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Nomenclatura Unesco > (61) Psicología

Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 40,115

141. Procesamiento de información congruente sociotrópica y autonómica en sujetos con sintomatología depresiva y ansiosa - Toro, Ronald; Arias, Alejandro; Avella, Sebastián
The aim of this study was to identify differences between sociotropy and autonomy in anxious and depressive participants. Beck (1983) in his model of cognitive vulnerability, postulated the congruent processing hypothesis in which specific stressful events consistent with the dimension of vulnerability, will activate anxious or depressogenic schemas with a distortions of information processing, as a maintainer of psychological disorders. The sample was 590 participants categorized by cutoff points on measures of anxiety and depression. The instruments used were the BDI-II and BAI, and Emotional Stroop software designed to assess processing biases to Autonomic Sociotropy stimulus. The results indicated significant...

142. Ensayo Psicologí­a de emergencias-desastres y psicoemergenciología. Un nuevo reto para la psicologí­a en Colombia - Guerrero, Leonardo
Colombia is ranked by the UN as the fourth nation among India, China, Indonesia and Bangladesh with high risk of dying because of natural disasters due to its vulnerability and population growth, this tendency has increased in the last (30) years more than in Peru Mexico and Argentina. Policies, projects, programs, statistics on the issue of disasters, exclude the importance of the emergency psychological component. The documents elaborated by the Secretaria de Salud de Bogota (2009) and the Ministerio de Proteccion social (2011) present improvement in the answer conceptualization and the psychological intervention. This essay is intended to reflect on...

143. Trastornos de ansiedad en niños y adolescentes: Comparación entre tratamientos farmacológicos y terapias psicológicas - Ballesteros Cabrera, Magnolia del Pilar; Sarmiento López, Julián
Childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders are relatively common, occurring in between 5-18% of all children and adolescents. They are associated with significant morbidity and impairment in social and academic functioning, and when persistent, there is a risk of depression, suicide attempts and substance abuse in adulthood. This paper compares the risk/benefit between the use of pharmacotherapy and psychological therapy in child and adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorders, with the aim of proving practical information about these kinds of interventions, helping to identify in which areas and disorders some treatments have proved to be effective. The most effective pharmacotherapy is the...

144. Formulación clínica de caso: Aspectos metodológicos - Quant, Diana Melissa
The clinical case formulation has been considered a strategy that facilitates the organization of the collected information in a therapeutic process. The clinical case formulation is useful for defining clinically relevant problems presented by the outpatient, the variables related to the acquisition and maintenance of the problem, and to structure a plan of action that benefits the fulfillment of therapeutic objectives and clinical goals. The aim of this paper is to present the clinical case formulation as methodological process that involves a high level of rigor, and that will allow the clinical psychologist to organize information in a way that...

145. Proceso narrativo y relación contextual de ayuda, asociados al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas - Duque, Rosa
This paper shows an investigation-intervention work of a systemic-constructionist approach based in the conversational-narrative,  where the phenomenon of this study was made in a psychiatric hospital and a therapeutics community, were the narrative process (in the contextual help connection identified among institution-family-patient) and its association with the organization of psychoactive substance consumption as a problem and its influence in the maintenance, mobilization or transformation of such problem. It was seek to generate process comprehension where the actors co-participated in the history construction which it could allow or not the family development. In connection with the method, it is assumed a...

146. La intimidación escolar, actores y caracterí­sticas - Erazo Santander, Oscar A.
School bullying is a fact, which is characterized by performing physical or psychological aggressive behavior by a perpetrator to a victim and active look of an observer and continuously over time. These three actors are structured in a perfect pattern experienced in the daily life of schools and that although it is common not to be regarded as normal, as there are dysfunctional psychological and social factors that predispose to the fact and in each of actors creating difficulties in personal and social development, being against the proposals moral, ethical, a healthy coexistence.

147. La comprensión de la individuación en el escenario de la psicoterapia: Una mirada desde el constructivismo - Castillo, Andrés
Despite the test of time, psychotherapy has played a protagonist role becoming the center of controversy and multiple discussions; origins and developments have been diverse and polemical when the multiple theoretical principles and procedures are studied, creating many fields of discussion among the scientific community. Actually, psychotherapy carries on growing as fast as the other different orientations in psychology science; generating new proposals that sustain scientific approaches and epistemological paradigms that sustain psychotherapy in the present time, leaving behind the comprehension of this science as a simple list of procedures (checklist) under the only purpose of implement certain techniques oriented...

148. Procrastinación, procrastinación académica: Concepto e implicaciones - Quant, Diana Melissa; Sánchez, Angélica
Procrastination is behavior patterns characterized by voluntarily postpone activities that must be paid at a set time. The person had been found to exhibit the behavior is related to procrastination, low self-confidence deficit, lack of self-control, depression, disorganized behavior and in some cases perfectionism, dysfunctional impulsivity and anxiety. In the academic context, procrastination is defined as the postponement of tasks of the school context, whether academic or administrative, has found that academic procrastination may be related to the presence of delay behavior in other areas. In Colombia there are studies on procrastination that permit the realization of characterizations that lead...

149. Una aproximacion psicológica a la actividad fí­sica y el sedentarismo en estudiantes y docentes de la Universidad Incca de Colombia - Vigoya Reina, Diana Alejandra
This article presents the foundations of the Project Physical Activity and Sedentary in students and professors of the INCCA University of Colombia, aimed at understanding physical activity from a psychological and interdisciplinary view to strengthen the health and quality of life in the population. Physical inactivity was understood as a global public health problem and a leading cause of death today. The studies focused on assessment, intervention and monitoring, where physical activity is defined as a human behavior with physical, psychological and social. This work was developed in collaboration with the Psychology Programs and Sports of the University Incca and...

150. Normalización de competencias laborales en Colombia - Cárdenas, Ana; Navas, Alexánder
This paper presents the results of a documental research about normalization of work competencies in Colombia. It presents the similar experiences in countries like Chile with Fundación Chile and Mexico with CONOCER, two highly developed institutions and great track record in each region. In this State of the art are reviewed methodological and epistemological issues relating to work competencies, allowing an overview of each of these approaches, their development and application in the same. Also presents the legal and regulatory aspects of the current process of normalization of work competencies in Colombia. Finally, review current results from this process as...

151. Efectos diferenciales de tres condiciones experimentales sobre la emergencia de respuestas: Psicología experimental y educación - Echeverry Gómez, Iván
The objective of the present study was to identify the differential effects of three experimental conditions on the emergence of responses before relationships among stimuli that it has not been directly trained and that they happen before new copies. The experimental conditions were: (a) a precursor's evaluation relational procedure (pPER, Cullinan, Barnes-Holmes & Smeets, 2001), (b) an exhibition procedure for contiguity of stimulus diades without feedback (Tonneau & González, 2004) and (c) a presentation procedure and sequential selection of stimuli without training neither explicit feedback. In the study participated voluntarily 20 students of psychology from first to third semester of...

152. Diseño de un protocolo dirigido a la toma del interrogatorio y contrainterrogatorio de niños y niñas con edades comprendidas entre los 3 y los 7 años, víctimas del delito de acto sexual con menor de 14 años - Tamara, Manuel; Muñoz, Paola; Vergara, Viviana
El presente trabajo es realizado desde el plano académico y teórico revistiendo importancia por cuanto indaga las concepciones generales y esenciales de la Psicología Jurídica, psicología victimológica, delitos sexuales, y legislación colombiana relacionada con este tipo de delito, dando paso al diseño de un protocolo dirigido a la toma del interrogatorio y contra interrogatorio en Juicio Oral a niños y niñas con edades comprendidas entre los tres (3) y siete (7) años vinculados como presuntas víctimas del delito de acto sexual con menor de 14 años. La metodología es de alcance descriptivo, con un diseño no experimental transeccional. La búsqueda...

153. Modelos cognitivos y cognitivo sociales en la prevención y promoción de la salud - Salamanca, Alicia; Giraldo, Cristian
The objective of this literature review is to approach the usefulness of models of health in areas such as prevention of chronic diseases, addictions and promoting healthy habits. The article seeks to delve the merits, in the strengths and weaknesses of cognitive models and social cognition, such as the Health Belief Model (HBM),  Theory of Motivation  Protection  (TMP),  models of Reasoned Action and Planned Action (TAP) and (TAR) and self-efficacy theory of Bandura. The conclusion is undeniable given the importance and implementation of these models in the development of projects and interventions to the community both in the hospital sector...

154. Relaciones entre explicación y comprensión: Consideraciones desde la propuesta de Karl Jaspers - Tamayo, Gonzalo
This paper exhibits some ideas that the psychiatrist and philosopher K. Jaspers has proposed about the Method, and that are still founding reflections and actions in the psychology nowadays. This paper begins contextualizing the life and work of this author, and continues enquiring about the ways he proposes the Access to the knowledge of the psychic and it ends highlighting the need of a comprehensive psychology when it comes to the nature of the human psyche.

155. La ansiedad como factor de riesgo en la adherencia al tratamiento dialítico en pacientes pediátricos con falla renal crónica estadio V. Una mirada desde las diferentes terapias de reemplazo renal - Cárdenas, Andrés
This study focuses on the relationship coexisting adaptability characteristics of intra dialytic therapy and psychopathology typical of mixed anxiety disorders with depression result of poor adherence in pediatric patients, this research focuses on a study of 8 patients evaluating the variation in laboratory techniques associated with psychological assessment techniques as the MMSE, the CDI and the Hamilton test, carrying out the association between laboratory test results, so the search is started in the adaptation of therapy the child or the child to therapy for dialysis techniques to adjust properly to patients.

156. Comprensión existencial del trastorno evitativo de la personalidad II - Martínez, Efrén
This article seeks to enrich the existential perspective compared to the understanding of avoidant personality disorder with emphasis on the noetic-existential processes of activity-passivity front the threatened of existential meanings. Thus, at the same time highlighted the diversity of expressions of this disorder among which are: a) way of being submissive, supportive, dependent, b) paranoid,  suspicious, c) Narcissistic ,believed it, safe; d) depressed, sad, nihilistic, e) obsessive-compulsive, intense or rigorous f) passive aggressive; Regarding the experience of anxiety, we see that this is presented in the form of common mind as an experience of existential categories failure, contempt, invalidation danger...

157. Dificultadades de aprendizagem nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental - Da Silva Kauark, Fabiana
Um estudo reflexivo sobre problemas encontrados nas escolas e as possiveis acoes pedagógicas apontados pela psicología educacional

158. Del objeto de estudio para la intervención en Trabajo Social - Raya Diez, Esther; Caparrós Civera, Neus
El trabajo trata sobre el objeto de investigación en Trabajo Social. La investigación es un elemento clave del proceso de intervención. Se han analizado 106 fichas de tesis seleccionadas de la base de datos TESEO. Se han utilizado estadística descriptiva para seleccionar la muestra de tesis y las principales características analizadas. Una de las principales conclusiones de nuestro trabajo muestra que a pesar del incremento en el número de tesis vinculadas al trabajo social experimentado en el último decenio, existe un fuerte riesgo de indefinición del objeto de estudio del trabajo social frente al objeto de otras ciencias sociales afines, tales como Sociología, Antropología o Psicología.

159. Aprendizaje y psicología histórico-cultural: aportaciones de una perspectiva social del aula - Cubero Pérez, Mercedes; Santamaría Santigosa, Andrés; Saavedra Macías, Javier; Yossef Bernal, Juan José; Cubero, Rosario

160. La psicología de arte en diálogo con la obra - Alvarez, Alicia C.; Rey, Laura
¿Qué aporta la Psicología del Arte en su aproximación al hecho artístico? ¿Cuáles son los objetos sobre los que se detiene en su reflexión? Definiremos el alcance de la Psicología del Arte, los temas de lo que se ocupa y los elementos que no pueden ser soslayado: el creador, la obra y la experiencia estética que involucra a un receptor. Múltiples corrientes de la Psicología articulan sus saberes al fenómeno artístico: Cognitivismo, teoría de la Gestalt, Psicoanálisis, etc. Consideramos que no existe “el arte” sino obras de arte singulares, artistas y contextos de legitimación que nutren el corpus dinámico y renovado...


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