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Nomenclatura Unesco > (63) Sociología > (6310) Problemas sociales
(6310.01) Crimen (6310.02) Delincuencia
(6310.03) Enfermedad (6310.04) Hambre
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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 5,657

1. Sexually violent predator evaluations: Empirical evidence, strategies for professionals, and research directions - Holly A. Miller; Amy E. Amenta; Mary Alice Conroy
Several states have passed civil commitment laws that allow the precautionary deten-tion of sex offenders who have completed their criminal sentences. Over 2,500 sex offenders have been committed across states with such statutes and several thousand more sex offenders have been evaluated. Most statutes call for an evaluation of risk by a mental health professional and, although each state statute is worded differently, three main elements common to sexually violent predator evaluations are used to guide evaluators: mental abnormality, volitional capacity, and likelihood of future sexual violence. The current article presents empirical evidence for the main tenants of these forensic...

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pplied ctual as no popu an art arth o of the ap obj introd exemplify the roadmapping process to software services. Due to the magnitude of the technologies required to fully realize an online Technological Forecasting & Social Change 76 (2009) 1055–1077 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Technological Forecasting & Social Changecheckout service – from internationalization to shipping alternatives to billing to inventory to even social networking – the problem is muchmore complex than can be addressed here. So to demonstrate the applicability of the toolset, security solutionswill be detailed andmappedasa representation of the largerprocesswithinGoogle Checkout.Other solutions canbeappendedusing the sameprocess

3. The Economic Burden of Crime and Substance Abuse for Massachusetts and the City of Boston - Clive R Belfield
Total state spending $5.87 billion * $1.68 billion* State spending in the City of Boston $0.51 billion $0.34 billion City of Boston spending $0.17 billion $0.25 billion Total spending in the City of Boston $0.68 billion $0.59 billion * 22 % of budget Deviant behavior by Boston’s juvenile and adult population is a significant social problem. Substance abuse is highly prevalent: among Boston youth, approximately one-in-five will have taken an illicit drug within the last month and these youth are one-in-six of all hospital discharges for opioid dependence. Juveniles commit one-in-six violent crimes and over one-in-five of all property crimes...

4. Causal inference from randomized trials in social epidemiology - Jay S. Kaufmana; Sol Kaufmanc; Charles Poolea
Social epidemiology is the study of relations between social factors and health status in populations. Although recent decades have witnessed a rapid development of this research program in scope and sophistication, causal inference has proven to be a persistent dilemma due to the natural assignment of exposure level based on unmeasured attributes of individuals, which may lead to substantial confounding. Some optimism has been expressed about randomized social interventions as a solution to this long-standing inferential problem. We review the causal inference problem in social epidemiology, and the potential for causal inference in randomized social interventions. Using the example of...

5. Generational Policy and the Macroeconomic Measurement of Tax - Juan Carlos Conesa; Carlos Garriga; Juan Carlos Conesa; Carlos Garriga
In this paper we show that the generational accounting framework used in macroeconomics to measure tax incidence can, in some cases, yield inaccurate measurements of the tax burden across age cohorts. This result is very important for policy evaluation, because it shows that the selection of tax policies designed to change generational imbalances could be misleading. We illustrate this problem in the context of a Social Security reform where we show how fiscal policy can affect the intergenerational gap across cohorts without impacting the distribution of welfare. We provide a more accurate procedure that only measures changes in generational imbalances...

6. 1 How Chemical Pollution Becomes a Social Problem. Risk Communication and Assessment through Regional Newspapers During the Management of PCB Pollutions of the Rhône River (France). - Emeline Comby; Yves-françois Le; Lay Hervé Piégay
The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data...

7. Loss of Control, Attributions, and Helplessness in the Homeless - Shawn M. Burn
Control has emerged as an important psychological variable. The purpose of this project was to extend the concept of environmental control to the homeless shelter environment. Data from interviews conducted with residents of a homeless shelter supported the hypothesis that perceived loss of control over the shelter environment would be positively related to giving up on finding a home and employment. The hypothesis that the helplessness created by low control environments is consistent with the external, stable attributional style of "universal " helplessness was partially supported. Suggestions for future research are provided. Changes in the shelter environment are recommended for...

In order to achieve a balance of socioeconomic development between the East and West in the new century, the Chinese government launched “the national strategy of devel-oping the West ” in 1999. This strategy is also a part of the governmental plan to pro-mote “domestic needs ” as a motor to continual economic growth by huge investment in infrastructure in the West. However, because of the impact of a traditional planning economy and the low quality of the local labor force, this strategy also leads to competi-tion between local laborers and in-migrants. The indigenous ethnic minorities in the West will...

9. Co-Editors - F. H. Eduardo; Almeida Acosta; Guillermo Hinojosa Rivero; Oscar Soto Badillo; Gonzalo Inguanzo Arteaga; María Eugenia; Sánchez Díaz Rivera; Covadonga Cuétara Priede; Psicología Comunitaria Internacional; Aproximaciones Comunitarias A Los Problemas; Sociales Contemporáneos Volumen I; Ricardo Escárcega Méndez; Susana Plouganou Boiza; Monserrat Torrejón Machoro
UNIVERSIDAD IBEROAMERICANA PUEBLA Puebla, México. 2011 2 Almeida, Eduardo. Editor International Community Psychology: Community Approaches to Contemporaty Social Problems. Volume I. I. t. Copyright © 2011 by Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla. All Rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of the editor. ISBN: Published by:

10. Social Skills Training with Children andYoungPeople:Theory, Evidence and Practice - Susan H. Spence
Deficits in social skills and social competence play a significant role in the development and maintenance of many emotional and behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence. Social skills training (SST) aims to increase the ability to perform key social behaviours that are important in achieving success in social situa-tions. Behavioural SST methods include instructions, modelling, behaviour rehearsal, feedback and rein-forcement, frequently used in association with interpersonal problem solving and social perception skills training. Effective change in social behaviour also requires interventions that reduce inhibiting and competing behaviours, such as cognitive restructuring, self- and emotional-regulation methods and contingency man-agement. Research suggests...

11. Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective - Jeffrey Arnett
A developmental theory of reckless behavior among adolescents is presented, in which sensation seeking and adolescent egocentrism are especially prominent factors. Findings from studies of automobile driving, sex without contraception, illegal drug use, and minor criminal activity are presented in evidence of this. The influence of peers is then discussed and reinterpreted in the light of sensation seeking and adolescent egocentrism. Socialization influences are considered in interaction with sensation seeking and adolescent egocentrism, and the terms narrow and broad socialization are introduced. Factors that may be respon-sible for the decline of reckless behavior with age are discussed. © 1992 Academic...

12. Propagation Aspects in Vehicular Networks - Lorenzo Rubio; Juan Reig; Herman Fernández
Traffic accidents have become an important health and social problem due to the enormous number of fatalities and injuries. The total number of deaths and injuries in the European Union (EU), United States of America (USA) and Japan has been steadily reduced over the last decade. This reduction is mainly attributed to the implementation of a set of road safety

13. Corso di Laurea Specialistica in Ingegneria Informatica Computer Viruses and the Simulation Environment WiCE - Relatore Studente; Prof Alberto; Pettorossi Fernando Iazeolla; Anno Accademico
There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many personal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed computing environment. However, only recently some scientists have begun to ask if computer viruses are not a form of artificial life; a self-replicating organism. Simply because computer viruses do not exist as organic molecules may not be sufficient reason to dismiss the classification...

14. Participatory sensemaking: An enactive approach to social cognition - Hanne De Jaegher; Ezequiel Di Paolo
Abstract As yet, there is no enactive account of social cognition. This paper extends the enactive concept of sense-making into the social domain. It takes as its departure point the process of interaction between individuals in a social encounter. It is a well-established finding that individuals can and generally do coordinate their movements and utterances in such situations. We argue that the interaction process can take on a form of autonomy. This allows us to reframe the problem of social cognition as that of how meaning is generated and transformed in the interplay between the unfolding interaction process and the...

15. $rec.titulo
Influenza constitutes a serious problem for healthcare and social services worldwide, owing to its pattern of recurrent epidemics and pandemics and the severity of its complications in some categories of subjects at risk,

16. Determination of Social Laws for Multi-Agent Mobilization - Shmuel Onn; Moshe Tennenholtz
In previous work on artificial social systems, social laws for multi-agent mobilization were hand-crafted for particular network structures. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for the automatic synthesis of social laws for multi-agent mobilization in any 2-connected graph environment. We introduce the notion of a graph routing and show that the problem of computing a useful social law can be reduced to that of finding a routing in a graph. Then we show that any given 2-connected graph has a routing which can be efficiently constructed, yielding the desired social law for multi-agent mobilization on the given graph.

17. Moderate Aerobic Exercise, T’ai Chi, and Social Problem-Solving Ability in Relation to Psychological Stress - Dale S. Bond; Roseann M. Lyle; Roger S. Seehafer; Thomas J. D’zurilla
This study evaluated the importance of exercise mode, social problem-solving ability, gender, and age in relation to anxiety and perceived daily hassles. Adult participants were classified as moderate aerobic exercisers, T’ai Chi exercisers, or sedentary via completion of a questionnaire. Social problem-solving ability, state and trait anxiety, and frequency and severity of daily hassles were mea-sured. As predicted, scores indicating effective social problem-solving ability were associated with fewer reported severe daily hassles and with lower scores on state and trait anxiety. For state and trait anxiety, a main effect of exercise mode emerged after age and gender were controlled. A...

18. SUMMARY - Tomas Eriksson; Tom Ritchey
Morphological analysis (MA) is a non-quantified modelling method for structuring and analysing technical, organisational and social problem complexes. It is well suited for developing scenarios, and the method is highly appropriate for complex cases where expertise from several areas is required. It is also useful for developing and relating operational and tactical scenarios to force requirements. Using MA for problem solving or scenario generation typically involves workshop sessions supported by a computer tool. MA/Casper (Computer Aided Scenario and Problem Evaluation Routine) was developed at the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) by Dr. Tom Ritchey in order to support MA work....

19. Utrecht University - Brad J. Bushman; Angelica M. Bonacci; Mirjam Van Dijk; Roy F. Baumeister
Laboratory analog studies investigated the theory that narcissism and reactance contribute to causing rape. In Study 1, narcissism correlated positively with rape-supportive beliefs and negatively with empathy for rape victims. In Study 2, narcissists reported more enjoyment than other men of film depictions that presented consensual, affectionate activity followed by rape (but not in response to either affection or rape alone). In Study 3, narcissists were more punitive than other men toward a female confederate who refused to read a sexually arousing passage aloud to them. Rape and sexual coercion are widely recognized as a serious social problem and a...

20. Somatisation : The concept and its clinical application - Z. J. Lipowski; F. R. C. P. (c; A Historical Perspective
Somatization, a tendency to experience and commu-nicate somatic distress in response to psychosocial stress and to seek medical help for it, poses a major medical, social, and economic problem. It is most of-ten associated with depressive and anxiety disorders and constitutes the core of somatoform disorders. Its persistent form is especially costly and difficult to pre-vent and manage. The author discusses the prevalence, clinical manifestations, etiology, and treatment of so-matization and presents a critical review of somato-f orm disorders. (Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145:1358-1368) Among the phenomena which attest the various influ-ence of the mind on bodily organs, has sufficient...

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