Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 3.066
Coleman, MP; Evans, BG; Barrett, G
Developments over the last decade in legislation and professional guidance on confidentiality and medical research in the UK are reviewed. Despite the General Medical Council's guidance, and recent changes to the common law on confidentiality in England and Wales, confusion remains about what is lawful and professionally acceptable in the handling of identifiable data. The GMC has contributed to this confusion. Professional bodies should jointly produce new guidance. The Health and Social Care Act 2001 is a temporary legislative solution. Public consensus is required on an acceptable balance between the citizen's right to privacy and the responsibility of society--to which...
Bulmer, Simon; Paterson, William E.
This paper presents a set of theses to argue that, two decades after German re-unification and the end of the Cold War, Germany is playing a changed role in the European Union. It argues that changes in the European Union, German domestic politics and in its bilateral diplomacy have resulted in the emergence of a normalized European policy. The paper explores the sources of these changes from enlargement, strains in the euro-zone and bilateral relations with France, through changed processes of policy-making to public opinion. Since Germany has played a leading role in the integration process, the paper‘s findings have...
Soares, Maria Susana Arrosa
En la actualidad, la marca país y el riesgo país (la imagen del país) son conceptos importantes. En un mundo globalizado, las naciones compiten entre sí por la atención, el respeto y la confianza de consumidores potenciales, inversionistas, turistas, inmigrantes, medios y gobiernos de otras naciones. Una marca país altamente positiva y un riesgo país mínimo proveen una notable ventaja competitiva. Por lo tanto, es muy importante que los países conozcan la percepción que la opinión pública mundial tiene de ellos.
Their platforms reflect concern with enhancing the probability of being elected, but some candidates often, or all candidates occasionally, voluntarily adept stances that reduce that probability. Governments care about their popularity, but sometimes they choose, even before an election, to announce or implement policies that are unpopular. For most people, the phenomenon is no news and is not altogether a unhappy one. Deprecating words such as demagogy or "mob rule" and praising ones such as leadership or statesmanship express a deeply-rooted, widelyshared concern about the possibility that democratic politicians could be too subservient to public opinion.(...)
Beyers, Jan; Dür, Andreas; Wonka, Arndt
Salience, which can be broadly understood as the importance actors attribute to a political matter, is a key concept in political science. It has been shown to affect diverse matters such as the behaviour of interest groups and decision-makers in concrete policymaking processes as well as citizen attitudes and their voting behaviour. However, quite regularly salience is differently conceptualized and operationalized within and between different political science subfields, which raises questions of theoretical (non-) complementarity and conceptual boundaries as well as of measurement validity. In this paper we review how salience is conceptualized and measured in studies on public opinion, interest groups, political communication and EU legislative policy-making....
Measuring vaccine confidence: analysis of data obtained by a media surveillance system used to analyse public concerns about vaccines.
Larson, HJ; Smith, DMD; Paterson, P; Cumming, M; Eckersberger, E; Freifeld, CC; Ghinai, I; Jarrett, C; Paushter, L; Brownstein, JS; Madoff, LC
BACKGROUND: The intensity, spread, and effects of public opinion about vaccines are growing as new modes of communication speed up information sharing, contributing to vaccine hesitancy, refusals, and disease outbreaks. We aimed to develop a new application of existing surveillance systems to detect and characterise early signs of vaccine issues. We also aimed to develop a typology of concerns and a way to assess the priority of each concern. METHODS: Following preliminary research by The Vaccine Confidence Project, media reports (eg, online articles, blogs, government reports) were obtained using the HealthMap automated data collection system, adapted to monitor online reports...
Luciano, M; Sampogna, G; Del Vecchio, V; De Rosa, C; Albert, U; Carrà, G; Dell'Osso, B; Di Lorenzo, G; Ferrari, S; Martinotti, G; Nanni, MG; Pinna, F; Pompili, M; Volpe, U; Catapano, F; Fiorillo, A
Since its first edition, the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental disorders (DSM) has had a great impact on the scientific community and the public opinion as well. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released the fifth edition of the manual and-as for the previous versions-several criticisms raised. In particular, the persistence of the categorical approach to mental disorders represents one of the main debated topics, as well as the introduction of new diagnostic syndromes, which are not based on an adequate evidences. Moreover, the threshold of diagnostic criteria for many mental disorders has been lowered, with the consequence that...
La guerra de papel : la representación de los indígenas neozapatistas en la prensa capitalina La Jornada y El Universal (1994 - 2003)
Siguenza, Rosario Carolina León
Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comprender la representación que los líderes de opinión construyeron en la prensa de la capital mexicana sobre los indígenas después del levantamiento neozapatista en 1994, así como su transformación a lo largo de los años en los que el movimiento guerrillero estuvo más presente en los medios de comunicación, específicamente en la prensa escrita abarcando hasta el año 2003. En esta disertación defiendo la idea de que gracias a la aproximación que tuvo el movimiento guerrillero con la prensa, se logró realizar sino un cambio en la imagen que se venía difundiendo sobre los indios,...
Revisiting the Economics of Privacy: Population Statistics and Confidentiality Protection as Public Goods
Abowd, John; Schmutte, Ian M
We consider the problem of determining the optimal accuracy of public statistics when increased accuracy requires a loss of privacy. To formalize this allocation problem, we use tools from statistics and computer science to model the publication technology used by a public statistical agency. We derive the demand for accurate statistics from first principles to generate interdependent preferences that account for the public-good nature of both data accuracy and privacy loss. We first show data accuracy is inefficiently under-supplied by a private provider. Solving the appropriate social planner’s problem produces an implementable publication strategy. We implement the socially optimal publication...
Public opinion in the EU institutions’ discourses on EU legitimacy from the beginnings of integration to today
This article offers a long-term historical account of changing and competing references to public opinion and “what the people want”, and of the projected relationship between the two, in legitimation discourses by EU or Community institutions from the 1950s to today. It describes shifts from taking a generally permissive public opinion for granted, over an increased emphasis on the need to act upon and shape it, to a distinct turn, starting in the mid-1970s and in full swing by the 1980s, towards centring any claims regarding Community legitimacy on citizen expectations. The next chapter in the history of discourses around...
De Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Warshaw, Christopher S
Does it matter for municipal policy which party controls the mayorship in municipal government? The bulk of the existing evidence says no. But there are a variety of theoretical reasons to believe that mayoral partisanship should affect municipal policy. We examine the impact of mayoral partisanship in nearly 1,000 elections in medium and large cities over the past 60 years. In contrast to previous work, we find that mayoral partisanship has a significant impact on the size of municipal government. Democratic mayors spend substantially more than Republican mayors. In order to pay for this spending, Democratic mayors issue substantially more...
Supportive but wary. How Europeans feel about the EU 60 years after the Treaty of Rome. eupinions #2017/1
de Vries, Catherine; Hoffman, Isabell
The Eurozone crisis has pushed reform of the European Union (EU) to the forefront of political debate. How can a Union of 28 states with a population of over half a billion be reformed to weather future economic crises and political challenges? Finding an answer to this question is extremely difficult not only because current reform proposals are so varied, but even more so because we lack insights into the preferences for reform amongst national elites and publics. Although EU support has interested scholars for over three decades now, we virtually know nothing about public support for EU reform. Current research focuses almost exclusively on the causes of...
El 2 de marzo de 1998, Zoilamérica Narváez denuncia públicamente a Daniel Ortega, su padre adoptivo, comandante de la revolución sandinista y ex Presidente de la República ; por violaciones perpetradas en su contra desde la edad de 11 años. Esta acusación provoca una controversia sin precedentes en la opinión pública nicaragüense. Pone en el escenario público a la « familia revolucionaria », a la memoria del régimen sandinista, y a toda una seria de actores; quienes, por sus intervenciones en los medios a favor de Ortega o de Narváez, hacen de la controversia un momento singular de debate público...
Media coverage, industrial policy, and safety : explaining shifting state and Private ownership in China's coal-mining industry
Martin, Nicholas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This thesis uses the case of large-scale, expropriatory nationalization of private coal mines to investigate the puzzle of uneven policy implementation in China. It casts new light on the role media coverage and public opinion play in the Chinese policy process, on the party-state's disciplinary (wenze) practices, and on the dynamics of China's state capitalism and the apparent "advance of state and retreat of private firms" (Guo Jin, Min Tui) in the late 2000s. Despite being an authoritarian state, China often finds implementing policies that damage the interests of local political and business elites difficult. Decisions-making and implementation usually require...
Iersel, Jan Jeroen
The treatment of (internal and external) rectal prolapse (IRP/ERP), and its affiliated rectocele and enterocele, has become an increasingly important part of health care over the years. Although benign, rectal prolapse is associated with a myriad of debilitating symptoms including fecal incontinence, obstructed defecation syndrome and pelvic discomfort. Considering the increasing prevalence, the high costs and the major impact on the quality of life, prolapse of the posterior compartment of the pelvic floor constitutes a significant health issue. A proper pre-operative assessment is crucial. Physical examination has its limitations and therefore dynamic imaging plays an important role. The two most commonly...
You Say "Yes", I Say “No”: Capturing and Measuring ‘Public Opinion’ through Citizens’ Conversation Online (on the Russian-Language LiveJornal Blogging Platform)
Part 3: Online Deliberation
This work poses the question: what explains policy change in tobacco control? To answer it, I draw on studies of public policy that focus on the role of ideas and societal actors in the policy process. In particular, the punctuated equilibrium theory examines how ideas framed in a certain way enter the political agenda and become rooted in society, and predicts that policies emerge dramatically after long periods of stability. Nonetheless, the impact of public opinion has been overlooked in this literature. To address this gap, the theory proposed in this study, called punctuated gradualism theory, refines the punctuated equilibrium...
The "Mysteres" of Paris and Montreal: Crime, national identity, and the city in nineteenth-century urban mysteries and the popular press
Cutchin, Adam M
This dissertation examines the urban mystery in relation to the popular press in order to show how genre and form, modes of publication, and representations of urban space, crime, and punishment all contribute to the formation of national identity in nineteenth-century France and Quebec. Specifically, it explores the ways Eugène Sue’s genre-launching serial novel, Les Mystères de Paris (1842–1843), uses literature and the press to make significant interventions in socio-political debates on social and penal reforms, not just reflecting public opinion, but actually forming it. In the following chapters, I analyze Sue’s novel as well as the works of Sue’s...
Robin G., Qiu; Helio, Ha; Lawrence L., QIU; Badr, Youakim
Gagliardone, Iginio; Stremlau, Nicole
This paper outlines a research framework to assess attitudes towards peace and conflict and support a form of “grassroots diplomacy” in conflict and post-conflict societies. Based on research in Darfur conducted in 2007-2008, a combination of methods that can be effective tools for addressing this challenge is detailed. The intent is to provide a framework that others interested in research in conflict areas can implement in different scenarios.