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Nomenclatura Unesco > (61) Psicología

Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 43,955

141. Multiple channels for horizontal, but only one for vertical corrugations? A new look at the stereo anisotropy. - Serrano Pedraza, Ignacio; Read, Jenny C A
Stereo vision displays a well-known anisotropy: disparity-defined slant is easier to detect for rotations about a horizontal axis than about a vertical axis, and low-frequency sinusoidal depth corrugations are easier to detect when the corrugations are horizontal than when they are vertical. Here, we determined disparity thresholds for vertically and horizontally oriented depth corrugations with both sinusoidal and square-wave profiles. We found that the orientation anisotropy for square waves is much weaker than for sine waves and is almost independent of frequency. This weaker anisotropy for square waves can be explained by considering the Fourier harmonics present in the stimulus....

142. Two common psychophysical measures of surround suppression reflect independent neuronal mechanisms. - Yazdani, Partow; Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Whittaker, Roger G; Trevelyan, Andrew; Read, Jenny C A
Psychophysical surround suppression is believed to reflect inhibitory neuronal mechanisms in visual cortex. In recent years, two psychophysical measures of surround suppression have been much studied: (i) duration thresholds on a motion-discrimination task (which are worse for larger than for smaller stimuli) and (ii) contrast thresholds on a contrast-detection task (which are worse when grating stimuli are surrounded by a stimulus of the same orientation than when they are presented in isolation or surrounded by a stimulus of orthogonal orientation). Changes in both metrics have been linked to several different human conditions, including aging, differences in intelligence, and clinical disorders...

143. Sampling plans for fitting the psychometric function. - García Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá Quintana, Rocío
Research on estimation of a psychometric function psi has usually focused on comparing alternative algorithms to apply to the data, rarely addressing how best to gather the data themselves (i.e., what sampling plan best deploys the affordable number of trials). Simulation methods were used here to assess the performance of several sampling plans in yes-no and forced-choice tasks, including the QUEST method and several variants of up-down staircases and of the method of constant stimuli (MOCS). We also assessed the efficacy of four parameter estimation methods. Performance comparisons were based on analyses of usability (i.e., the percentage of times that...

144. Testing equivalence with repeated measures: tests of the difference model of two-alternative forced-choice performance. - García Pérez, Miguel Angel; Alcalá Quintana, Rocío
Solving theoretical or empirical issues sometimes involves establishing the equality of two variables with repeated measures. This defies the logic of null hypothesis significance testing, which aims at assessing evidence against the null hypothesis of equality, not for it. In some contexts, equivalence is assessed through regression analysis by testing for zero intercept and unit slope (or simply for unit slope in case that regression is forced through the origin). This paper shows that this approach renders highly inflated Type I error rates under the most common sampling models implied in studies of equivalence. We propose an alternative approach based...

145. Processamento atencional face a estímulos emocionais em sujeitos com ansiedade social e com sintomalogia associada: um estudo em Eye Tracking - Pires, Joana Raquel Nunes
Dissertação de mestrado, Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde, Faculdade de Ciências Humanas e Sociais, Universidade do Algarve, 2014

146. Supressão de pensamentos de preocupação num grupo de indivíduos com altos e baixos níveis de sintomas depressivos - Silva, Sónia Isabel do Carmo
Dissertação de mestrado, Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde, Faculdade de Ciências Humanas e Sociais, Universidade do Algarve, 2014

147. Acontecimentos de vida negativos e qualidade de vida percebida pelos adolescentes - Pereira, Andreia de Fátima Ramos
Eissertação de mestrado, Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde, Faculdade de Ciências Humanas e Sociais, Universidade do Algarve, 2014

148. Estudo das relações entre o fluxo no trabalho em equipa, o Engagement, as características da equipa, a satisfação e a eficácia percepcionadas numa amostra de bombeiros - Carrilho, Vanessa Filipa Botelho
Dissertação de mestrado, Psicologia Social e das Organizações, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade do Algarve, 2014

149. O que pensam os estudantes de enfermagem sobre as praxes académicas? - Martins, Maria J.; Caldeira, Suzana Nunes; Silva, Osvaldo; Mendes, Maria; Botelho, Susana P.
XIII Colóquio Internacional de Psicologia e Educação, ISPA : Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, 25–27 de Junho.

150. Envolvimento do aluno na escola e sua relação com a aprendizagem : um estudo em escolas da ilha de S. Miguel - Fernandes, Hélder Rego; Caldeira, Suzana Nunes
1º Congresso Internacional de Psicologia, Educação e Cultura. Desafios Sociais e Educação: Culturas e Práticas. Vila Nova de Gaia, 28 e 29 de Junho.

151. Brincando às profissões : intervenção em desenvolvimento vocacional no 1.º ciclo - Caldeira, Suzana Nunes; Maia, Pedro Almeida; Moreira, Joana; Santos, Edmundo
IX Congresso Ibero-Americano de Psicologia, 2.º Congresso da Ordem dos Psicólogos Portugueses. Lisboa, 9 a 13 de Setembro de 2014.

152. Stereo vision requires an explicit encoding of vertical disparity. - Serrano Pedraza, Ignacio; Read, Jenny C A
Vertical disparities influence the perception of 3D depth, but little is known about the neuronal mechanisms underlying this. One possibility is that these perceptual effects are mediated by an explicit encoding of two-dimensional disparity. Recently, J. C. A. Read and B. G. Cumming (2006) pointed out that current psychophysical and physiological evidence is consistent with a much more economical one-dimensional encoding. Almost all relevant information about vertical disparity could in theory be extracted from the activity of purely horizontal-disparity sensors. Read and Cumming demonstrated that such a 1D system would experience Ogle's induced effect, a famous illusion produced by vertical...

153. Spatial non-homogeneity of the antagonistic surround in motion perception. - Serrano Pedraza, Ignacio; Hogg, Ellen L; Read, Jenny C A
At high contrast, duration thresholds for motion direction discrimination deteriorate with increasing stimulus size. This counterintuitive result has been explained by the center-surround antagonism present in the neurons of visual area MT. Conversely, at very low contrast, direction discrimination improves with increasing size, a result that has been explained by spatial summation. In this investigation, we study the effects of stimulus shape and contrast on center-surround antagonism. Using adaptive Bayesian staircases, we measured duration thresholds of 5 subjects for vertically oriented Gabor patches of 1 cycle/deg with two types of oval Gaussian windows, one vertically elongated (Sx = 0.35, Sy...

154. Independent mechanisms for bright and dark image features in a stereo correspondence task - Read, Jenny C A; Vaz, Xavier A; Serrano Pedraza, Ignacio
A pioneering study by J. M. Harris and A. J. Parker (1995) found that disparity judgments using random-dot stereograms were better for stimuli composed of mixed bright and dark dots than when the dots were all bright or all dark. They attribute this to an improvement in stereo correspondence. This result is hard to explain within current models of how stereo correspondence is achieved. However, their experiment varied task difficulty by adding disparity noise. We wondered if this might challenge mechanisms subsequent to the solution of the correspondence problem rather than mechanisms that solve the correspondence problem itself. If so,...

155. Estudio cualitativo del liderazgo prosocial: El Proyecto SPRING - Cirera Amores, Maria Carme
Des de l´enfocament de la psicologia de la Prosocialitat, el lideratge pot ser considerat com una influència optimitzadora del bé comú, un procés de vida personal i professional que produeix canvis transformadors en les persones que decideixen realitzar-ho i també en el seu entorn. Des d´una posició descriptiva, en aquesta tesi es pretén comprendre el fenomen complex del lideratge prosocial a través dels relats de vida que expliquen una història de superació de les complexitats del lideratge focalitzat en el bé comú. Es postula que a través de la trama de les experiències viscudes es tindrà accés, per un costat, a les fortaleses, els recursos, les estratègies i...

156. Autopercepción de Saberes y Prácticas sobre Educación y Desplazamiento Forzado en Docentes de Cali, Colombia - Duque Vargas, Neil Humberto; Lasso Toro, Patricia
Se exploraron las percepciones que tienen 300 docentes de la ciudad de Cali, acerca de los saberes y prácticas para la atención de población en situación de desplazamiento en contexto escolar. El estudio fue exploratorio descriptivo, vinculó investigación documental y el diseño, aplicación y análisis de una encuesta cualitativa (Jansen, 2012). En Colombia, desde 1995, inicia la regulación de marcos normativos y orientaciones para la atención de población en situación de desplazamiento; sin embargo, el estudio muestra que estas orientaciones aún no han sido de cobertura suficiente para impactar lo que los docentes requieren conocer y hacer al respecto. Desde la psicología política se invita...

157. Los Jóvenes que Viven en Barrios Populares Producen más Cultura que Violencia - Cuenca, James
Este escrito analiza la situación en la que viven los jóvenes de los barrios populares al estar enfrentados a un fuerte estigma social que los reduce a delincuentes, drogadictos y violentos. Retomando la categoría de barrio popular, se critica esta posición y, a cambio, se propone una interpretación en la que se destaca la productividad cultural que tienen los jóvenes que viven en estos barrios. Se toma como caso a los raperos que viven en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Así, en el documento se puede constatar que, con el rap y el hip hop, los jóvenes afirman positivamente sus identidades y sus orígenes sociales...

158. Afectaciones Psicológicas, Estrategias de Afrontamiento y Niveles de Resiliencia de Adultos Expuestos al Conflicto Armado en Colombia - Hewwitt Ramírez, Nohelia; Juárez Acosta, Fernando; Parada, Arturo; Guerrero Luzardo, Jeannie; Romero Chávez, Yineth Marcela; Salgado Castilla, Andrea Melissa; Vargas Amaya, Martha Vianeth
Se determinaron las afectaciones psicológicas, estrategias de afrontamiento y niveles de resiliencia de 677 adultos expuestos al conflicto armado en un municipio colombiano. Los participantes del estudio fueron seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio por afijación proporcional. Se aplicaron el cuestionario de síntomas, prueba de estrés postraumático y escalas de estrategias de afrontamiento y resiliencia. Las principales afectaciones psicológicas encontradas son el sentimiento de que alguien trata de hacerle daño, consumo de alcohol, alteraciones del estado de ánimo y síntomas de estrés postraumático. Las estrategias de afrontamiento más empleadas son la religión y esperar que las cosas se arreglen solas. El nivel de resiliencia es moderado. La percepción...

159. Potencialidades de la Psicología Médica para desarrollar el aprendizaje estratégico en el currículo de Medicina - González Jaramillo, Suleida; Recino Pineda, Uvaldo; Álvarez Pérez, Yanelis; Pérez Castellá, Yailén de la Caridad
Fundamento: el perfeccionamiento curricular debe garantizar la capacidad de autoformación de los estudiantes universitarios; el aprender a aprender constituye meta de cualquier proyecto educativo, lo cual convierte el aprendizaje estratégico en núcleo central de las investigaciones educativas.Objetivo: determinar las potencialidades didáctico-metodológicas que ofrece la disciplina Psicología Médica para desarrollar el aprendizaje estratégico en los estudiantes, en el Plan de Estudios D de la carrera de Medicina.Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva en la Filial de Ciencias Médicas “Lidia Doce Sánchez” de Sagua la Grande; se aplicaron métodos teóricos, entre ellos: analítico-sintético, histórico-lógico e inductivo-deductivo, y empíricos: análisis de documentos, entrevista...

160. Psicología moral y concepción multidimensional de la subjetividad en la filosofía de Hume: el caso del sujeto moral - Guerrero, Leandro
Among the commentators which problematize the issue of the moral self in David Hume’s thought, Pauline Chazan (1998) has argued for the existence of certain tensions between the passional subject Hume thematizes in Book 2 of A Treatise of Human Nature and the subsequent entrance of this subject into the moral domain, as elaborated upon in Book 3. This paper offers an innovative reading of Hume's theory of subjectivity, which allows reconsidering and resolving this apparent conflict between the passional self and the moral self. To do so, it develops a multidimensional conception of the self that allows conceiving of the formation...


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