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Nomenclatura Unesco > (63) Sociología > (6310) Problemas sociales
(6310.01) Crimen (6310.02) Delincuencia
(6310.03) Enfermedad (6310.04) Hambre
(6310.05) Minusválidos (6310.06) Relaciones inter-raciales
(6310.07) Inadaptados (6310.08) Pobreza
(6310.09) Calidad de vida (6310.10) Conflicto social y adaptación
(6310.11) Bienestar social (6310.12) Nivel de vida
(6310.13) Terrorismo (6310.14) Desempleo
(6310.99) Otras (especificar)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 5,682

1. An Adaptive Meeting Scheduling Agent - William Murdock; Ashok Goel
Introduction Meetings schedulers are examples of common software agents. Commercially available meeting schedulers typically address a simple and formal version of the problem. But the social dynamics of scheduling meetings in the real world often defies simple formalization. In addition, the design of commercially available meeting schedulers is static and rigid, and, thus, incapable of evolution. It is potentially desirable for a meeting scheduler to be able to modify itself, e.g., by learning new constraints. A meeting scheduler is likely to have a wide variety of constraints. Consider a meeting scheduler for a group of users who have a fixed...

2. Systems Overview of Ono: A DIY Reproducible Open Source Social Robot* - Cesar V; Jelle Saldien; Bram V
Abstract — One of the major obstacles in the study of humanrobot interaction with social robots is the lack of platforms to allow for tests with large user groups. Often, the price of these robots prohibits using more than a handful of robots. Another factor is that with commercial platforms, the robots do not possess all the necessary features to perform an experiment and due to the closed nature of the platform, large modifications are nearly impossible. While open source social robots do exist, they often use the best components that are commercially available, and make use of expensive manufacturing...

3. 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Data Mining Link Prediction and Recommendation across Heterogeneous Social Networks - Yuxiao Dong; Jilei Tian; Nitesh V. Chawla; Jinghai Rao; Huanhuan Cao
Abstract—Link prediction and recommendation is a fundamental problem in social network analysis. The key challenge of link prediction comes from the sparsity of networks due to the strong disproportion of links that they have potential to form to links that do form. Most previous work tries to solve the problem in single network, few research focus on capturing the general principles of link formation across heterogeneous networks. In this work, we give a formal definition of link recommendation across heterogeneous networks. Then we propose a ranking factor graph model (RFG) for predicting links in social networks, which effectively improves the...

4. Siddegowda R et al. Malocclusion status in Mixed and Permanent dentition of school children. Original Article Malocclusion status in Mixed and Permanent dentition of school children in - Karnataka An; Epidemiological Survey; Roopa Siddegowda; Rani M. S; Dr. Roopa Siddegowda
Background: Malocclusion can compromise the oral health tissues and can lead to social and psychological problem. Hence an investigation of the malocclusion status at the developing stages of the dentitions to intercept the same is required. Aim: To assess the status of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentition of school children in Karnataka state. Methods and Material: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in all the 30 districts of Karnataka. School children in the age group of 10-16 years were the target population. Population proportionate technique was employed for the sample size estimation. A total sample of 9505 was randomly...

5. Drink driving as a social problem: comparing the attitudes and knowledge of drink driving offenders and the general community. Accid Anal Prev 2000 - Dr. Scott Baum; Prof Mary Sheehan; Mrs Cynthia Schonfeld
Within Queensland, as elsewhere, there appears to be a high level of consensus among the wider community that drink driving is a serious social problem. This is reflected in both general attitudes regarding drink driving, together with general levels of knowledge regarding drink-driving issues. However there is reason to believe, both from anecdotal as well as empirical evidence, that the attitudes and knowledge of those apprehended for drink driving may differ from those of the general community. Utilising data from the 'Under the Limit' community survey together with data from a survey of drink-driving offenders, this paper compares the attitudes...

6. La discapacidad, una dificultad importante para toda la sociedad - Butler, Judith
Mi intensión es revisar algunos elementos en relación a la discapacidad, específicamente, en relación a la Educación Superior, pero esta revisión me hace ampliar la mirada y comenzar con el tema considerando que es un tema que no nos es ajeno, más aún, no nos es ajeno a todos aquellos que nos dedicamos a educación, y al mismo tiempo, nos genera un trastoque profundo de algunas cuestiones propias, que tienen que ver con nuestros valores, con valores de nuestro ser en el mundo; con cuestiones filosóficas del “ser”, del ser diferentes a nosotros, “nosotros” y los “otros” en la sociedad,...

7. Last updated 12-03-2007 Word count (excluding abstract):
Not for citation ‘Are you sitting comfortably? The political economy of the body’ ‘Are you sitting comfortably? The political economy of the body’ The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the mass production of furniture in modern industrial societies and lower back pain (LBP). The latter has proven to be a major cost to health services and private industry throughout the industrialised world and now represents a global health issue as recent WHO reports on obesity and LBP reveal. Thus far there has been little by way of coordinated attempts to deal with the causes of...

8. by - Joanna Dodd
This thesis investigates the use of houndedness. claims for credibility and the exploitation o\ ' reflexive accounting within know ledge w ork. The current literature t'rom the sociology of scientific knowledge is used to contextualize this investigation, which constructs the thesis ' central problem as a concern with the way boundary maintaining and boundary breaking activities contribute to the distribution of science and technology into its wider context. Two distinct and apparentK contrasting knowledge cultures are used to explore this problem; the social studies of technology (SST-1) is constituted as an academic knowledge culture and stratified systems theory (SST-2) is...

9. The Construction of “White Slavery ” as a Social Problem in Progressive-‐Era Chicago - Social Problem; Progressive-era Chicago
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10. Community Responsibility for Runaway and - Thrownaway Youth--commentary; Linda M. Williams
Medical Center. It has a "cc by-nc-nd " Creative Commons license" (Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives) For more information, please contact digitalcommons@exch.library.tmc.eduWilliams: Community Responsibility for Runaway and Thrownaway Youth--Commentary The stated purpose of the paper Runaway and Throwaway Youth: Time for Policy Changes and Public Responsibility is to discuss factors related to homeless youth and to differentiate between “throwaways ” and runaways, the current federal response to homeless youth, and to ask whether we can “aggressively aspire to be a community where every child is healthy and safe, and able to realize his or her fullest potential. ” The article commences...

11. Abstract CAN HISTORY TEACH US PEACE?
The idea that we can learn from history is a recurring one and this essay examines dialectically the arguments for and against the proposition that history can teach us peace. Eight objections to the proposition that we can teach peace through history are discussed: 1) the problem that history implies a social inevitability, 2) the difficulty in ascribing moral or ethical responsibility in historical explanation, 3) the reliance on counterfactual history in attempting to teach peace through history, 4) the war-centred nature of history, 5) the violence-centred nature of history, 6) the depersonalized construction of war in history, 7) the...

12. . DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN SOCIAL COGNITION FOR CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT DISABILITIES by - Irene Ngai; Irene Ngai; Under Direction; Frank J. Floyd
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the impact of disability status on age-related changes in social-information processing skills including children’s attributions of peer intent and response generation to hypothetical social scenarios may. SIP skills were evaluated using an adaptation of the Social Problem Solving Interview. One-hundred and seventeen children aged 7-13 years-old provided 1 to 4 sets of interview data, collected annually. The groups included 28 children with mental retardation, 56 with a specific learning disability, and 33 comparison children. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that both groups of children with disabilities demonstrated less cognitive flexibility than comparison children...

13. Definitions - Marilyn Campbell; While Johnson
School refusal in adolescence is a serious problem for a young person’s social and educational development (Berg & Nursten, 1996). Apart from the legal considerations of not attending school, there is often family disruption and conflict about the issue, poor peer relationships and usually serious academic underachievement (Naylor, Staskowski, Kenney, & King, 1994). If persistent, school refusal may lead to decreased opportunities for further higher education, difficulty with gaining employment as well as increased social isolation and increased risk for psychiatric illness (Kearney & Albano, 2000). While school refusal is a problem affecting all school age children, the prognosis is...

14. School Disengagement: Its Constructions, Investigation and Management - Bill Atweh; Suzanne Carrington; Derek Bland; Rob Cavanagh
School disengagement, and hence its remediation can be constructed by focusing on either side of the individual/social debate. Much research into social and academic factors associated with students at risk places the individual student (or subgroups of students) as the focus of the problem and leads into remedial activities done to or on the student(s). Often students are passive recipients of the activities that tend to reinforce their alienation and lack of agency and reinforce the very regimes that alienate them in the first place. Alternatively, disengagement can be constructed as a totally social problem of exclusion or as a...

15. Poder y dominación en Manuel Castells: investigaciones sistemáticas, 1967-1982 - Torres Castaños, Esteban
En el presente artículo proponemos una aproximación específi ca al modo en que los conceptos de poder y de dominación se vinculan en las defi niciones explícitas de poder de Manuel Castells en los textos de su periodo marxista, correspondientes a los años 1967-1982. A lo largo del trabajo intentaremos descubrir las operaciones teóricas principales, así como las concepciones del poder que el sociólogo catalán pone en juego a partir de esta relación específi ca. El trabajo descubre principalmente dos aspectos, sobre los cuales se refl exiona: la indefi nición del concepto de dominación, así como la fi jación de una contraposición no explicitada entre cierta noción de...

16. La sfidadell´auto-mutuo aiuto. L´associazionismo di cittadinanza come fattore di coesione sociale - Giarelli, Guido
Il problema della coesione sociale non è stato ancora affrontato in relazione all�emergere della salute quale fattore chiave della cittadinanza e dell�inclusione sociale: dopo aver defi nito uno specifi co approccio alle diverse dimensioni della coesione sociale, l�articolo affronta questo problema sulla base dei risultati di una ricerca quali-quantitativa sull�auto-mutuo aiuto per malati cronici in Italia. La loro analisi evidenzia il ruolo che queste associazioni di cittadinanza possono svolgere quale fattore di coesione sociale in virtù della ridefi nizione dei criteri di appartenenza sociale ed integrazione civica di coloro, come i malati cronici, che non corrispondono alle nuove regole della �etica somatica� propria della società salutista e narcisista. In...

17. COASIAN CONTRACTS IN THE COEUR D’ALENE MINING DISTRICT - Robert Higgs
For the greater part of the 20th century, mainstream economists viewed negative externalities as a prima facie justification for government intervention in the market (see Bator 1958). Absent such government action, they argued, nothing would be done to prevent or remedy the damages suffered by third parties as a result of unrestrained “spillovers ” or “neighborhood effects. ” For example, in the words of Joseph Stiglitz (1988: 76), “without government intervention there would be an underprovision of pollution control. ” Even such staunch defenders of the market as Milton Friedman (1962: 30) and F. A. Hayek (1979: 43–45) conceded that...

18. Monográfico Monograph “Redefining «Contenidos the educativos Digital Divide en abierto » in Higher Education” article artículo Degrees of Digital Division: Reconsidering Digital Inequalities and Contemporary Higher Education - Universitat Oberta De Catalunya; Neil Selwyn
Whilst many authors are now confident to dismiss the notion of the digital divide, this paper argues that inequalities in ICT use in contemporary higher education are of growing rather than diminishing importance. In particular, it argues that there is an urgent need for the higher education community to develop more sophisticated understandings of the nature of the digital divisions that exist within current cohorts of university students – not least inequalities of ‘effective ’ use of ICT to access information and knowledge. With these thoughts in mind, the paper presents a review of recent research and theoretical work in...

19. SYNTHESIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC SYSTEMS - Dmitry A. Kononov; Vladimir V. Kul’ba; Jana Bikovska
This paper presents basic principles of a scenario approach application to the problem of optimal development of social economic systems. The formalized description of scenario of system sustainable development is introduced and synergetic and attractive scenarios are examined. The modes providing stable and safe development of social economic system are investigated for synergistic scenarios, however for attractive scenarios it is the control purpose. Scenario design example based on the use of the social economic system development model represented by signed the graph language are given. Formal methods of such scenarios development, the "Object-subject " method and the method of base...

20. Conversor de texto a pictogramas - Hernández-Gil Alonso, Agustín; Martínez Díaz, Carlos; Pascua García, Sergio
En la actualidad existe una gran cantidad de personas que presentan problemas a la hora de comunicarse mediante texto escrito. Este problema supone un alto riesgo de exclusión social para este grupo de personas al no tener acceso a una forma de comunicación clave como es la escritura. Además esta forma de comunicación ha cobrado mayor relevancia en relación con las nuevas tecnologías. El objetivo del proyecto se centra por tanto en proporcionar una herramienta que facilite la comunicación de personas que no presentan dificultad en la comunicación escrita con personas que sí lo hacen, realizando la traducción de texto convencional...

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