Public Opinion and Policy (LISPOP)
- Steven D. Brown; David Docherty; Kimberly Ellis-hale; Ailsa Henderson; Barry Kay
Please note: Paper is a draft only. The authors welcome comments and feedback, but ask that it not be quoted without prior consent. Contact any of the authors at the e-mail addresses below:
The Library Committee in the
practices differ as widely as that of library government. On the main objectives of the modern public library and the organizational methods appropriate for their attainment there is little, if any, real divergence of opinion in the Anglo-American public library world, and indeed there is a remarkable measure of professional agreement on such matters as the need for reorganization of units of service on more rational lines, for supra-local sources of financial support, and for more effective application of minimum standards of service. The most recently issued statements on these and other matters by the national professional associations on both...
THE ROLE OF THINK TANKS IN AFFECTING PEOPLE'S
In a complex and interconnected world, evidence based research has became an indispensable tool for adopting sound policies for the progress of societies. Moreover, to many experts, the genuine value of evidence based research has been the extent to which evidence is utilized by people for reference, for influence and more importantly for change in their behaviors and attitudes. With the wake of globalization, and the information age that we are witnessing, welfare and progress of societies have been measured by the prevalence and adoption of good governance principles. Information access and transparency in availing evidence are amongst those principles....
Terrorism and the State
- Ignacio Sánchez-cuenca
Terrorist activity, particularly in its most extreme manifestations, such as suicide missions, is seen by many as the epitome of pathological, irrational behaviour. Even more traditional forms of terrorism are received by the media, the political establishment and public opinion with such strong feelings of repulsion that any attempt
4 Online news interactivity in four European countries: a pre-political dimension
- Leopoldina Fortunati; Lilia Raycheva; Halliki Harro-loit
A large body of opinion describes interactivity as means to overcome the unidirection-ality of the message from editorial systems to audiences. Many have envisaged in this potential the beginning of an era in which audiences can influence editorial policy with their opinions and comments, can provide news, can have a better relationship with 'their ' newspapers and can form a new relationship with other readers, building a more active public opinion. This analysis looks to the development of a more democratic media in which people, using the Internet, can significantly condition the process of news production and the development of...
The Decline of America’s Soft Power in the United Nations
- Monti Narayan Datta; Thanks Miko Nincic; Giacomo Chiozza; Larry Berman; Emily Goldman For Their
comments and suggestions. Any errors, omissions, or assorted infelicities are strictly the author’s. 1 To what extent does anti-Americanism precipitate a decline in America’s soft power? Nye (2004) postulates a negative relationship, presenting substantial implications for the U.S. national interest. In this essay, I test Nye’s hypothesis through an examination of America’s political influence within the United Nations. Using a fixed-effects model, I regress voting alignment within the UN General Assembly (UNGA) on cross-national, aggregate public opinion toward the U.S., from 1985 to 2005. Controlling for foreign aid received and alliances with the United States, I find a statistically significant,...
and Their Impact in Residential Loan Values
- Electomagnetic Fields; James A. Bryant; Donald R. Epley
Abstract. This article examines the issue of cancerphobia or public fear that has been used in recent court cases as the basis for damages to residential and loan value. Special attention is given to methodology used by the appraiser to estimate the damages from electromagnetic fields and the residential property adjacent to the lines. All commonly used research tools suffer from measurement bias from the difficulty of statistical specification. Matched pair analysis will remain as the predominate tool of choice as it accurately reflects the public’s opinion of value. The appraiser will need to be more careful to extract an...
Immigration and the Imagined Community in Europe and the United States
- Jack Citrin; John Sides
Both Europe and the United States are confronting the challenges of economic and cultural integration posed by immigration. This article uses the ESS and CID surveys to compare transatlantic public opinion about immigrants and immigration.We find more tolerance for cultural diversity in the United States, but we also find that Americans, like Europeans, tend to overestimate the number of immigrants in their countries and tend to favor lower levels of immigration. The underpinnings of individual attitudes are similar in all countries and immigration attitudes are surprisingly unrelated to country-level differences in GDP, unemployment and the number and composition of the...
111 © 2008, Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments Chimpanzees in research and testing worldwide: Overview, oversight and applicable laws
- Kathleen M. Conlee
The use of chimpanzees for biomedical research and testing has been on the decline in recent years and is now restricted or prohibited in a number of countries, largely due to ethical concerns, public opinion, financial costs, as well as scientific issues. The US and Gabon are the only countries that still have chimpanzees for research purposes, with the US having the largest colony in the world of approximately 1,200 chimpanzees at nine U.S laboratories. A timeline and overview of existing and proposed international laws and resolutions regarding chimpanzee research will be discussed. Detailed historical and current information regarding chimpanzee...
Inter) Net Gain? Experiments to Increase Response.’’ Paper presented at American Association for Public Opinion Research Conference
- Steven Tourkin; All Parmer; Shawna Cox; Andrew Zukerberg
interested parties of ongoing research and to encourage discussion of work in progress. The views expressed are the authors ’ and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau. This paper focuses on using monetary incentives to increase overall response and Internet response when both mail and Internet choices are offered. Previous research has indicated that offering an Internet option does not increase total response rates for mail out questionnaires, but there are methods that can increase Internet response over mail response. Given the advantages of an Internet administration, Census and NCES wanted to encourage Internet response for the
Change, Continuity, and Public Opinion in Youth Justice
- John Minkes; John Minkes
On behalf of:
Banco Central Independiente y democracia
- Urrutia, Miguel
In the face of the worldwide trend of granting a greater degree of autonomy to central banks, the compatibility of this scheme with a democratic society has been questioned. In this article, Miguel Urrutia concludes that the independence of the central banks removes the temptation to manage such a powerful instrument as monetary policy in a populist form, and that, on the contrary, it democratizes their oversight, as it subjects them to the surveillance of parliaments, the academy, local and international financial markets, and public opinion.
El sector agropecuario y el plan de desarrollo
- Junguito Bonnet, Roberto
Hace a penas pocos días se dieron a conocer a la opinión pública las bases para el plan nacional de desarrollo 1994-1998, en el documento subtitulado El Salto Social [DNP 1994]. Este documento resume los fundamentos del Plan, presenta un diagnóstico sobre la situación económica y social, define la estrategia mecroeconómica, las prioridades de inversión pública y los programas especificos de acción estatal para los próximos años.
La equidad como propósito del desarrollo
- Corredor Martínez, Consuelo
Los nocivos efectos sociales de la política seguida en el cuatrenio anterior, la persistencia de diferentes formas de violencia y el potencial democrático de la Constitución Política, que otorga un lugar central a lo social, son factores objetivos que explican la propuesta formulada en el plan de desarrollo El Salto Social, así como las expectativas y el respaldo de la opinión pública a algunas de sus iniciativas.
Colombia y el tratado de libre comercio
- Herrera Valencia, Beethoven
The Government has stated its intention of making all efforts to enterNAFTA as soon as possible. It wants to widen its markets and gainadvantages for exports. In Congress and public opinion in the United States there is opposition to the idea, based on Colombia's flagrant violations of human rights, and accusations that the drug-traffickers have infiltrated the economy and politics. Curiously, though,Colombian exports have had privileged access to Europe and the United States, but Colombia has not taken advantage of this and the balanceof trade ins negative. The success of integration does not depend one conomic policy alone: social policy...
- Martínez, Francisco Javier
La rápida modernización de la sociedad española y el profundo cambio en la condición social de la mujer están creando un "nicho ecológico" para la vida familiar que ya no se corresponde con el de la familia tradicional. Crece el número de rupturas familiares (separaciones y divorcios). ¿Implica ello una verdadera "crisis de la familia"? Ésta, sin embargo, goza de una muy "buena prensa" en la opinión pública española. Más aún, ha adquirido en el imaginario colectivo las dimensiones de una "utopía privada" de felicidad.
Tan altas expectativas no son fáciles de cumplirse en un primer ensayo (más o menos duradero)....
Perceptions of preventable medical errors in Alberta, Canada
- Herbert Northcott; Jennifer Northcott; Carol Adair; Charlene Mcbrien-morrison; Peter Norton; John Cowell
Objectives. (i) To compare public perceptions of the frequency, responsibility, causes and solutions for preventable medical errors for persons who report and do not report having experienced a preventable medical error while receiving healthcare services in Alberta, Canada. (ii) To describe public opinion about confidentiality and disclosure of preventable medical error. (iii) To examine the relationship between reporting preventable medical error and perceived quality of the healthcare system. Methods. Population-based telephone survey. Households selected by random digit dialing and individual in household selected by most recent birthday. Province of Alberta, Canada. Representative sample of adult Albertans (N 1500). Public perceptions...
Measuring Constituency Ideology in U.S. House Districts: A Top-Down Simulation Approach
- Phillip J. Ardoin; James C. Garand
One of the most intractable problems associated with studying representation in the U.S. House of Representatives involves the measurement of district-level constituency opinion. In measuring constituency opinion in House districts, scholars have relied on a number of alternative approaches, including the use of demographic variables, small-sample estimates of public opinion, presidential election results, referenda data, and “bottom-up ” simulated opinion. In this article we develop an innovative “top-down ” simulation of House district opinion that provides more reliable and valid measures of House district ideology. We model state-level ideology (as measured by Erikson, Wright, and McIver 1993) as a function...
‘It’s the Economy, Stupid’ Popular Support for EU Accession in the Czech Republic*
- Pat Lyons
Abstract: In this article, a comparison is made between economic and identity explanations of preferences toward EU membership in the Czech Republic. This research demonstrates that economics rather than identity is a more pow-erful explanation of public opinion on accession. With regard to economic explanations of public support for integration three models are examined – a winners and losers model, an international trade liberalisation model, and a foreign direct investment model. A comparison of these three models shows that support for accession was primarily based on attitudes toward foreign di-rect investment. Moreover, contemplating employment opportunities within the EU following accession...
Accounatility Avoidance in the European Union
- Sverker Gustavsson
21. Democratic accountability – adherence and avoidance Democratic accountability is a positively charged term. No one wishes to appear even a little bit sceptical of the need to apply it across the board. Yet non-majoritarianism too is a politically cherished norm. We are expected to favour independence and political insulation for the major institutions of the European Union. The present paper takes its point of departure in the evidently Janus-headed nature of the prevailing outlook on these matters. This fundamental ambivalence cannot simply be waved aside as uninteresting. It deserves closer examination. How can these two contradictory ideas be reconciled?...