Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 10.202

  1. L'adoption par les gouvernés

    Platone, François; Parodi, Jean-Luc
    Analysée à travers les quelque deux cents sondages publiés consacrés aux institutions politiques de la Cinquième République de 1958 à 1984, l'évolution des perceptions institutionnelles s'organise en six dimensions principales : l'importance du désarroi institutionnel des citoyens à la veille de la naissance de la Cinquième République ; l'institutionnalisation croissante du système de la Cinquième République, cette adoption se déroulant en trois étapes ; l'acceptation immédiate des mécanismes accroissant le pouvoir de décision du corps électoral ; l'accoutumance progressive à ses modes de fonctionnement et ses règles du jeu ; l'importance fondamentale de l'alternance comme facteur du ralliement des familles...

  2. Justo Sierra y la imagen del México moderno en España a principios del siglo XX

    Ramírez Vuelvas, Carlos
    Abstract: This article examines the definition of the image of modern Mexico in the early 20th century based on a reading of public opinion in Spain in relation to four moments of Mexican culture: the Congreso Hispanoamericano of 1900, the appearance of manuals on the patriotic history, the celebration of the Centennial of Mexican Independence, and the Mexican Revolution. The interpretation of public opinion on those events in Spain reveals the image of modern Mexico that the government of Porfirio Díaz had fostered, in part, through the intellectual labors of such personages as Justo Sierra, and which sought, at the...

  3. «Un santo de corte hispánico»: Giner de los Ríos y el espectro del sujeto español

    Murcia Conesa, Antonio de
    Este artículo estudia la relación de la obra de Giner de los Ríos con el problema del sujeto español desarrollado, en oposición al individualismo moderno, por algunos de sus discípulos como Américo Castro. Se examina la presencia de este sujeto colectivo, bajo la forma de «espíritu social» o «sentido común histórico», en tres aspectos distintos de la obra de Giner: su idea de tradición literaria nacional, que influyó notablemente en los trabajos de historiadores y filólogos posteriores; su concepción organicista del derecho y de la inmanencia social de la soberanía política, presente en la noción de derecho consuetudinario y de...

  4. Cambios en la percepción y el sentido de la historia (Nueva España, 1816-1820)

    Ibarra, Ana Carolina
    El artículo busca explicar los caminos por medio de los cuales se fue abriendo paso una nueva visión del pasado. Una visión más rigurosa y moderna pero también más útil a las exigencias del momento presente. Examina, en lo particular, tres escritos que circularon en la Nueva España en la víspera de la consumación de la independencia y cuya aparición permite construir un puente entre la historiografía de finales del siglo XVIII, los discursos de la independencia y la que algunos llamaron la “historia contemporánea”. Estos folletos permiten vincular los debates que tenían lugar en los ambientes letrados con los...

  5. La dimension cognitive de la culture politique: les Français et la connaissance du système politique

    Perrineau, Pascal
    In political science, the cognitive element of political culture is most often ignored, even though it is at the basis of the judgments and political sentiments which contribute to the evaluative and affective dimensions of political culture. Starting with public opinion survey data, a tentative record of French political knowledge and an identification of the factors of knowledge and ignorance of political objects are presented. Political knowledge is indeed linked to a set of social conditions (cultural level, social level, position held in the division of labor). However, political knowledge cannot be understood only on the basis of the social...

  6. Le déclin du Parti communiste français

    Ranger, Jean
    Since 1981, the French Communist Party (PCF) has been subjected to a process of degradation in all aspects : a series of electoral failures, loss of positions of local power, fall in membership and drop in militant activity, unfavorable development of its image in public opinion. These problems are rooted not only in current political events. The Party's électoral fragility goes bock to the late 1960s. The CGT has been losing ground for at least two decades. Rejection of the USSR by public opinion affects the PCF at each crisis of the communist world. Associating the structural weakness of its...

  7. Le RPR et l'UDF à l'épreuve de l'opposition

    Schonfeld, William R.
    The RPR and the UDF, rival-associates long accustomed to holding power, have had to learn the role of opposition parties since 1981 and to prepare for a return to power in the decisive occasion of 1988 (whose outcome might well begin to appear in the years 1986-1988). To get there, the two parties have had to adapt their organizational System. This had proved much more difficult for the UDF than for the RPR because it is only a federation of autonomous parties, its unity threatened by the institution of proportional representation and by the rivalry of its leaders, potential candidates...

  8. Chapulines y otras plagas: Fenómeno delictivo costarricense del ocaso del siglo XX

    Rodríguez Chaves, Alonso
    The band "The Grasshoppers" originated at the beginning of the nineties of the twentieth century. It is the most recognized group of Costa Rican juvenile criminal history, as it spread terror throughout the city of San Jose and reached unprecedented levels of influence. The work reveals the ineffectiveness of the relevant authorities to confront this scourge and the partition that caused public opinion in defense of repression and prevention.

  9. "Pasquín escandalosísimo realmente": difamación y opinión pública en Navarra (1801-1833)

    Ruiz Astiz, Javier
    The first decades of the nineteenth century were extremely controversial in Kingdom of Navarre. Crisis of the old regime was already palpable. A clear sign of the breakdown of all social and political fabric was the constant appearance of public disorders throughout its geography. Among them I will try to highlight the important role that flaunted defamatory proclamations were posted. The aim of libels and lampoons was none other than cause further instability at community level. This situation encouraged navarre civil authorities to try to curb the harmful consequences originated.

  10. Brujería y construcción de una fama y honor ambivalente en la Castilla del siglo XVIII

    Gómez Alonso, María
    The inquisitorial process of Casilda de la Puente, an old woman from Burgos accused of witchcraft in Valladolid in 1767, highlights the importance of public fame in the construction of the witch image, while the reputation, prestige and public opinion became fundamental elements that affected and conditioned those social relations. Her case shows how the "disreputable" fame witch, not always, or not only, resulted in the besmirched honor of the person and it was motive of interpersonal conflict, but could have other implications that could become positive in certain contexts. This article analyses the building of ambivalent fame as a result of a complex...

  11. Le public et le privé chez les Jacobins (1789-1794)

    Jaume, L.
    The tension between public and private, the former being favored, is a key element of the Jacobin outlook and one of the lasting marks it put on French political culture. The examples studied in the article concern public opinion, mores, the republican cult and property. The Jacobin discourse rationalized a growing extension of the public sphere in those areas. Inasmuch as the theme of « natural right » provides the base of the argument, the general spirit of the Declaration of Rights of 1789 must be questioned first : did that famous text preclude, or could it authorize, such a...

  12. Opinions publiques et sociétés. L'Allemagne: une utopie

    Le Gloannec, Anne-Marie
    For over three decades, the Bonn governments have justified their Deutschlandpolitik partly on the basis of both the East and the West Germons' wish for reunification. Public opinion polls in the FRG show however an ambiguity : the West Germans certainly do wish Germany to be reunited, but that is one of their lowest-ranking priorities. The GDR is increasingly a foreign country for them, even though they visit it in increasing numbers. Conversely, while relatively few East Germans can cross the border, the inhabitants of the GDR live partly in West Germany's political culture. This strange symbiosis nurtures in certain...

  13. Debates éticos en torno al neuromarketing político: el avance tecnológico y su potencial incidencia en la formación de la opinión pública

    Feenstra, Ramón A.; Pallarés Domínguez, Daniel Vicente

  14. Measuring vaccine confidence: analysis of data obtained by a media surveillance system used to analyse public concerns about vaccines.

    Larson, HJ; Smith, DMD; Paterson, P; Cumming, M; Eckersberger, E; Freifeld, CC; Ghinai, I; Jarrett, C; Paushter, L; Brownstein, JS; Madoff, LC
    BACKGROUND: The intensity, spread, and effects of public opinion about vaccines are growing as new modes of communication speed up information sharing, contributing to vaccine hesitancy, refusals, and disease outbreaks. We aimed to develop a new application of existing surveillance systems to detect and characterise early signs of vaccine issues. We also aimed to develop a typology of concerns and a way to assess the priority of each concern. METHODS: Following preliminary research by The Vaccine Confidence Project, media reports (eg, online articles, blogs, government reports) were obtained using the HealthMap automated data collection system, adapted to monitor online reports...

  15. Critical evaluation of current diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry: The case of DSM-5

    Luciano, M; Sampogna, G; Del Vecchio, V; De Rosa, C; Albert, U; Carrà, G; Dell'Osso, B; Di Lorenzo, G; Ferrari, S; Martinotti, G; Nanni, MG; Pinna, F; Pompili, M; Volpe, U; Catapano, F; Fiorillo, A
    Since its first edition, the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental disorders (DSM) has had a great impact on the scientific community and the public opinion as well. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released the fifth edition of the manual and-as for the previous versions-several criticisms raised. In particular, the persistence of the categorical approach to mental disorders represents one of the main debated topics, as well as the introduction of new diagnostic syndromes, which are not based on an adequate evidences. Moreover, the threshold of diagnostic criteria for many mental disorders has been lowered, with the consequence that...

  16. La institucionalización académica de la opinión pública. El caso de España

    Vinuesa Tejero, María Lourdes; Rospir Zabala, Juan Ignacio
    El present article és una descripció detallada del procés d'institucionalització acadèmica de l'opinió pública al segle XX espanyol. L'objectiu d'aquestes pàgines és afirmar la identitat de l'opinió pública a través de la seva lenta però progressiva institucionalització acadèmica. Un objectiu diferent al de l'autenticació de la seva tradició intel·lectual basat en autors i textos claus i ja realitzat en múltiples ocasions i varietat de països. La metodologia ha estat la institucionalització històrica aplicada avui en els estudis sobre comunicació de masses. La interrelació entre agents (autors precursors i contemporanis), idees (reclamació i defenses de propostes) i institucions formals (escoles de...

  17. La emergencia de los sondeos como actor político: la legitimación del estudio “científico” de la opinión pública

    Mañas Ramírez, Beatriz
    El començament de l'estudi científic de les actituds i opinions de la societat suposa un gir metodològic per a la recerca social durant les primeres dècades del segle XX. L'emergència dels sondejos per a l'anàlisi de l'opinió pública té lloc en un context, el nord-americà, on conflueixen una sèrie de processos econòmics, acadèmics i sociopolítics que contribueixen a consolidar una determinada forma d'entendre i estudiar allò social, i com a part d'això, els aspectes subjectius del comportament humà. En aquest treball plantejarem aquests processos que constitueixen l'escenari del desenvolupament i consolidació dels sondatges com a forma canònica d'estudi de l'opinió...

  18. Bertrand Russell: pacifismo político relativo

    Laca Arocena, Francisco Augusto
    Following Bertrand Russell’s biography (1872–1970), logic-mathematician, philosopher, 1950 Literature Nobel prize winner and pacifist militant during almost all the conflictive 20th century, this paper analyzes the double conflict that faces a pacifist: one of civil disobedience to a government that has declared a war, and that of relative social marginalization with a public opinion when this is favorable mostly to that war. After a brief analysis of Pacifism contrasting it with a double tradition in the political Anglo-Saxon thinking, the utilitarianism and the social contract theory, this paper puts emphasis in Russell’s personal distinction between “prestige” and “value” wars. He...

  19. Classes d'âge en question

    Percheron, Annick
    Public opinion surveys have accustomed us to think in terms of age groups, to accept a given structuring by age and the very idea of a division by age groups. The logic of habitual age groups is here questioned as well as their relevance in two specifie fields : moral norms and political mobilization. The analysis shows the complexity of age effects in both the short run and the long run, and highlights a crucial time in life, between 38 and 46 years.

  20. Tensiones en la relación civil-militar en el ecuador del siglo XXI

    Bustamante, Fernando
    El proceso de transición democrática de fines de los años 70 y que en 1979 culminara con el retorno de gobiernos civiles elegidos supuso, asimismo, la cristalización de un esquema de relaciones entre los poderes públicos civiles y las FFAA.Este sistema de relaciones civil-militares se institucionalizó no solo en una legislación, en un conjunto de cuerpos legales o en un reglamento, sino que también consistió en un conjunto de prácticas, hábitos y costumbres tácitamente reconocidos por los agentes centrales del sistema político y por la opinión pública. De esta manera se consolidó un régimen de relaciones civil-militares sustentado parcialmente en...

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.