Mostrando recursos 81 - 100 de 76,126

  1. Electronic Information Management and Intellectual Property Rights

    Graham P. Cornish
    The paper examines the concept of “digital is different ” or not as the case may be and how and if digital publications are different from their paper counterparts. The concept of copyright in a digital age is explored and various different interpretations of the concept and its application discussed. The linguistic problems of using words from a paper-based environment will be considered and such basic words as “copyright”, “copy”, “author”, “publisher ” and “user ” are put in a new context. Ideas such as databases, fair use and exceptions are explored in their relationship to technological measures to control...

  2. New evidence for balancing selection at the HLA-G locus

    In South Amerindians; José Artur; Bogo Chies
    HLA-G is a non-classical HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) molecule characterized by limited tissue distribution un-der normal physiological conditions and low variability at both DNA and protein levels. Several studies suggest that HLA-G could play a role, as an immunoregulatory molecule, in situations as diverse as transplantation, cancer, viral infections and inflammatory diseases. A total of 237 individuals from 21 South American tribes speaking nine differ-ent linguistic families were studied in relation to the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism at the HLA-G gene. A con-sistent (seven in nine) excess of heterozygosity in samples classified by language was obtained. Our data supply evidences...

  3. An inclination towards accusative

    Alana Johns
    This paper argues that linguistic hierarchies are not real in any linguistic sense but are summaries of linguistic observation or typology. Position in any hi-erarchy is based on intrinsic properties, specjically complexity of linguistic sub-stance. To illustrate, an example involving a change in degree of ergativity across dialects of Inuktitut is discussed. A hierarchy account would only record changes in the use of case, but would not be able to probe the subtle changes in case struc-ture which are suggested by the facts. Under this view, case is not a position on a hierarchy but a syntactic construct, where different...


    Mary Schramm; Coberly; Alice F. Healy
    Alveolar, labial, fricative, and stop features were not readily accessible to adult subjects in a concept-formation task that involved learning a linguistic suffixing rule, even though the alveolar stop category triggers an alternate form of the English past tense suffix. How-ever, the place/manner dissimilation principle was accessed toward the end of the testing session, suggesting that subjects encountered it as an articulatory constraint, as a result of pronouncing stimuli throughout the experiment. Speakers may process the past tense and plural suffixing rules in terms of articulatory constraints (i.e., possible and impossible pronunciation sequences), rather than in terms of segment or...

  5. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Compliment Responses Strategies on Intermediate Iranian Foreign Language Learners ‟ Ability to Respond to Compliments

    Aramreza Sadeghi; Masomeh Foutooh (corresponding
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of explicit instruction of compliment responses strategies on intermediate Iranian EFL learners ‟ ability to respond to compliments appropriately. It also touched on the relationship between explicit instruction and Vygotsy‟s Zone of Proximal Development. More specifically, the study aimed at exploring the linguistic and pragmatic strategies used by Iranian EFL learners when responding to compliments before and after receiving explicit instruction of compliment responses strategies. Furthermore, the research project investigated the social and cultural norms and values that can affect the formulation of compliment responses strategies. A quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest design...

  6. Automatic Identification of Errors in Arabic Handwriting Recognition

    Wei Chu; Ansaf Salleb-aouissi; Nizar Habash; Ryan Roth; Nizar Habash; Ryan Roth
    Arabic handwriting recognition (HR) is a challenging problem due to Arabic’s con-nected letter forms, consonantal diacritics and rich morphology. In this paper we isolate the task of identification of erroneous words in HR from the task of producing corrections for these words. We consider a variety of linguistic (morphological and syntactic) and non-linguistic features to automatically iden-tify these errors. We also consider a learn-ing curve varying in two dimensions: number of segments and number of n-best hypotheses to train on. We additionally evaluate the per-formance on different test sets with different degrees of errors in them. Our best approach achieves...

  7. 1 From the Gap to the Chasm Gender and Participation among Non-Hispanic Whites and Mexican Americans

    Volume Xx Number X; Cindy D. Kam; Elizabeth J. Zechmeister; Jennifer R. Wilking
    This article focuses on gender and ethnic inequalities in political participation across non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans. Using a mainstream model of participation, the authors find that differences in the levels of resources, motiva-tions, and opportunities effectively account for gender gaps within the two populations. However, this mainstream model leaves largely unexplained the chasm in participation across non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans. The authors incorporate socialization experiences specific to Mexican Americans to identify the roots of participatory inequality across these groups. Differences in linguistic, educational, and general assimilation account for participatory differences across Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Equalizing these...

  8. Where does metonymy stops? Senses, facets and active zones. // Metaphor and Symbol

    Carita Paradis
    The purpose of this article is to propose a constrained lexical semantic definition of referential metonymy within a model of meaning as ontology and construal. Due to their various types of lexical–referential pairings, 3 types of construals that are fre-quently referred to as metonymy in the cognitive literature are distinguished as metonymization, facetization, and zone activation. Metonymization involves the use of a lexical item to evoke the sense of something that is not conventionally linked to that particular lexical item. It is argued that metonymy is a contingent relation that stops at the sense level. Facetization and zone activation both...

  9. Artigo Original de Pesquisa

    Pró-fono Revista; Atualização Científica; Jovens Pesquisadores Em Centros; São Paulo (fapesp). Endereço Para; Larissa Cristina Berti
    Contrastes e contrastes encobertos na produção da fala de crianças. Contrastes e contrastes encobertos na produção da fala de crianças** Contrast and covert contrast in the speech production of children *Fonoaudióloga. Doutora em Linguística pelo Instituto de Estudos


    Vicky Turner; Copyright Vicky Turner
    Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author. Downloaded 13-May-2016 02:10:33

  11. Geopolitical dimension of thinking in the Albanian language supports the Euro-Atlantic integration

    Bujar Abedinaj; Phd C
    This work starts with the premise that the Albanian language is one of most ancient languages in the world and stands in the root of the common trunk of the Indo-European languages. The common pre-Indo-European origin is preserved in the present Albanian language almost in the same conditions that this language was spoken 2-3 thousand years ago. Further in the work arguments are set forth regarding Albanian language priorities as a synthetic-analytic type language and the role of the Albanian language as the key in analyzing the Indo-European language system is presented. Regardless the tendencies toward analytic features the Albanian...

  12. 1 Why people say where they are during mobile phone calls.

    Edinburgh Eh Jb
    Why people say where they are during mobile phone calls. Abstract: An often noticed feature of mobile phone calls is some form of 'geographical' locating after a greeting has been done. This article uses some singular instances of mobile phone conversations to provide an answer as to why this geo-linguistic feature has emerged. In examining two 'actual cases ' and a vignette, some light is shed on a more classical spatial topic: mobility. During the opening and closing statements of the examination a short critique is put forward of the 'professionalisation ' of cultural studies and cultural geography and their...

  13. Contemporary Vietnam: Political Opportunities, Conservative Formal Politics, and Patterns of Radical Change_1254 165..184

    Adam Fforde
    This article examines contemporary Vietnamese politics and argues that many opportu-nities remain for political rethinking. It examines linguistic arguments that point to a perpetuation of traditional Communist ideas in two crucial areas—village elections and the treatment of “policy. ” It then juxtaposes this formal conservatism with two areas of tension. First, problems exist in addressing important policy questions related to rural development, poverty, and participation. These suggest that without major rethinking of fundamental political issues, such problems are increasingly hard to address. Second, it examines the context of formal politics, looking at evidence for successful contestation over leadership positions in...

  14. 'C13.29/2:90; Stdck No. 003-003-01659-4; $1.45; add

    Steven J; Edrs Price; Hc Not; Available Edrs
    This paper provides a scientific tasis for the formulation and- expression of performance standards and-.specifications and foi explicit attention to'* 'procedural and prescriptive standards,and specifications. The provisions af, "Interim Performance Criteria-for Solar Combined Heating/CoolingSystems and Dwellings, " a performance specification developed by the National Bureat of Standards, are classifiedin terms of the physical:ettities addzIested, the attributes of the built environment, ' and the properties that group together particular physical entities that may be subject to similar dysfunctions. These provisions are a so o a linguistic--apalysis that examines in detail the wording used and formalizes certain key concepts that are.realized...

  15. 23 Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture The Political Hero Figure in Egyptian Songs: A Linguistic Reading-- With

    Particular Reference; Jamal Abdel Nasser; Ahmed Abdel; Azim Elshiekh

  16. Ho-hsien Pan 267 Nasality in Taiwanese

    Ho-hsien Pan; National Chiao Tung
    Languages differ in terms of phonemic inventories, allophonic rules and phono-tactic constraints. Linguistic influence that speakers and listeners experience from different native phonological systems leads them to perceive the same contrast differently. The role that linguistic experience plays in shaping speech perception has been demonstrated in infant developmental study (Best, McRoberts, & Sithole, 1988; LANGUAGE AND SPEECH, 2004, 47 (3), 267 –296 This study used perceptual and articulatory data to investigate a language specific phonemic inventory, and allophonic rules for homorganic initial voiced stops versus homorganic nasal stops, and oral versus nasal vowels in Taiwanese. Four experiments were conducted: concept...

  17. Digital Spaces in Popular Culture reconfigured for 2012

    An Airchinnigh
    Electronic publication (ElPub) seems to have the biased connotation of a one-way delivery system from the source to the masses. It originates within the “Push culture. ” Specifically, it triggers the notion of a small number of producers and masses of consumers. The World Wide Web (but not the Internet) tends to reinforce this intrinsic paradigm, one that is not very different from schooling. Wikipedia, in all its linguistic varieties is a classical ElPub of the collec-tive. Much enthusiasm is expressed for the English version. The rest of the world languages do not fare so well. It is of interest...


    Alison L. Bailey; Alison L. Bailey; Robin Stevens; Frances A. Butler; Becky Huang; Judy N. Miyoshi
    The work we report focuses on utilizing linguistic profiles of mathematics, science and social studies textbook selections for the creation of reading test specifications. Once we determined that a text and associated tasks fit within the parameters established in Butler et al. (2004), they underwent both internal and external review by language experts and content-area teachers. The external review provided data based on background questionnaires, text and item reviews used to judge representative aspects of topics and linguistic characteristics, and group interviews. Based on this information, the texts were either retained or rejected and items were retained, rejected or reserved...

  19. A Method of Creating New Bilingual Valency Entries using Alternations

    Author(s Fujita; Sanae Bond; Sanae Fujita; Francis Bond
    © 2004 ACL. This is the author created version of a work that has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by Proceedings of COLING 2004 Multilingual Linguistic Resources, Association for Computational Linguistics. It incorporates referee’s comments but changes resulting from the publishing process, such as copyediting, structural formatting, may not be reflected in this document. The published version is available at: [URL:

  20. From Relative Truth to Finean Non-Factualism

    Alexander Jackson
    Abstract: This paper compares two ‘relativist ’ theories about deliciousness: truth-relativism, and Kit Fine’s non-factualism about a subject-matter. Contemporary truth-relativism is presented as a linguistic thesis; its metaphysical underpinning is often neglected. I distinguish three views about the obtaining of worldly states of affairs concerning deliciousness, and argue that none yields a satisfactory version of truth-relativism. Finean non-factualism about deliciousness is not subject to the problems with truth-relativism. I conclude that Finean non-factualism is the better relativist theory. As I explain, non-facualism about deliciousness is happily combined with an invariantist semantics for the word “delicious”. On this approach, relativism is...

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