Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 9.181

  1. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

    Tony Wragg
    Recent military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq have demonstrated the importance of understanding the social processes and power dynamics of local populations. The goal of this study was to simulate the process of social influence within a population using dynamic social impact theory. The simulations reproduced the characteristics of social influence such as opinionclustering, opinion polarization, minority opinion decay, and the non-linearity of public opinion change. The study demonstrated the potential benefits and limitations of using multi-agent social simulation through a case study of a large scale public health information campaign. The study highlighted the requirement for accurate data concerning...

  2. $rec.titulo


    Los ciudadanos, los expertos y los medios de comunicación pueden desempeñar un papel directo en el desarrollo del Periodismo 2.0. La esfera pública en línea va a modificar radicalmente el concepto de medios de comunicación. Una fuente puede ser hoy un medio de comunicación por derecho propio. Este artículo trata de explicar cómo el periodismo está cambiando en la nueva era digital, así como lo que sucederá con su papel tradicional en la actualidad la cibersociedad. Palabras clave: fuentes periodísticas, opinión pública, periodismo online, periodismo científico 45Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico

  3. The European Public’s decision on the War in Iraq: Differences among the EU Member States* Hae-Won Jun**


    Military intervention in foreign countries tends to put people in the situation where they mainly rely on their values and world views to form their opinions. Because the consequences of the military action are unknown, the public finds it difficult to form opinions based on clear sense of costs and benefits. Why does public opinion on military intervention in certain country vary across national borders? This paper attempts to answer this question in the case of the formation of European public views on the war in Iraq in 2003. It finds that the public conceptualize the given policy issue differently...

  4. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN – POLITICAL SCIENCE HONORS THESIS Advertising Effects The Impact of Campaign Ads on Voter Preferences in the 2004 Presidential Election

    C. Joy Wilke
    This paper examines the effects of campaign advertisements on American public opinion in the 2004 Presidential election. It combines survey data and data about ad timing and placement during the campaign to study the effects on respondent preferences. Ads are shown to be most effective among respondents who watched a lot of TV (and thus had the opportunity to be exposed to a high amount of ads), respondents who were relatively unengaged in politics, and those interviewed early in the campaign (before they had the opportunity to learn much about the candidates).

  5. 53Supplement to July HEALTH PROMOTION PRACTICE / Month 2004 Tobacco Industry Direct Marketing After the Master Settlement Agreement

    M. Jane Lewis Drph; Spiro G. Yulis; Cristine Delnevo; Mary Hrywna Mph
    Although Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provi-sions have led to significant changes in tobacco market-ing, expenditures and emphasis on marketing strategies and populations not bound by the MSA have increased significantly. This article discusses tobacco industry direct marketing practices, including direct mail, cou-pons, sweepstakes, brand loyalty programs, event spon-sorship, and tobacco industry magazines, and the implications of such strategies. An analysis of a survey of New Jersey adult smokers provides context and docu-ments notable rates of participation. In addition to bypassing marketing restrictions, many of these strate-gies operate out of sight of the public health community and most of the public...

  6. A New Opinion Information Acquisition System of Mop Forum

    Miao Fengjun A; Han Xinchao B; Zhen Qiusheng C
    Abstract. For resolved the problem to collect public opinion information of the Mop forum, the paper proposed a new method to obtain a URL link,and obtain the appropriate URL Document by the Jsoup method, post HTML structure analysis, accesse to post content, and at last save these to the folder by txt file. After the test, the method is effective and the system is stable.

  7. The Strategy of Waste Management Resulting from Military Activities

    Ioan Braşovean; Ioan Gh. Oroian; Antonia Odagiu; Claudia Balint
    Abstract. Military activities often have a variety of negative impacts on the environment in which they occur. Environmental breaches of military activities can be a threat to the welfare and habitats. Authorities responsibility is in the protection of the physical and natural environments, where they carry out operations and training. Military training can affect the biodiversity starting from the flora, birds and insects to marine life and marine mammals. Through researches and new technologies, together with the standardization of procedures and training, the authorities is working to improve the protection of the environment and the nature where it operates (Malis...

  8. BOOK REVIEW FEATURE CRIMINAL JUSTICE: REVIEW OF A FIELD

    William R. Arnold
    One of the issues that has endured in the study of mankind from the earliest systematic thought to the present concerns the nature of social cohesion. In early sociology (see Coser and Rosenberg, 1957:Chapter 4) this issue was separated from the rest of sociology as the study of "social control, " i.e., the study of all ways by which individuals are kept in line with society's values. In contrast to yet earlier thinking which had implied that law and formal control mechanisms were the only mechanisms of social control, the sociologists of the turn of this century emphasized the informal...

  9. Austria and the Transatlantic Agricultural Biotechnology Divide

    Helge Torgersen
    In contrast to shifts in other European countries in the late 1990s, the Austrian position on agri-cultural biotechnology has remained constant over the past decade. Although Austria’s position was initially considered restrictive in comparison, developments elsewhere narrowed the gap, and the European Commission adopted measures that Austria had endorsed for a long time. Taking Austria as an example, this article considers some frequent explanations for the transat-lantic divide in agricultural biotechnology that emphasize the link between public opinion and policy. Such explanations stress nongovernmental organizations and media campaigns trigger-ing technophobia among an uninformed public, governments giving in to public pressure...

  10. Assessing Public Opinion After 9/11 and Before the Iraq War

    Natalie Jomini Stroud; Bartholomew H. Sparrow; Correspondence Natalie; Jomini Stroud; Department Of
    This study evaluates the frequency with which polls about Iraq and terrorism were fielded and reported in the media between September 11, 2001 and October 11, 2002. A content analysis of 4,481 poll questions and 4,964 references to poll-based public opinion in the media was conducted. There are strong relationships between media coverage of public opinion and the assessment of public opinion via polls. This study also examines whether the frequency with which the public was asked about Iraq and terrorism was related to the public’s concern about these issues and to political elites’ emphasis of these issues. Results suggest...

  11. of Influence

    Paradoxical Patterns; Michael Bruter
    In the past 10 years, an increasing number of social scientists and communication specialists have tried to understand how political institutions and the mass media attempt to – and often seemingly manage to – influence political identities. This body of literature has resulted in some tremendous progress in our understanding of multiple identities, identity change, and theories of communication, but in the context of European identity, there seems to be a distinct breakdown in communication between specific studies of European identity, and more general analyses of European public opinion and Europeans ’ political behaviour. This article argues that a strongly...

  12. POLLING ON THE ISSUES PUBLIC OPINION AND THE NUCLEAR FREEZE

    J. Michael Hogan; Tedj Smith Iii
    Abstract Throughout the first term of the Reagan administra-tion, the nuclear freeze movement headlined the news and scored numerous political victories. Hundreds of state and local govern-ments, as well as the U.S. House of Representatives, passed resolutions in support of the freeze. Public opinion polls played a major role in the debate, as the media and freeze advocates cited numerous polls indicating overwhelming public support for the initiative. Yet a comprehensive and detailed examination of national polls reveals that public support for the freeze came heavily qualified. While Americans expressed strong support for the basic concept of a freeze, they...

  13. What Theories of Political Participation Can Teach Us About the Blogosphere, and Vice Versa

    W. Abraham Gong
    Defending a dissertation requires great stores of inspiration, confidence, and tenacity. Fortunately, the graduate doesn’t have to provide them himself. Many thanks... To Nancy Burns, for consistent cheerful encouragement and precisely tuned advice about methodology, participatory theory, and balancing weighty obligations. To Liz Gerber, for many lessons about smart, compassionate teaching and mentor-ing, plus the finer points of program evaluation. To Scott Page, for making math and model thinking fun, and showing me how to pitch big ideas to big audiences. To Walter Mebane, for questioning every assumption and finding methods to go forward anyway. To Nick Valentino, for kind...

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    Public opinion about ending the sale of tobacco in Australia The recent success of the Australian Government in defending its plain pack-aging law in the High Court1 has prompted speculation about what might be a logical next step in tobacco control and several options for limiting accessibil-ity to tobacco products have been debated in the Australian media. These possibilities include the introduction of a smoker licensing scheme,2 restrictions to the types or locations of outlets from which tobacco can be sold3 4 and a proposal that any person born since 2000 should be banned from buying tobacco products.3 Limited public...

  15. The struggle for Palestinian hearts and minds: violence and public opinion

    David A. Klor; Esteban F. Miaari; Sami H. Paserman; Marco Daniele; David A. Jaeger; Esteban F. Klor; Sami H. Miaari; M. Daniele Paserman
    Sie dürfen die Dokumente nicht für öffentliche oder kommerzielle

  16. The Political and Moral Economies of

    Neoliberalism Mises; João Rodrigues
    This article compares the political and moral economies of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek. It argues that some of the relatively less scrutinised intellectual divergences are located in their views on the roles of the state within a market soci-ety. Convergences will also be identified, particularly in the field of moral economy, where despite their different positions on rationalism and utilitarianism, one can find a fundamental agreement on the positive causal effects of certain economic institu-tions on values. This is accompanied by a sceptical view on the future of market society related to the ongoing strength of institutions fostering...

  17. EDUCATION POLICY AFTER REAGAN WHAT NEXT?

    David L. Astuto; Terry A; David L. Clark; Terry A. Astuto
    This report is one in a series of papers documenting, analyzing, and interpreting changes in federal educational policy since President Reagan assumed office in January 1981. The focus of this report is the future of educational policy. The root problem examined deals with electoral policies and the apparent apathy of the public. Results of polls on public opinion regarding education from 1975 to 1982 (obtained from Gallup, New York Times, and Washington Post) are presented. Five categories of changes are discussed as well as five preferences about education that were pursued by the Administration (individual competition, institutional competition, performance standards,...

  18. Media effects under a monopoly: the case of Beijing in economic reform

    Xinshu Zhao; Jian-hua Zhu; Hairong Li; Glen L. Bleske
    What impact do media have on public opinion when they are tightly controlled by the government, as in the People's Republic of China? Little reliable information is available for an answer, especially at the individual level. This study is a secondary analysis of a stratified random sample of 870 Beijing residents concerning economic reform in China during the mid-1980s. They were questionnaire-interviewed in 1986 with a 90 percent response rate. Regression and path analysis suggest that the government media were effective in increasing knowledge about reform and in affecting some attitudes, but it was less effective or totally ineffective in...

  19. Generational Differences in the Impact of Historical Events: The Tiananmen Square Incident in Contemporary Hong Kong Public Opinion

    Francis L. F. Lee
    This study examines the impact of historical events on contemporary public opinion through the case of Hong Kong people’s attitude toward the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident in China. It analyzes whether attitude toward Tiananmen continues to shape present political attitudes and beliefs. Moreover, drawing upon theories and research on collective memory, this study examines generational differences in the signifi-cance of an historical event. Analysis of data from two surveys consistently shows that the linkages between attitude toward Tiananmen and other political attitudes are strongest among people older than 25 in 1989. The findings defied the ‘‘critical age hypothesis’ ’ in...

  20. WHERE ARE THE DISGRUNTLED VOTERS? Voter–Party Relations under Cartelizing Conditions

    Jóhanna Kristín Birnir
    Katz and Mair’s provocative Cartel Party argument continues to create fertile ground for debate. This article contributes to under-explored areas of this debate by enhancing the theoretical and empirical understanding of the change in the relationship between parties and voters resulting from the introduction of the cartelizing condition of public funding. To this end, the article examines vote stability empirically, changes in turnout and individual public opinion data, before and after public funding was instituted. By disconfirming the hypothesized expectations of deteriorating voter–party relationships as a result of funding, the empirical analysis pinpoints a number of contradictions in current under-standing...

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