Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 10.063

  1. For personal use only--not for distribution. The Correspondence Bias

    Daniel T. Gilbert; Patrick S. Malone; John D; Catherine T. Macarthur Foundation
    The correspondence bias is the tendency to draw inferences about a person's unique and enduring dispositions from behaviors that can be entirely explained by the situations in which they occur. Although this tendency is one of the most fundamental phenomena in social psycholoxgy, its causes and consequences remain poorly understood. This article sketches an intellectual history of the correspondence bias as an evolving problem in social psychology, describes 4 mechanisms (lack of awareness, unrealistic expectations, inflated categorizations, and incomplete corrections) that produce distinct forms of correspondence bias, and discusses how the consequences of correspondence-biased inferences may perpetuate such inferences. Portions...

  2. Discovering Important Nodes through Graph Entropy: The Case of Enron Email Database

    Jitesh Shetty
    A major problem in social network analysis and link discovery is the discovery of hidden organizational structure and selection of interesting influential members based on low-level, incomplete and noisy evidence data. To address such a challenge, we exploit an information theoretic model that combines information theory with statistical techniques from area of text mining and natural language processing. The Entropy model identifies the most interesting and important nodes in a graph. We show how entropy models on graphs are relevant to study of information flow in an organization. We review the results of two different experiments which are based on...

  3. Solving the Kirkman’s schoolgirl problem in a few seconds

    Nicolas Barnier; Pascal Brisset
    Abstract. The Social Golfer Problem has been extensively used in recent years by the constraint community as an example of highly symmetric problem. It is an excellent problem for benchmarking symmetry breaking mechanisms such as SBDS or SBDD and for demonstrating the importance of the choice of the right model for one problem. We address in this paper a specific instance of the Golfer Problem well known as the Kirkman’s Schoolgirl Problem and list a collection of techniques and tricks to find efficiently all its unique solutions. In particular, we propose SBDD+, an generic improvement over SBDD which allows a...

  4. Systems Overview of Ono A DIY Reproducible Open Source Social Robot

    Cesar V; Jelle Saldien; Maria-cristina Ciocci; Bram V
    Abstract. One of the major obstacles in the study of HRI (human-robot interac-tion) with social robots is the lack of multiple identical robots that allow testing with large user groups. Often, the price of these robots prohibits using more than a handful. A lot of the commercial robots do not possess all the necessary features to perform specific HRI experiments and due to the closed nature of the platform, large modifications are nearly impossible. While open source social robots do exist, they often use high-end components and expensive manufactur-ing techniques, making them unsuitable for easy reproduction. To address this problem,...

  5. Analytical Skills for Policy Practice: A Social Policy Framework to Address Corruption as a Social Problem for Development in Nigeria

    Muhammad Bello Muhammad; Muddassir Ahmad Gado
    Corruption is a dishonest exploitation or use of power for personal gain. It is the extreme act of immorality and depravity, the state of being corrupt and rotten. Corruption destroys the entire societal fabric as it undermines the effectiveness of government’s social policies aimed at providing social or welfare services to citizenry; and even those policies aimed at fighting its continue existence. This paper examines critically the various ways through which corruption had became institutionalized in Nigeria and its subsequent impact on political culture and behaviour on the one hand and its implications for development on the other hand. The...

  6. EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY CHILDHOOD: SOCIAL PROBLEM AND PERSPECTIVES

    Brazauskienė E; Kilienė A; Siminauskienė K
    This article examines the problem of efficiency of education in modern childhood, emphasizes the need to strengthen the content of the education of children before the school attendance, perception of structure, in conjunction with the current period’s Lithuanian educational context. The focus is on the analysis of problems that arise for pre-school teachers, parents and children. The research is based on education efficiency perspective; the curriculum, the structure of the exact influence on the child's perception of the success and the quality of life in a pre-school institution and school attendance are discussed. The research highlighted the need to ensure...

  7. on the Technical Adequacy and Contextual Fit of Behavior Support Plans

    Leah Benazzi; Robert H. Horner; H. Good
    160 THE JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION VOL. 40/NO. 3/2006/PP. 160–170 Throughout the United States, teams of school personnel as-semble regularly to develop individualized behavior support plans for students who perform chronic problem behavior. The goals embedded in these plans typically focus on redesigning a student’s environment to (a) reduce problem behavior, (b) im-prove social and academic performance, and (c) reduce the be-havioral barriers that hinder educational opportunities for peers. Recent research suggests that successful development of so-cially appropriate behavior is most likely if problem behavior is identified early and appropriate interventions are imple-mented (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995; Walker &...

  8. tributed Artificial Intelligence General Terms Algorithms, Experimentation


    This paper considers the problem of performing decentralised co-ordination of low-power embedded devices (as is required within many environmental sensing and surveillance applications). Specif-ically, we address the generic problem of maximising social wel-fare within a group of interacting agents. We propose a novel representation of the problem, as a cyclic bipartite factor graph, composed of variable and function nodes (representing the agents’ states and utilities respectively). We show that such representation allows us to use an extension of the max-sum algorithm to generate approximate solutions to this global optimisation problem through local decentralised message passing. We empirically evaluate this approach...

  9. Women Should Take Leadership Roles Whenever They Can

    Kathleen Hall Jamieson
    This article aims to reveal the structure of the academic field of communication by portraying the people at its dominant pole. The study is based on the sociology of Bourdieu and 57 personal interviews with International Communication Association (ICA) fellows. It shows that the communication field’s legitimization problem is intensified by social climbers ’ prevalence at the field’s power pole. These first-generation college graduates were raised to value education, hard work, and a certain type of public conduct. They entered the field when they realized that it matched their habitus, as communication attracted people with both an affinity for natural...

  10. JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION / February 2005 Bailey et al. / TEACHING WITH AND THROUGH TEAMS TEACHING WITH AND THROUGH TEAMS: STUDENT-WRITTEN,

    Instructor-facilitated Case; James Bailey; Mary Sass; Paul M. Swiercz; Craig Seal; D. Christopher Kayes
    Modern organizations prize teamwork. Management schools have responded to this reality by integrating teamwork into the curriculum. Two important challenges associated with integrating teams in the management classroom include (a) designing teamwork assignments that achieve multiple, sophisti-cated learning outcomes and (b) instruction in, and management of, the classic social loafing problem. This article addresses these two challenges. First, it provides a method for designing teamwork assignments using Student Written–Instructor Facilitated (SWIF) case learning. SWIF provides the ideal vehicle for achieving all six of Bloom’s (1956) Educational Objectives— knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Second, it demonstrates the use of...

  11. on the Technical Adequacy and Contextual Fit of Behavior Support Plans

    Leah Benazzi; Robert H. Horner; H. Good
    160 THE JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION VOL. 40/NO. 3/2006/PP. 160–170 Throughout the United States, teams of school personnel as-semble regularly to develop individualized behavior support plans for students who perform chronic problem behavior. The goals embedded in these plans typically focus on redesigning a student’s environment to (a) reduce problem behavior, (b) im-prove social and academic performance, and (c) reduce the be-havioral barriers that hinder educational opportunities for peers. Recent research suggests that successful development of so-cially appropriate behavior is most likely if problem behavior is identified early and appropriate interventions are imple-mented (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995; Walker &...

  12. 1Schoolwide Social-Behavioral Climate, Student Problem Behavior, and Related Administrative Decisions Empirical Patterns From 1,510 Schools Nationwide

    Scott A. Spaulding; Larry K. Irvin; Robert H. Horner; Seth L. May; Monica Emeldi; Tary J. Tobin; George Sugai
    Office discipline referral (ODR) data provide useful information about problem behavior and consequence patterns, social-behavioral climates, and effects of social-behavioral interventions in schools. The authors report patterns of ODRs and sub-sequent administrative decisions from 1,510 schools nationwide that used the School-Wide Information System in 2005–2006. Sample demographics differed from key demographics for schools nationwide on school enrollment, socioe-conomic status, and race and ethnicity. Descriptive analyses showed over 88 % of elementary grade students with zero or one ODR for the academic year, 72 % for middle schools, and 67 % for high schools. ODRs were most likely to be gener-ated...

  13. The relationship between psychosocial status of immigrant Latino mothers and use of emergency pediatric services

    Ruth E Zambrana; Kathleen Ell; Claudia Dorrington; Laura Wachsman; Dee Hodge
    yung Hispanic families are of growing concern nation-ally and in Los Angeles. Although families ofMexican origin represent the largest sector of the Span-ish-speaking population in California, there are signifi-cant numbers of families from El Salvador and Guate-mala. In Los Angeles, currently 40 percent of the population is Hispanic, and the public school population is about 60 percent Hispanic (Valdivieso & Davis, 1988), a significant proportion being recent Mexican immigrants. Furthermore, public county facilities for prenatal and child health services are used predomi-nantly by Hispanic women and children. These women tend to be younger (mean age of 23) and have higher...

  14. Community Cooperation and Development

    Robert C. Anderson; Robert C. Anderson
    The paper describes a phenomenological approach to the understanding and explana-tion of how people and organizations make the decision to become involved in community action. Three sufficient conditions to induce cooperation are presented. Community action is presented as the result of a cooperative system of people and organizations that choose to become involved independently, based on their absolute and dynamic values. A model for community involvement is described that includes a problem, the social structure, convergence of interest, and goal formation. Formation of effective initiating, recruitment, and execution sets is presented as an important consideration for all community action. This...

  15. Needs Assessment INTRODUCTION/LITERATURE REVIEW

    Brenda M. Delaet
    Increased attention over the past 20 years to the existence and magnitude of wife abuse as a social problem has led to a proliferation of services for women including shelters and

  16. Youth recreation centre participation and criminal offending: A 20-year longitudinal study of Swedish boys

    Joseph L. Mahoney; David Magnusson
    This study assessed whether participation in Swedish youth recreation centres (FritidsgaÊ rdar) is related to long-term criminality assessed from late childhood to mid adulthood. A prospective, longitudinal investigation of a representative cohort of 498 boys from a medium-sized Swedish community was employed. A pattern-analysis identi ed ve con gurations of boys who showed different pro les of social and academic competence at the age of 10. The con gurations were compared with respect to juvenile and adult criminality for boys who did, and who did not, make the decision to participate in a youth recreation centre at age 13. Results...

  17. PUB TYPE Reports Research/Technical (143) Speeches/Conference Papers (150)

    Bickmore Kathy; Edrs Price; Mf/pco Plus Postage
    This research involves case studies of four public high school teachers handling and modeling the problem of inclusion in their social studies classrooms. In interpreting and implementing social studies curriculum, teachers represent to their students particular images of citizenship, leadership, and the political system in which these are embedded. In hidden as well as overt social studies curriculum, students are shown what kinds of people may be social or political actors, and shown what kinds of behaviors are expected of citizens. Curriculum may attempt to foster love of country by emphasizing similarity and unanimity, minimizing conflict, or alternatively by emphasizing...

  18. [153] ATTRITION Identification and Exploration in the National Follow Through Evaluation

    Robert G. St. Pierre; Elizabeth C. Proper
    The possible biasing effects of attrition of subjects in experiments is a problem to which social science researchers and evaluators rarely attend. A study of the relationships between attrition rate and background variables for children participating in the Nation-al Follow Through Evaluation revealed that in general there were few differences between students who dropped out of treatment and comparison groups. rarely attended problem that is germane to the topics of social experimentation, educational evaluations, and especially to longitudinal studies is the issue of attrition, that is, the loss of units from a study. In a critique of educational evaluation studies...

  19. Professional Studies in

    Amanda Bateman; Jane Waters; School Of; A Bateman; Jane Waters
    Asymmetries of knowledge between children and teachers... Teaching and learning in the outdoor environment Outdoor spaces have long been associated with children’s learning, offering opportunities for gross physical development in the early years (see e.g., Fjørtoft, 2004), fine motor skill development, positive attitudes to challenge, risk, enquiry, and problem solving, and social and emotional development, as well as high quality interactions with adults (Bilton,

  20. FEAR OF VIOLENCE AND STREET HARASSMENT: ACCOUNTABILITY AT THE INTERSECTIONS

    Laura S. Logan
    Feminists and anti-violence activists are increasingly concerned about street harassment. Several scholars, journalists and activists have documented street harassment during the last two centuries, and the recent development of organizations such as Hollaback! and Stop Street Harassment, as well increased attention from mainstream and feminist press, suggests street harassment is a serious social problem worthy of empirical investigation. In this dissertation, I focus on street harassment, fear of violence, and processes of doing gender. I take an intersectional approach to understand the relationships between gender, race, and sexuality, street harassment, fear, and social control. Furthermore, I investigate how accountability to...

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