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Nomenclatura Unesco > (63) Sociología > (6310) Problemas sociales
(6310.01) Crimen (6310.02) Delincuencia
(6310.03) Enfermedad (6310.04) Hambre
(6310.05) Minusválidos (6310.06) Relaciones inter-raciales
(6310.07) Inadaptados (6310.08) Pobreza
(6310.09) Calidad de vida (6310.10) Conflicto social y adaptación
(6310.11) Bienestar social (6310.12) Nivel de vida
(6310.13) Terrorismo (6310.14) Desempleo
(6310.99) Otras (especificar)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 5,915

1. 1 Designing for Social Development: Enhancing Mobile Social Software through Social Capital
In this paper, we discuss the problem of designing mobile social software to support social capital. This approach aims at exploiting ICT to reconcile social and economic development, essential to create a human-centered Information Society. Firstly, a literature review of social capital theory is presented. Then, mobile social software is analyzed according to three dimensions: technical, individual and social. Finally, by considering social capital as a personal investment in social relations with expected returns, the relationships between social capital and mobile social software are illustrated, together with some design implications.

2. The Value of Free Water: Analyzing South Africas Free Basic Water Policy - Andrea Szabo
This paper analyzes the Free Basic Water Policy in South Africa, where households receive a free water allowance of 6 kiloliters per month. I structurally estimate residential water demand under a complex non-linear pricing structure and provide optimal price schedules derived from a social planners problem. I use a unique dataset of monthly metered billing data for 60,000 households for 2002-2008 from a particularly disadvantaged suburb of Pretoria. The dataset contains rich price variation allowing the identi…cation of structural parameters and a counter-factual analysis without zero prices. I …nd that without government subsidy the mean monthly consumption would decrease from...

3. The social order of markets - Jens Beckert
# The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract In this article I develop a proposal for the theoretical vantage point of the sociology of markets, focusing on the problem of the social order of markets. The initial premise is that markets are highly demanding arenas of social interaction, which can only operate if three inevitable coordination problems are resolved. I define these coordination problems as the value problem, the problem of competition and the cooperation problem. I argue that these problems can only be resolved based on stable reciprocal expectations on the part of...

4. Peer Relations of Children with Incarcerated Parents - Ashley Hampton; Danielle Dallaire Advisor
Having a history of parental incarceration is associated with an increased risk for numerous challenges. The present study examined several factors of peer relations among children with incarcerated parents and their peers to determine if problematic peer relations play a role in the difficulties these children experience. Participants were 77 elementary school children and their caregivers from a high-crime, high-poverty neighborhood, over half of whom had experienced parental incarceration. Caregivers assessed their child’s social behavior and problem behaviors, and, during the course of an interview, children’s helping behavior was assessed through a behavioral measure. Children with incarcerated parents displayed significantly...

5. Bullying un fenómeno silencioso de la violencia en las escuelas - Palmeiro, Alda Marília dos Santos
El �bullying� es cada vez más un fenómeno que preocupa a los diversos agentes educativos, debido a su prevalencia en las escuelas y a las nefastas consecuencias para la salud y bienestar de las víctimas y agresores. Con esta investigación pretendemos incurrir en la temática de la violencia escolar, más específicamente en la problemática de la agresión y victimización entre adolescentes, en contexto escolar, el comúnmente llamado �bullying�. Pretendemos abordar la problemática de la violencia escolar entre iguales o �bullying�, que se instala sutil y silenciosamente en contexto escolar, deteriorando las relaciones interpersonales. El conjunto de instrumentos utilizados para la...

6. 1 THE MYTH OF MARGINALITY REVISITED THE CASE OF FAVELAS IN RIO DE JANEIRO, 1969-2003 - Janice E. Perlman
Yes, but the favela was never the refuge of the marginal, I said There are only humble people, marginalized And this truth does not appear in the newspaper The favela is a social problem (refrain) And what’s more, I am the favela My people are workers I never had social assistance But I can live only there Because for the poor there is no other way We don’t even have the right to a salary of hunger Or a normal life The favela is a social problem.1- Eu Sou Favela, Noca da Portela and Sergio Mosca, 1994 This popular samba,...

7. Evaluation of Williamsburg County Direct Instruction program: Factors leading to success in rural elementary programs - Craig Darch; Russell Gersten; Robert Taylor
This paper presents the results of several evaluation studies designed to examine the impact the Direct Instruction Model had on selected students in Williamsburg County, South Carolina. Over 600 students participated during a 7-year period. Because Williamsburg County is an isolated rural county, this school improvement project has relevance to school improvement efforts in other rural communities. The performance of students in the Direct Instruction Program was contrasted with the perfor-mance of similar students in the district taught with the curriculum materials and methods which were routinely used in the school district. Students were tested in all basic skill areas:...

8. Violencia de género en hogares de una ciudad del noreste de México - Hernández Hernández, Oscar Misael; Villanueva Sierra, José Juan
This article explores the prevalence of gender violence among women and men in households of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, a city in Mexico northeastern, located to 320 kilometers from the U.S. border. Given the conditions of social violence living in the country, it was hypothesized that concerning gender violence as a serious social problem. Methodologically non-probability quota sampling was implemented, will apply a total of 315 questionnaires to heads of families, of both sexes and different social strata. Types and forms of gender violence, victims and perpetrators, and the consequences of such violence victims are analyzed. Based on the data analysis, we conclude that gender violence is not...

9. Executive Summary - Stephen Baskerville
Fatherhood, marriage and related issues of family structure now dominate the domestic policy agenda. In 1995, President Bill Clinton stated “the single biggest social problem in our society may be the growing absence of fathers from their children’s homes, because it contributes to so many other social problems.” By 2000, nearly a third of children under the age of 18 lived with only one parent, usually their mother. While Clinton and other politicians attributed the growing absence of fathers from their children’s homes to abandonment, there is no evidence that desertion is increasing. The absence of fathers from the home...

10. Enhancing a classroom social competence and problem-solving curriculum by offering parent training to families of moderate- to highrisk elementary school children - M. Jamila Reid; Carolyn Webster-stratton; Mary Hammond
The Incredible Years parent and classroom interventions were evaluated for the first time in elementary schools. Culturally diverse, socioeconomically disad-vantaged schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control (CON). In intervention schools, all children received a 2-year classroom intervention beginning in kindergarten. In addition, indicated children were randomly assigned to also receive parent training (PTþCR) or only the classroom inter-vention (CR). PTþCR mothers reported that, following intervention, children showed fewer externalizing problems and more emotion regulation than CR or CON children. Observations showed that child–mother bonding was stronger in the PTþCR condition than in the CON condition, and PTþCR mothers...

11. Internet Journal of Criminology (IJC) © 2004 1 A TALE OF TWO ANOMIES: SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF (SOCIOLOGICAL) CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY TO EXPLAINING HATE CRIME MOTIVATION - Roger Hopkins; Burke
This paper argues that hate crime is simply an inherent and normal component of contemporary society. Regardless of a concerted intervention – legislative, situational and social crime prevention – against this significant social problem in the USA and Europe in recent years, there remains a ubiquitous, albeit often latent, continued existence of hate motivation throughout society which remains at a considerable and increasing risk of actualisation as individuals come into contact with other likeminded individuals. This is particularly an issue in the information age which has greatly enhanced the spatial proximity of these hate-minded people to each other. It is...

12. HIV/AIDS- Ethical/Legal Issues - Usha Arora; R. K Arora
HIV testing has brought out a number of legal & ethical issues to the forefront as HIV/AIDS is more of a social problem rather than a medical problem. There have been allegations of human rights violations across the globe and HIV infected persons have been discriminated against.HIV/AIDS has highlighted the inequalities, wide spread stigma, discrimination and denial of fundamental human rights. On the other hand, it is the denial of human rights that makes certain sub populations, more vulnerable to HIV than others like commercial sex workers (CSW), men having sex with men (MSM) and Intravenous drug users (IVDUs). Another...

13. Dynamic Analysis of Knowledge Sharing of Agents with Heterogeneous Knowledge - Kazuyo Sato; Akira Namatame
In this paper, we consider knowledge sharing as basic constitutes of social interaction. The problem of knowledge sharing of self-interested agents with heterogeneous knowledge is formulated as knowledge trading games. Agents consider to trade a set of heterogeneous knowledge on which they have different value judgments. The knowledge transactions are formulated as symmetric coordination games. We can aggregate their idiosyncratic value judgments with threshold. We investigate how knowledge types held by agents may influence knowledge sharing. 1.

14. The social order of markets - Jens Beckert
# The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract In this article I develop a proposal for the theoretical vantage point of the sociology of markets, focusing on the problem of the social order of markets. The initial premise is that markets are highly demanding arenas of social interaction, which can only operate if three inevitable coordination problems are resolved. I define these coordination problems as the value problem, the problem of competition and the cooperation problem. I argue that these problems can only be resolved based on stable reciprocal expectations on the part of...

15. Truth and Tales: Cultural Mobility and Medieval Media - Somerset, Fiona; Watson, Nicholas
"In the medieval period, as in the media culture of the present, learned and popular forms of talk were intermingled everywhere. They were also highly mobile, circulating in speech, writing, and symbol, as performances as well as in material objects. The communication through and between different media we all negotiate in daily life did not develop from a previous separation of orality and writing, but from a communications network not unlike our own, if slower, and similarly shaped by disparities of access. Truth and Tales: Cultural Mobility and Medieval Media, edited by Fiona Somerset and Nicholas Watson, develops a variety...

16. La ruralidad: análisis de las representaciones del profesorado y propuesta para una enseñanza aprendizaje del compromiso con la ruralidad, aplicada en la región del Maule (Chile) - Muñoz Canessa, Italo
En nuestra investigación partimos del reconocimiento de un problema social actual en la Región del Maule, que es la migración de los jóvenes, problema que se conecta a la educación geográfica y es por eso que buscamos pruebas para confirmar las hipótesis de esta tesis, que se basa en el pensamiento negativo que tienen los profesores en relación con la ruralidad. Esta investigación también es proactivo ya que trata de exponer una solución a este problema a través de la generación y propuesta a través de la formación de equipos de de profesores en ejercicio, que han sido llamados, red de...

17. Diseño, desarrollo y eficacia de una nueva intervención informatizada para el entrenamiento de las habilidades cognitivas y de la cognición social en pacientes con esquizofrenia o trastorno esquizoafectivo de diagnóstico reciente - Fernández Gonzalo, Mª Soledad
Las personas con esquizofrenia o trastorno esquizoafectivo presentan déficits neuropsicológicos y de la cognición social desde los primeros estadios de la enfermedad. Estas alteraciones se relacionan con el nivel de disfuncionalidad y contribuyen a disminuir la calidad de vida de los pacientes. La rehabilitación cognitiva y el entrenamiento en las habilidades de la cognición social son consideradas técnicas eficaces para disminuir y mejorar los problemas cognitivos y de la cognición social que presentan las personas con esquizofrenia o trastorno esquizoafectivo y su aplicación en las fases iniciales de la enfermedad podría mejorar, incluso prevenir, las dificultades cognitivas, de cognición social y funcionales observadas en pacientes crónicos. El...

18. Experiences of Racism in the Australian Body Politic: Extent, Spheres, and Cultural Unevenness 1
The literature and reports on racism: expectations Anti-racism agencies and non-government organisations (NGOs) have consistently concluded that racism is a significant problem across a range of social spheres in the

19. The Narrative of Social Order in Sturla Þórðarson’s - Richard Gaskins; Richard Gaskins
responsibility. But the most frequent reason why men desire to hurt each other, ariseth hence, that many men at the same time have an Appetite to the same thing; which yet very often they can neither enjoy in common, nor yet divide it; whence it follows that the strongest must have it, and who is strongest must be decided by the Sword. — Thomas Hobbes, De cive ([1651] 1983, 46) he final decades of the Icelandic Commonwealth, as portrayed in Sturla Þórðarson’s masterpiece, provide a rich field of speculation for students of social order. For today’s readers, the saga seems...

20. 1 Institutional Design for Growth and Poverty Reduction: Property Rights Approach in Decentralisation Processes in Tanzania By - Aurelia Kamuzora-ngirwa
Tanzania is a country that has been engaged in institutional design for poverty reduction through formal and informal institutional arrangements in a transition period from a “Ujamaa ” kind of socialist mindset to capitalist economic efficiency. Capitalist economic efficiency requires assignment of property rights. In Coase’s treatise of “The Problem of Social Cost”, the property rights assignment is an important mechanism that decreases business transaction costs. When there is an absence of transaction costs and when property rights are well-defined, optimal allocation of resources is possible. Property rights vary according to time and space, and reflect changes in economic conditions...

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