Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 2.819

  1. Confidentiality and the public interest in medical research--will we ever get it right?

    Coleman, MP; Evans, BG; Barrett, G
    Developments over the last decade in legislation and professional guidance on confidentiality and medical research in the UK are reviewed. Despite the General Medical Council's guidance, and recent changes to the common law on confidentiality in England and Wales, confusion remains about what is lawful and professionally acceptable in the handling of identifiable data. The GMC has contributed to this confusion. Professional bodies should jointly produce new guidance. The Health and Social Care Act 2001 is a temporary legislative solution. Public consensus is required on an acceptable balance between the citizen's right to privacy and the responsibility of society--to which...

  2. A Life More Ordinary? Ten theses on a normalization of Germany's role in the EU

    Bulmer, Simon; Paterson, William E.
    This paper presents a set of theses to argue that, two decades after German re-unification and the end of the Cold War, Germany is playing a changed role in the European Union. It argues that changes in the European Union, German domestic politics and in its bilateral diplomacy have resulted in the emergence of a normalized European policy. The paper explores the sources of these changes from enlargement, strains in the euro-zone and bilateral relations with France, through changed processes of policy-making to public opinion. Since Germany has played a leading role in the integration process, the paper‘s findings have...

  3. Conceptualizing and Measuring the Political Salience of EU Legislative Processes

    Beyers, Jan; Dür, Andreas; Wonka, Arndt
    Salience, which can be broadly understood as the importance actors attribute to a political matter, is a key concept in political science. It has been shown to affect diverse matters such as the behaviour of interest groups and decision-makers in concrete policymaking processes as well as citizen attitudes and their voting behaviour. However, quite regularly salience is differently conceptualized and operationalized within and between different political science subfields, which raises questions of theoretical (non-) complementarity and conceptual boundaries as well as of measurement validity. In this paper we review how salience is conceptualized and measured in studies on public opinion, interest groups, political communication and EU legislative policy-making....

  4. Measuring vaccine confidence: analysis of data obtained by a media surveillance system used to analyse public concerns about vaccines.

    Larson, HJ; Smith, DMD; Paterson, P; Cumming, M; Eckersberger, E; Freifeld, CC; Ghinai, I; Jarrett, C; Paushter, L; Brownstein, JS; Madoff, LC
    BACKGROUND: The intensity, spread, and effects of public opinion about vaccines are growing as new modes of communication speed up information sharing, contributing to vaccine hesitancy, refusals, and disease outbreaks. We aimed to develop a new application of existing surveillance systems to detect and characterise early signs of vaccine issues. We also aimed to develop a typology of concerns and a way to assess the priority of each concern. METHODS: Following preliminary research by The Vaccine Confidence Project, media reports (eg, online articles, blogs, government reports) were obtained using the HealthMap automated data collection system, adapted to monitor online reports...

  5. Critical evaluation of current diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry: The case of DSM-5

    Luciano, M; Sampogna, G; Del Vecchio, V; De Rosa, C; Albert, U; Carrà, G; Dell'Osso, B; Di Lorenzo, G; Ferrari, S; Martinotti, G; Nanni, MG; Pinna, F; Pompili, M; Volpe, U; Catapano, F; Fiorillo, A
    Since its first edition, the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental disorders (DSM) has had a great impact on the scientific community and the public opinion as well. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released the fifth edition of the manual and-as for the previous versions-several criticisms raised. In particular, the persistence of the categorical approach to mental disorders represents one of the main debated topics, as well as the introduction of new diagnostic syndromes, which are not based on an adequate evidences. Moreover, the threshold of diagnostic criteria for many mental disorders has been lowered, with the consequence that...

  6. Revisiting the Economics of Privacy: Population Statistics and Confidentiality Protection as Public Goods

    Abowd, John; Schmutte, Ian M
    We consider the problem of determining the optimal accuracy of public statistics when increased accuracy requires a loss of privacy. To formalize this allocation problem, we use tools from statistics and computer science to model the publication technology used by a public statistical agency. We derive the demand for accurate statistics from first principles to generate interdependent preferences that account for the public-good nature of both data accuracy and privacy loss. We first show data accuracy is inefficiently under-supplied by a private provider. Solving the appropriate social planner’s problem produces an implementable publication strategy. We implement the socially optimal publication...

  7. Public opinion in the EU institutions’ discourses on EU legitimacy from the beginnings of integration to today

    Sternberg, C
    This article offers a long-term historical account of changing and competing references to public opinion and “what the people want”, and of the projected relationship between the two, in legitimation discourses by EU or Community institutions from the 1950s to today. It describes shifts from taking a generally permissive public opinion for granted, over an increased emphasis on the need to act upon and shape it, to a distinct turn, starting in the mid-1970s and in full swing by the 1980s, towards centring any claims regarding Community legitimacy on citizen expectations. The next chapter in the history of discourses around...

  8. Mayoral Partisanship and the Size of Municipal Government

    De Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Warshaw, Christopher S
    Does it matter for municipal policy which party controls the mayorship in municipal government? The bulk of the existing evidence says no. But there are a variety of theoretical reasons to believe that mayoral partisanship should affect municipal policy. We examine the impact of mayoral partisanship in nearly 1,000 elections in medium and large cities over the past 60 years. In contrast to previous work, we find that mayoral partisanship has a significant impact on the size of municipal government. Democratic mayors spend substantially more than Republican mayors. In order to pay for this spending, Democratic mayors issue substantially more...

  9. Mayoral Partisanship and the Size of Municipal Government

    De Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Warshaw, Christopher S
    Does it matter for municipal policy which party controls the mayorship in municipal government? The bulk of the existing evidence says no. But there are a variety of theoretical reasons to believe that mayoral partisanship should affect municipal policy. We examine the impact of mayoral partisanship in nearly 1,000 elections in medium and large cities over the past 60 years. In contrast to previous work, we find that mayoral partisanship has a significant impact on the size of municipal government. Democratic mayors spend substantially more than Republican mayors. In order to pay for this spending, Democratic mayors issue substantially more...

  10. Supportive but wary. How Europeans feel about the EU 60 years after the Treaty of Rome. eupinions #2017/1

    de Vries, Catherine; Hoffman, Isabell
    The Eurozone crisis has pushed reform of the European Union (EU) to the forefront of political debate. How can a Union of 28 states with a population of over half a billion be reformed to weather future economic crises and political challenges? Finding an answer to this question is extremely difficult not only because current reform proposals are so varied, but even more so because we lack insights into the preferences for reform amongst national elites and publics. Although EU support has interested scholars for over three decades now, we virtually know nothing about public support for EU reform. Current research focuses almost exclusively on the causes of...

  11. Media coverage, industrial policy, and safety : explaining shifting state and Private ownership in China's coal-mining industry

    Martin, Nicholas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    This thesis uses the case of large-scale, expropriatory nationalization of private coal mines to investigate the puzzle of uneven policy implementation in China. It casts new light on the role media coverage and public opinion play in the Chinese policy process, on the party-state's disciplinary (wenze) practices, and on the dynamics of China's state capitalism and the apparent "advance of state and retreat of private firms" (Guo Jin, Min Tui) in the late 2000s. Despite being an authoritarian state, China often finds implementing policies that damage the interests of local political and business elites difficult. Decisions-making and implementation usually require...

  12. Punctuated Gradualism: Policy Images, Public Opinion and Policy Change in Tobacco Control

    Vannoni, M
    This work poses the question: what explains policy change in tobacco control? To answer it, I draw on studies of public policy that focus on the role of ideas and societal actors in the policy process. In particular, the punctuated equilibrium theory examines how ideas framed in a certain way enter the political agenda and become rooted in society, and predicts that policies emerge dramatically after long periods of stability. Nonetheless, the impact of public opinion has been overlooked in this literature. To address this gap, the theory proposed in this study, called punctuated gradualism theory, refines the punctuated equilibrium...

  13. The "Mysteres" of Paris and Montreal: Crime, national identity, and the city in nineteenth-century urban mysteries and the popular press

    Cutchin, Adam M
    This dissertation examines the urban mystery in relation to the popular press in order to show how genre and form, modes of publication, and representations of urban space, crime, and punishment all contribute to the formation of national identity in nineteenth-century France and Quebec. Specifically, it explores the ways Eugène Sue’s genre-launching serial novel, Les Mystères de Paris (1842–1843), uses literature and the press to make significant interventions in socio-political debates on social and penal reforms, not just reflecting public opinion, but actually forming it. In the following chapters, I analyze Sue’s novel as well as the works of Sue’s...

  14. Public Opinion Research in a Conflict Zone: Grassroots Diplomacy in Darfur

    Gagliardone, Iginio; Stremlau, Nicole
    This paper outlines a research framework to assess attitudes towards peace and conflict and support a form of “grassroots diplomacy” in conflict and post-conflict societies. Based on research in Darfur conducted in 2007-2008, a combination of methods that can be effective tools for addressing this challenge is detailed. The intent is to provide a framework that others interested in research in conflict areas can implement in different scenarios.

  15. Benchmarking Public Demand: Russia’s Appetite for Internet Control

    Nisbet, Erik C
    This report explores the Russian public demand for internet freedom. Produced by Erik Nisbet with the Center for Global Communication Studies and the Russian Public Opinion Research Center, the study seeks to uncover attitudes and opinions about internet regulation, censorship of online content, and the potential for citizen mobilization and protest. Key findings from the report include: Almost half (49%) of all Russians believe that information on the Internet needs to be censored; A plurality (42%) of Russians believe foreign countries are using the Internet against Russia and its interests. About one-quarter of Russians think the Internet threatens political stability (24%);...

  16. Welcoming the Dragon: The Role of Public Opinion in Russian Internet Regulation

    Asmolov, Gregory
    This reflection on the report “Benchmarking Public Demand for Internet Freedom: Russia’s Appetite for Internet Control,” argues that protecting internet freedom is not possible without a shift in public opinion. Using Russian examples, Asmolov suggests that public opinion concerning internet regulation is a function of whether the online communications environment is perceived as dangerous–giving officials a chance to play an instrumental role in fostering a sense of peril online and fomenting an “internet as threat” narrative in the minds of the public.

  17. 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report

    McGann, James G
    Background on the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) of the Lauder Institute at the University of Pennsylvania conducts research on the role policy institutes play in governments and civil societies around the world. Often referred to as the “think tanks’ think tank,” TTCSP examines the evolving role and character of public policy research organizations. Over the last 26 years, the TTCSP has developed and led a series of global initiatives that have helped bridge the gap between knowledge and policy in critical policy areas such as international peace and security, globalization...

  18. Dynamic Estimation of Latent Opinion Using a Hierarchical Group-Level IRT Model

    Caughey, Devin; Warshaw, Christopher S
    Over the past eight decades, millions of people have been surveyed on their political opinions. Until recently, however, polls rarely included enough questions in a given domain to apply scaling techniques such as IRT models at the individual level, preventing scholars from taking full advantage of historical survey data. To address this problem, we develop a Bayesian group-level IRT approach that models latent traits at the level of demographic and/or geographic groups rather than individuals. We use a hierarchical model to borrow strength cross-sectionally and dynamic linear models to do so across time. The group-level estimates can be weighted to...

  19. Reporting on the Minsk II Agreement: the Effect of Russian Narratives in French and German Media. IES Policy Brief Issue 2016/17 • October 2016

    Kobzar, Svitlana
    This Policy Brief is the second in a two-part feature that examines Russia’s ability to influence French and German narratives on the Minsk II agreement and Ukraine’s evolving position in the international system. While the first Policy Brief analysed the gap between Ukrainian-Russian interpretations of the Minsk II agreement, this Brief traces how these narratives are contextualised in French and German media landscapes. The research concludes that while there is a consistent presence of Russian narratives in public discourse in these countries, they had limited impact on their public opinion. The German/French news coverage of the Minsk II agreement as...

  20. Viewer-Generated Comments to Online Health Policy News: Content, Dynamics, and Influence

    Shi, Rui
    New media has changed people’s experience with news. News readers nowadays encounter both selective opinions from elite sources and comments from anonymous strangers. The question is: how do people simultaneously process these two types of information? This dissertation selects a health policy, namely the cigarette graphic warning label (GWL) policy, locates online news reports on the major developments of the GWL policy, examines the content and dynamics of the public deliberation on the comment boards for these news articles, and explores the social consequences of such deliberation on news readers. A computerized content analysis was first conducted on user-generated comments...

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