicators...
From Hell to Polarity : “Aggressively NonD-Linked” Wh-Phrases as Polarity Items. Linguistic Inquiry
- Marcel Den Dikken; Anastasia Giannakidou
the hell; hereinafter, wh-the-hell phrases) exhibit a variety of syntactic and semantic peculiarities, including the fact that they cannot occur in situ and do not support nonecho readings when occurring in root multiple questions. While these are familiar from the literature (albeit less than fully understood), our focus will be on a previously unnoted property ofwh-the-hell phrases: the fact that their distribution (in single wh-questions) matches that of polarity items (PIs). We lay out the key data supporting this claim, embed the PI nature of wh-the-hell phrases in the theory of polarity developed in Giannakidou 1998, 1999, 2001, and establish...
European and Chinese Cognitive Styles and Their Impact on Teaching/Learning
- Benedetto Di Paola
This paper tries to provide evidence that research on the cognitive studies should take into consideration the socio-cultural context playing an important role in student learning Mathematics. Through a linguistic-cultural approach the paper wants to be a further close examination on the Didactic thematic related to a possible comparison between East and West and, particularly, between Chinese and Italian mathematical thoughts in some particular aspects related to the phase of argumentation and proving. A discussion of the two countries cultural coordinates and the reference to the Experimental Epistemology permit an overview of some experimental works conducted by the G.R.I.M. of...
Language and Hispanic Achievement in Texas
- Rebecca M. Callahan
Predicting post secondary choice among Hispanic linguistic minority adolescents
General Combination Rules for Qualitative and Quantitative Beliefs
- Arnaud Martin; Christophe Osswald; Jean Dezert
Martin and Osswald  have recently proposed many gener-alizations of combination rules on quantitative beliefs in order to manage the conflict and to consider the specificity of the responses of the experts. Since the experts express themselves usually in nat-ural language with linguistic labels, Smarandache and Dezert  have introduced a mathematical framework for dealing directly also with qualitative beliefs. In this paper we recall some element of our previous works and propose the new combination rules, developed for the fusion of both qualitative or quantitative beliefs. Manuscript received September 24, 2007; released for publication Au-gust 5, 2008.
Annotating abstract pronominal anaphora in the DAD project
- Costanza Navarretta; Sussi Olsen
anaphora in Danish and Italian. By abstract anaphora it is here meant pronouns whose linguistic antecedents are verbal phrases, clauses anaphora which is important to investigate their use, see i.a. (Webber, 1988; Gundel et al., 2003; Navarretta, 2004; Navarretta, 2007) and which can influence their automatic treatment. Intercoder agreement scores obtained by applying the DAD annotation scheme on texts and dialogues in the two languages are given and show that the information proposed in the scheme can be recognised in a reliable way. 1.
- Book Review; Wolfram Wilss; Kognition Und; Ubersetzen Zu; Theorie Und Praxis; Klaus Baumgartner; Max Niemayer Verlag
tures. Stylistic norms concern the use of rhetorical elements, eg. cliches and the compositional plan of the text (compare GLASER, I~~~/'LsP) is a comparatively recent and controversial notion in linguistics. The most general and least controversial definitions are given by R. GLKSER: "The ESP reflects the speech habits of a professional group... It deals with a job-specific subject and state of affairs by using general and specific lin-guistic means and by including optional non-linguistic visual elements which convey further information. These may be symbols, formulas, graphs, flow charts, maps and various kinds of illu-stration", and by L. HOFFMANN (1979):.#'By LSP...
This article is a contrubution to “basic linguistic theory”, to use the term of Dixon (1997), clearly expounded by
- Russian Academy Of Sciences; Matthew Dryer As Follows
Marking of clause participants ’ semantic roles is an important concern in human languages. Dependent-marking languages, prevailing in the ENCA area, mark semantic roles by means of nominal case affixes. This article explores the expression of roles in head-marking languages, using Athabaskan languages of North America as the main source of evidence. In head-marking languages clause participants are represented by personal pronominal affixes on the verbs. Linear morphological positions in which personal affixes appear are functionally equivalent to nominal case affixes, while the construal of positions in terms of grammatical is misguided. Athabaskan verb involves the following positions: nominative, accusative,...