Controlling Content Realization with Functional Unification Grammars
- Michael Elhadad; Jacques Robin
Standard Functional Unification Grammars (FUGs) provide a structurally guided top-down control regime for sentence generation. When using FUGs to perform content realization as a whole, including lexical choice, this regime is no longer appropriate for two reasons: (1) the unification of non-lexicalized semantic input with an integrated lexico-grammar requires mapping "floating" semantic elements which can trigger extensive backtracking and (2) lexical choice requires accessing external constraint sources on demand to preserve the modularity between conceptual and linguistic knowledge. We introduce two control tools that we have implemented for FUGs to address these limitations: bk-class, a form of dependency-directed backtracking to...
Linguistic Reflection in Java
- Graham Kirby; Ron Morrison; David Stemple
Reflective systems allow their own structures to be altered from within. Here we are concerned with a style of reflection, called linguistic reflection, which is the ability of a running program to generate new program fragments and to integrate these into its own execution. In particular we describe how this kind of reflection may be provided in the compiler-based, strongly typed object-oriented programming language Java. The advantages of the programming technique include attaining high levels of genericity and accommodating system evolution. These advantages are illustrated by an example taken from persistent programming which shows how linguistic reflection allows functionality (program...
Principles for Encoding Machine Readable Dictionaries
- Fifth Euralex International; Nancy Ide; Jean Véronis; Susan Warwick-armstrong; Nicoletta Calzolari
We provide an outline of a standard format for encoding machine readable dictionaries, based on work which is ongoing within the dictionary work group of the Text Encoding Initiative. The format is suitable for encoding a wide range of dictionaries, and is flexible enough to accomodate many esoteric dictionaries as well. It is also suitable for encoding different "views" of a dictionary simultaneously in the same document, specifically, a view which sees the dictionary in its textual format, and a view which sees the information in the dictionary without concern for its physical rendering. 1 . Introduction The Text Encoding...
Paper 3. Space, Scale and Accents: Constructing Migrant Identity in Beijing
- Jie Kathy Dong; M. Baynham; S. Slembrouck (eds
This paper draws on the recently theorised notions of space and scale in sociolinguistics to investigate the complexity and micro-variation of the Chinese language in the context of mass internal migration, and the way in which sociolinguistic process shed light on the construction of migrant identities. In spite of the enormously rich diversity in Chinese languages, images of linguistic stability and homogeneity overlie the societal diversity that characterises every real social environment. The monoglot ideologies focused on Putonghua often present obstacles for migrant workers whose Putonghua proficiency is limited, and disqualifies their existing language resources and skills. Three vignettes will...
Information Extraction from Wikipedia Using Pattern Learning
- Márton Miháltz
In this paper we present solutions for the crucial task of extracting structured information from massive free-text resources, such as Wikipedia, for the sake of semantic databases serving upcoming Semantic Web technologies. We demonstrate both a verb frame-based approach using deep natural language processing techniques with extraction patterns developed by human knowledge experts and machine learning methods using shallow linguistic processing. We also propose a method for learning verb frame-based extraction patterns automatically from labeled data. We show that labeled training data can be produced with only minimal human effort by utilizing existing semantic resources and the special characteristics of...
Propuesta conceptual para la elaboración de un currículo para la lengua de señas colombiana a partir de lineamientos curriculares
- Ayala Cardona, Jaime Alberto
Presentación de los ejes curriculares para el desarrollo de la Lengua de Señas Colombiana como área curricular en los procesos educativos de los niños, niñas y jóvenes Sordos que acceden a la Educación formal en Colombia. Los resultados de esta investigación parten del análisis realizado a los Lineamientos curriculares del área de Lenguaje del Ministerio de Educación Nacional los cuales sirven de referente curricular y conceptual para una propuesta que se ajusta a las necesidades de una lengua viso gestual y se presentan en cuatro ejes: Gramática y estructura lingüística de la Lengua de Señas Colombiana, el discurso en Lengua...
Students' response to CLIL in tertiary education: the Case of Business administration and economics at Complutense University
- Maíz Arévalo, Carmen; Domínguez Romero, Elena
The implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Spanish education is a natural consequence
of the global use of English as a �lingua franca�. This affects not only primary and secondary education but also university, where
a wide range of degrees are being taught in English as a medium of instruction (hereafter EMI). However, in contrast to Spanish
primary and secondary education, which have received more attention (Sierra, 2011; Llinares and Whittaker, 2009; Halbach, 2009,
inter alia), there is still a considerable lack of studies focusing on the Spanish university context and the attitude of both lecturers
and students to the implementation of...
Detection and correction of linguistic errors: results according to linguistic preferences and uses
- Cicres Bosch, Jordi; Llach, Silvia; Ribot, M. Dolors de
This paper examines the ability of 256 university students to detect and correct errors related to different linguistic
aspects of Catalan, by means of a test including correct and incorrect sentences. The sentences included aspects of Catalan prescriptive grammar, errors caused by interference from Spanish, and discursive aspects (adequacy, coherence and cohesion).
In addition to that, the ability of the students has also been linked to data from their language use and linguistic experience in the following areas: language spoken in the family, language spoken with friends, and formal and informal languages of preference.
The results show that students whose preferred language is...
Resolución de anáforas que requieren conocimiento cultural con la herramienta Fungramkb
- Carrión Varela, María de los Llanos
La integración de diversos tipos de conocimiento lingüístico en sistemas de comprensión o procesamiento del
lenguaje natural (PLN) constituye una práctica común. Sin embargo, habitualmente se ha obviado la inclusión de conocimiento
cultural, ya sea por motivos técnicos o teóricos. No obstante, un sistema del PLN enriquecido con información cultural
constituye una herramienta más robusta y cohesionada, para llevar a cabo más óptimamente la resolución de problemas
vinculados a la comprensión del lenguaje natural como, por ejemplo, la ambigüedad existente en fenómenos lingüísticos como
la anáfora, referencia y correferencia o metáfora y metonimia, entre otros. El objetivo de este artículo es describir cómo la base
- Stéphanie Lopez; Anne Condamines; Amélie Josselin-leray; Rupert Salmon; Stéphanie Lopez
Mirail. Her doctoral research project consists of a linguistic analysis of pilot-controller (or airground)
A Spectrum of Soft Computing Model for Medical Diagnosis
- Pankaj Srivastava; Neeraja Sharma
Abstract: The present paper is focused on design and development of soft computing decision making model to solve real life complex problems related with medical sciences.
- A. Mooman; O. Basir; A. Younes
Abstract � Search engines and information retrieval (IR) systems provide a mechanism for users to access large amounts of information available through the Internet. However, in order to find the desired information, the user has to go through a staggering amount of information retrieved from highly dynamic resources. Experimental results show that the approach proposed for constructing specialized domains improves the precision of information retrieval. Our approach involves enriching the user’s query with related linguistic semantic and statistical semantic related concept terms. We employ natural language process (NLP) techniques such as WordNet engine to enrich the user’s query with semantic...
Author manuscript, published in "Content-Based Multimedia Indexing (CBMI2005) (2005)" SPEAKER IDENTITY INDEXING IN AUDIO-VISUAL DOCUMENTS
- Mbarek Charhad; Daniel Moraru; Stéphane Ayache; Georges Quénot
The identity of persons in audiovisual documents represents very important semantic information for content-based indexing and retrieval. The task of speaker’s identity detection can be carried out by exploiting data elements resulting from different modalities (text, image and audio). In this article, we propose an approach for speaker identity indexing in broadcast news using audio content. After a speaker segmentation phase, an identity is given to speech segments by applying linguistic patterns to their transcription from speech recognition. Three types of patterns are used to predict the speaker in the previous, current and next speech segments. Predictions are then propagated...
MODIFICATION OF TOPSIS METHOD FOR SOLVING OF MULTICRITERIA TASKS
- Zoran Marković
Abstract: This paper describes the possible modifications of one of the multi-criteria analysis methods that possess certain advantages in cases of solving the real business problems. We will discuss the TOPSYS method, whereas the modification reflects in change of the determination manner of the ideal and anti-ideal points in criteria environment, in standardization of quantification and fuzzycation of the attributes in cases of criteria expressed by linguistic variables.
Patterns as Abstractions of Spatial Axes
- Jens Gulden; Jens Gulden
Abstract: The decision of how to model patterns as elements of formal systems is a yet sparsely covered research topic. The present article introduces an approach which understands patterns as non-linguistic carriers of formal semantics in models. The notion of patterns is embedded into a theory which links spatial orientation and navigation to the constitution of semantics in human understanding. Inside this framework, the concept of patterns is treated conform to the notion of spatial axes on a shared higher level of abstraction. A formal model is presented which expresses the introduced notion of patterns in a practically applicable meta-modeling...
Web Query Processing Approaches – A Survey and Comparison
- M. Manikantan
World Wide Web, in short www or simply web, is interconnection of hypertext documents through internet and accessed with the help of web browser. The web search is enabled by navigating hyperlinks in a webpage or through search engines or by web programming. The search queries are classified mainly in four types as Informational queries, Navigational queries, Transactional queries and Connectivity queries. We can classify the evolutionary development of web query processing from database query processing and SQL optimizations as Learning and Adaptive query processing, Web query through HTML and web search taxonomies, Web search query and search engines, Web...
PSI-Toolkit- a customizable set of linguistic tools
- Krzysztof Jassem; Adam Mickiewicz
The paper describes PSI-Toolkit, a set of NLP tools designed within a grant of Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The main feature of the toolkit is its open architecture, which allows for the integration of NLP tools designed in independent research centres. The toolkit is widely customizable: PSI-Toolkit processes a variety of text formats and languages. There are no constraints on annotation tag-sets. PSI-Toolkit annotation pipelines may consist of both PSI-Toolkit annotators and external tools.
Improvement of the Results of Statistical Machine Translation System using Anusaaraka
- Shubhamay Sen; Sriram Chaudhury
This paper describes an efficient experimental approach for the improvement of translation quality of phrase based statistical machine translation system by utilizing the insights of the rule based machine translation. As the most primitive step it is believed that appending large and accurately designed linguistic resources such as multiword bilingual dictionaries to the existing training corpus contributes a lot towards the enhancement of phrase alignment quality and phrase coverage of the Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) system. Further improvement in translation coverage can be achieved by improving the dictionary by introducing morphsyntactic word forms of the foreign language words instead of...
Causal relations in the semantics of the French adverb alors
In this work, we investigate the causal relations possibly conveyed by the French adverb alors (then, at that time, so) in Natural Language texts. This work is part of a broader project to provide a systematic analysis of French temporal connectives within Asher’s formal framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (Asher 1993, Asher and Lascarides 2003). Among the linguistic markers that establish a temporal relation between the eventualities introduced by two clauses (henceforth discourse constituents) to be discourse linked, temporal connectives are distinguished by the fact that they introduce at the same time some sort of discourse relation. It was...
www.ijllalw.org SYNONYMY ENRICHMENT IN LANGUAGE EDITING
- Eli Syarifah Aeni; Et Al; Eli Syarifah Aeni; Dewi Ratnasari
A simple definition of synonymy is a word that has the same meaning. Although the similarity is not perfect because it means there are still differences of meaning that depend on the context of the sentence. Each word has different shades of meaning. However, the most important is how words are synonymous in the context of the sentence proper placement and can understand by the general public. It is not easy receiving new vocabulary or language, especially for the common people. This is where the importance of the role of the editor to make the language becomes more varies, but...