Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 10.320
Revisiting the Economics of Privacy: Population Statistics and Confidentiality Protection as Public Goods
Abowd, John M; Schmutte, Ian M
We consider the problem of the public release of statistical information about a population–explicitly accounting for the public-good properties of both data accuracy and privacy loss. We first consider the implications of adding the public-good component to recently published models of private data publication under differential privacy guarantees using a Vickery-Clark-Groves mechanism and a Lindahl mechanism. We show that data quality will be inefficiently under-supplied. Next, we develop a standard social planner’s problem using the technology set implied by (ε, δ)-differential privacy with (α, β)-accuracy for the Private Multiplicative Weights query release mechanism to study the properties of optimal provision...
Fields, Gary S; Mitchell, Olivia S
[Excerpt] The system of publicly-provided old age pensions, known in the United States as "Social Security," faces serious financial difficulties. As in other countries, the problems are of both a short run and a long run nature. The short run problem is that the U.S. Social Security system has very meager financial reserves; the revenues coming into the system are barely enough to cover commitments. In the long run (i.e., after 2010, when the post World War II baby boom generation reaches retirement age), the financial problems of Social Security will intensify, due primarily to population aging and the consequent...
Shorter, Gary; Jickling, Mark; Raab, Alison A.
[Excerpt] During the past several decades, average pay for non-management workers has stagnated, after adjustment for inflation, falling slightly since the early 1970s. In contrast, compensation of top corporate executives has risen dramatically. Supporters of current CEO pay levels argue that executive compensation is determined by normal private market bargaining, that rising pay reflects competition for a limited number of qualified candidates, and that even the richest pay packages are a bargain compared with the billions in shareholder wealth that successful CEOs create. Others, however, cite instances in which executive pay appears to be excessive. Some see a social equity...
[Excerpt] This annual review on Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) brings together for the first time a comprehensive analysis of challenges facing the EU in the areas of both employment and social policy. Replacing two previous reports - Employment in Europe and the Social Situation Report, the ESDE becomes the European Commission’s flagship analytical review on employment and social issues. It builds on the Quarterly Reviews of the EU Employment and Social Situation which the Commission has started producing in 2011 and provides detailed analysis of key structural developments. The 2011 edition focuses on changes in Europe’s job...
[Excerpt] Social Security has significantly reduced elderly poverty. The elderly poverty rate has fallen from 35% in 1959 to an all-time low of 9% in 2006, in large part because of Social Security. If Social Security benefits did not exist, an estimated 44% the elderly would be poor today assuming no changes in behavior. The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, also provides benefits to the poorest elderly, many of whom do not qualify for Social Security benefits. However, despite these programs, about 3.4 million elderly individuals remained in poverty in 2006. The Social Security system faces a long-term financing problem. The...
[Excerpt] Although it is now two decades since the United Nations’ International Year of Disabled People, disabled people across the world still encounter severe economic, cultural and social deprivations. The problem is generally worse for those living in rural areas and is especially acute for all disabled people living in low income states. Clearly, health and rehabilitation can no longer be understood solely in terms of orthodox medical interventions and conventional notions of ‘care’. These centre almost exclusively on the perceived limitations of individuals rather than on society’s failure to accommodate disabled peoples’ needs. There is, therefore, an urgent need for...
This dissertation consists of three chapters that each study one applied microeconomic theory problem. In the first chapter, I consider the problem a social planner faces in constructing a criminal justice system which addresses two needs: to protect the innocent and to punish the guilty. I characterize the socially optimal criminal justice system under various assumptions with respect to the social planner's ability to commit. In the optimal system, before a criminal investigation is initiated, all members of the community are given the opportunity to confess to having committed the crime in exchange for a smaller than socially optimal punishment,...
A PILOT STUDY OF CROSS-CULTURAL IMMERSION AS A PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH FOR TEACHING CULTURAL COMPETENCE
Murray Smith, Monica M, DSW
A PILOT STUDY OF CROSS-CULTURAL IMMERSION AS A PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH FOR TEACHING CULTURAL COMPETENCE Problem: Cultural differences between social workers and clients impede effective helping. The CSWE requires accredited social work programs to provide effective cross-cultural learning opportunities. Objectives: This study examined cross-cultural immersion as a pedagogical approach for cultural competence compared to the usual instructional method in terms of awareness, knowledge, and skills. Design: Employing a quasi-experimental nonequivalent comparison group design, the study measured the effectiveness of cross-cultural immersion experiences by comparing two groups of students. The comparison group (n=6) received instruction as usual through didactic teaching methods and on-campus cross-cultural experiences....
McNulty, Bernadette R
This dissertation examined news constructions of homelessness as a social problem to identify how news stories communicate notions of what constitutes homelessness; how many and what types of people are homeless; and who can, should or must do something about this social problem. The study entailed a narrative analysis of 92 news magazine articles and 111 CBS news broadcasts about homelessness. The dissertation included a frequency analysis of homeless-related citations appearing in Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, Television News Index and Abstracts and the Social Science Index from 1976 to 1990. News stories present no explicit definition of homelessness and...
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall
This article aims to reveal the structure of the academic field of communication by portraying the people at its dominant pole. The study is based on the sociology of Bourdieu and 57 personal interviews with International Communication Association (ICA) fellows. It shows that the communication field’s legitimization problem is intensified by social climbers’ prevalence at the field’s power pole. These first-generation college graduates were raised to value education, hard work, and a certain type of public conduct. They entered the field when they realized that it matched their habitus, as communication attracted people with both an affinity for natural sciences...
Gregory, Christin Ann
Abstract Problem-Solving Therapy for Informal Hospice Caregivers: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Christin Ann Gregory, LCSW, DSW Candidate, University of Pennsylvania Problem: U.S. Hospice care is a growing service for the terminally ill, ever more important as our aging population expands. Informal caregivers are integral to the hospice philosophy, considered to be a part of the hospice unit of care. These caregivers are the major providers of hands-on and emotional care for the dying. They face shift in family role, loss of employment and personal time, and have been shown to suffer from increased mental and physical health issues as a direct effect...
Experiences and interpretations of learning English language and culture by non -western European non -native speakers
My research study focuses on the ways in which culture mediated language among a group of non-European language learners in the context of my field work, some of whose experiences to learn English were laden with problems of access to cultural resources and agency which draws from it to develop a versatile social repertoire. There are various studies that examine the social and cultural influences on education and learning of marginal identities around issues of empowerment and the relationship of the second language teaching and learning to knowledge, power and identity. In such social and cultural enquiries, many researchers cogently...
A multivariate investigation of maternal risks and their relationship to low -income, preschool children's competencies
Perry, Marlo A
Early school success is a national priority, especially for young children living in poverty. Research has drawn attention to numerous biological and social risks that significantly impact the development of skills necessary for early school success. Both biological and social risks are more pronounced among low-income families, placing these children at further risk for poor educational outcomes. Utilizing a developmental-ecological framework, the purpose of the present study was to understand the unique impact of multiple maternal risks across time on ethnically diverse, low-income, preschool children's cognitive skills, pro-social behaviors and behavior problems. Additionally, this study sought to understand the variability...
Gardner, Marcia Rubenstein
Chronically ill infants who are dependent on medical technologies, require nursing care, or need vigilant monitoring of physiological status for survival are considered to be medically fragile. When they are discharged home from a health care setting, their mothers most often provide both nurturance and medicalized care. In this population, research has focused on care burdens of mothers of medically fragile children, with less attention given to overall maternal experiences or to the specific experiences of first-time mothers of infants. A qualitative study using grounded theory methodology was conducted to generate a substantive theory - 'getting the feel for it'...
An RCT of an evidence-based practice teaching model with the field instructor/social work intern dyad
Tennille, Julie Anne
Problem: Equipping current and future social work practitioners with skills to deliver evidence-based practice (EBP) has remained an elusive prospect since synchronized efforts with field instructors have not been a consistent part of dissemination and implementation efforts. Recognizing the highly influential position of field instructors, this dissertation presents a study of an innovative teaching model which included the field instructor and social work student dyad. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of an EBP teaching model that sought to enhance attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy to engage in both the process of EBP as well as designated EBPs...
Harper, Bianca M
MOVING FAMILIES TO FUTURE HEALTH: REUNIFICATION EXPERIENCES AFTER SIBLING INCEST Bianca M. Harper Lina Hartocollis, Ph.D Sibling incest is an under-reported, under-researched social problem that devastates affected families and challenges social workers and other professionals who work with them. There is little research on family experiences and changes in family dynamics after sibling incest and even less on the reunification experiences of families after sibling incest. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into families’ reunification experiences after sibling incest in order to promote continued healing and improve service delivery. A qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews was conducted with fourteen multidisciplinary...
Differential treatment effects due to post randomization psychological factors: A causal rank preserving modeling approach
Faerber, Jennifer A
Introduction. There are questions on whether the effectiveness of Beck's cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on depression in suicidal patients depends on factors early in the CBT process. ^ Purpose. The causal mediation method of Ten Have et al. (2007) is extended with an interaction to identify early post randomization modifiers of the CBT effect on follow-up depression in suicide attempters. ^ Sample. 120 recent suicide attempters were randomized to either cognitive therapy or usual care to prevent future suicide attempts during 18 months of follow-up (Brown et al., 2005). ^ Method. 1- and 3-month hopelessness and social problem orientation measures...
In 1994, the results of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 076 study demonstrated that a long course of AZT prevented mother to child transmission of HIV. Concerned that the ACTG 076 regimen could not be implemented in resource poor settings, researchers subsequently began clinical trials of short course AZT in Uganda, South Africa, Tanzania, Cote d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, and Thailand. These trials were criticized as unethical because researchers did not provide all of the participants AZT; some women were randomized to placebos. This study seeks to account for the emergence, legitimation, and resolution of these trials as a social...
The percentage of American schoolchildren labeled with a disability has doubled since 1977. This dissertation investigates the meaning of disability within the historical moment of cultural expansion. Clear River County is a rural Appalachian community of about 73 thousand people that, during the period of my fieldwork (2002-04), labeled over 20% of their school children with a disability. This dissertation is a community ethnography that explores the meaning of disability and the dynamics of disability expansion. On the basis of my first-hand observations I concluded that learning to label disability is a process that involves a translation between technical and...
ROBBINS, LEE PERRY
The general research problem was to investigate, in a social system, the effects of two alternative third party interventions on "deep level learning" involving underlying norms and assumptions, by individuals and groups. Other investigators refer to such learning as double-loop learning, reframing, cognitive restructuring, and Level II or Level III learning.^ An Action Research and Case Study methodology tested the specific interventions--interactive planning (an approach to organizational development and planning, involving idealized design), and 12 Step Fellowships (e.g., Alcoholic Anonymous, Al-Anon)--for changing deep-seated behavior patterns, and differentially affecting (1) the ability of individuals and groups to solve problems through deep-level...