A New Linguistic Prediction Method Based on Random Set Semantics
- J. Lawry
In this paper we propose a random set framework for learning linguistic models for prediction problems. In this frame-work we show how we can model predic-tion problems based on learning linguis-tic prototypes de¯ned using joint mass as-signments on sets of labels. The potential of this approach is then demonstrated by its application to a model and by bench-mark problem and comparing the results obtained with those from other state-of-the-art learning algorithms. We then show how this framework can be used to evaluate linguistic hypothesises using the learnt prototype models. 1
Prosodic Constraints and the Learner’s Environment: a Corpus Study
- Brian Roark; Katherine Demuth
Jakobson (1968) was one of the first to propose that children’s early utter-ances would exhibit ‘unmarked ’ linguistic structures. For example, he predicted that children would first use segments such as /p/, /n/, and /a / that are widely at-tested in the world’s languages. Given the variability found in children’s early
Relevance of F0 peak shape and alignment for the perception of a functional contrast in Russian.
- Tamara Rathcke
This paper reports a perception experiment carried out to investigate the perceptually relevant properties of yes/no-questions and contrastive emphasis in modern Russian spoken by young people in Kaliningrad. Only melodic cues were involved in the test stimuli such as alignment and shape of F0 peaks as well as presence of a peak plateau. A semantic congruity test was performed to investigate these form-function relations. Results indicate that peak alignment is the strongest cue for the perceptual distinction of the investigated categories. Contour shape (including plateau property) serves as a secondary cue, whereas the effect of a plateau seems to be...
Scale structure and the semantic typology of gradable predicates. Language 81:345–381
- Christopher Kennedy; Louise Mcnally; Delia Graff; Beth Levin; Audiences At
In this paper we develop a semantic typology of gradable predicates, with special emphasis on deverbal adjectives. We argue for the linguistic relevance of this typol-ogy by demonstrating that the distribution and interpretation of degree modifiers is sensitive to its two major classificatory parameters: (1) whether a gradable predicate is associated with what we call an OPEN or CLOSED scale and (2) whether the stan-dard of comparison for the applicability of the predicate is ABSOLUTE or RELATIVE to a context. We further show that the classification of adjectives within the typology is largely predictable. Specifically, the scale structure of a...
CURRENT ISSUES IN LINGUISTIC THEORY I 62 Current Progress in Chadic Linguistics
- Edited Zygmunt Frajzyngier; Russell G. Schuh
Since the spectrum of possibilities in linguistic theory construction is much broader and m~)fe variegated than students of linguistics have perhaps been led to belie-ye, the Current Issues in Linguistic Theory (CILT) series has been established ' 'in order to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of linguistic opinions of scholars who do not necessarily accept the prevailing mode of thought in linguistic science. CILT is a theory-oriented series which welcomes contributions from scholars who have significant proposals to make towards the advancement of our understanding of language, its structure, functioning, and development. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory...
An Ontological Template-supported Interface Agent for FAQ Services
- Sheng-yuan Yang
Abstract:- This paper describes an Interface Agent which works as an assistant between the users and FAQ systems. It integrates several interesting techniques including domain ontology, user modeling, and template-based linguistic processing to effectively tackle the problems associated with traditional FAQ retrieval systems. Our work features an ontology-supported, template-based user modeling technique for developing interface agents. Our preliminary experimentation demonstrates that user intention and focus of up to eighty percent of the user queries can be correctly understood by the system.
Chapter 6 ANOWL-DL IMPLEMENTATION OF GOLD An Ontology for the Semantic Web
- Scott Farrar; D. Terence Langendoen
scription (GOLD) is presented with relevant examples of axioms given throughout. As background, an introduction to Description Logic is presented using examples from linguistics and with particular attention to SHOIN (D), the logic which most closely relates to OWL-DL. The types of axioms used to develop an ontology in OWL-DL are explained. In addition, a domain independent methodology is given for creating description-logic based ontologies of any kind, not just those for linguis-tics. Using the SHOIN (D) notation, the methodology is demonstrated for the linguistics domain with particular attention given to illustrating the use of each type of axiom. Finally,...
Process versus product? Personal reflection and experimentation in task-based learning with the Hiroshima Teacher Trainees 2008
- Clari Searle
In my ten years of teaching, I’ve spent a considerable amount of time devising the best ways to teach linguistic elements, such as grammar or pronunciation targets. Increasingly it seems to
Talker-Specific Effects in Recognition Memory for Sentences1
- K. Mcmichael
Abstract. Speech perception is usually considered to be the process by which listeners change spoken sounds into a meaningful string of words and ideas. Yet information about the talker’s age, gender, and socioeconomic status is also carried in parallel with the symbolic content of the linguistic message. The traditional view of speech perception posits that generic linguistic units such as phonemes and words are recovered from the speech signal while “extra-linguistic ” talker-specific attributes such as gender, dialect, and emotional state are filtered from the signal during perceptual processing and before encoding into memory. The last decade has seen a...
Neuroimaging Features of Epidermal Nevus Syndrome
- Wenbo Zhang; Panagiotis G. Simos; Hideaki Ishibashi; James W. Wheless; Eduardo M. Castillo; Joshua I Breier; James E. Baumgartner; Michele E. Fitzgerald; Andrew C. Papanicolaou
Summary: Epidermal nevus syndrome is a kind of neuro-cutaneous syndrome that is associated with epidermal ne-vus and a variety of congenital CNS disorders. Clinical presentations include seizures, paresis, mental retardation, and developmental delay. We report three cases with MR imaging and magnetoencephalography findings; one pa-tient underwent ictal and interictal single photon emission CT. Both structural and functional imaging studies indi-cated that the frontal lobes had lesser involvement or were intact. One patient underwent hemispherectomy because of the medically intractable seizure. He remained seizure free with topiramate monotherapy. Epidermal nevus syndrome is a rare neurocutane-ous syndrome consisting of epidermal nevi and...
2006), The identity of bloggers: openness and gender in personal weblogs
- S. Nowson; J. Oberl
Work has recently been completed on a PhD Thesis concerning individual difference in the language of per-sonal weblogs (Nowson 2005). This paper highlights some of the results. Blogs are increasingly used as a resource for academic study, as evidenced by this symposium. Bloggers are not, however, representative of the population as a whole: they are more likely to be teenage or 20-something females, and appear to be highly Open to Experience. Following our linguistic analysis of personal blog entries, we are constructing a feature set for the automatic detection of gender: a small amount of n-gram context proves best at...
In the middle of nowhere: How a textbook can position the mathematics learner
- Beth Herbel-eisenmann; David Wagner
We outline a framework for investigating how a mathematics textbook positions the mathematics learner. We use tools and concepts from discourse analysis, a field of linguistic scholarship, to illustrate the ways in which a can textbook position people in relation to mathematics and how the text can position the mathematics learner in relation to classmates and to the world outside of the classroom. We conclude with a general consideration of alternative language forms, which, we suggest, ought to include linguistic recognition of the moves associated with mathematisation.
1 Morphological contrast and merger: ranuki in Japanese∗
- Junko Ito; Armin Mester
The central notion of structural linguistics is that of contrast or opposition: The linguistic value and role of a unit cannot be reduced to its physical substance, but is crucially determined by the network of relations that it enters into with other units of a similar kind: phoneme to phoneme, morpheme to morpheme, etc. A mid front vowel /e / in a five-vowel system is something quite
conduct a case study to show how this model can be used and discuss the results.
Evaluating IT/IS investments: A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model approach 26 criteria for IT/IS investment. All stakeholders in a corporation can decide the relative weights they give to the criteria when they evaluate a new IT/IS project by using linguistic values. Experts can also use linguistic values to evaluate all
[DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT]
- Roger Blench
The Austronesians in Madagascar and on the East African coast: surveying the linguistic evidence for domestic and translocated animals
Health, Disease, and the Mind-Body Problem: Linguistic Parallelism
- David T. Graham
The mind-body problem is of practical importance in medicine. Current thinking about it is confused, and leads to significant errors in considering health and disease and in dealing with individual patients. "Psychological " and "physical" cannot usefully be thought of as referring to different kinds of states or events; rather, they are names of different but parallel languages that may be used for describing exactly the same events. "Functional " and "organic " are at best use-less concepts and at worst seriously misleading. "Psychogenic " may be used meaningfully to refer to causation either by a state of the organism...
NOT FOR QUOTATION
- Sebastian Levinea; Benjamin Robertsb
This paper studies the changes in the distribution of incomes in Namibia since Independence in 1990 and the effects on poverty. We first use micro-econometric techniques to improve comparability between the expenditure data in two household surveys conducted in 1993/1994 and 2003/2004. We then go on to compute a series of measures for poverty, inequality and polarisation. Our findings show that Namibia is among the most unequal and polarised societies in the world. The results also point to a small yet statistically significant decrease in the incidence of poverty over the period and to small but insignificant increases in inequality...
morphology in British Sign Language
- Isabelle Barrière; Multilingual Development
The development of morphological verb agreement in children’s language involves several different linguistic phenomena. Language–specific influences impact on developmental patterns and age of acquisition. This study addresses three potential factors involved in the development of verb agreement morphology in sign languages and more specifically in a case study of one deaf child of native signing parents acquiring British Sign Language. The data were collected longitudinally between the ages of 1;10 and 3;0 with analysis concentrating on the emergence and mastery of the inflectional system for encoding person agreement. The data are compared with other studies of verb agreement in both...
The Penn Chinese treebank: Phrase structure annotation of a large corpus. Natural Language Engineering
- Nianwen Xue; Fei Xia
With growing interest in Chinese Language Processing, numerous NLP tools (e.g., word segmenters, part-of-speech taggers, and parsers) for Chinese have been developed all over the world. However, since no large-scale bracketed corpora are available to the public, these tools are trained on corpora with dierent segmentation criteria, part-of-speech tagsets and bracketing guidelines, and therefore, comparisons are diÆcult. As a rst step towards addressing this issue, we have been preparing a large bracketed corpus since late 1998. The rst two installments of the corpus, 250 thousand words of data, fully segmented, POS-tagged and syntactically bracketed, have been released to the public...
Is-Insertion in L2 Grammars of English: A Step forward between Developmental Stages?
- M. Teresa Fleta
The goal of this paper is to account for the fact that children acquiring English, from three-to-twelve-years old and from different linguistic backgrounds (Spanish, French, Korean, Russian and Bantu languages), often produce sequences like (1), in which they omit the verbal inflection, and in