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Nomenclatura Unesco > (63) Sociología > (6310) Problemas sociales
(6310.01) Crimen (6310.02) Delincuencia
(6310.03) Enfermedad (6310.04) Hambre
(6310.05) Minusválidos (6310.06) Relaciones inter-raciales
(6310.07) Inadaptados (6310.08) Pobreza
(6310.09) Calidad de vida (6310.10) Conflicto social y adaptación
(6310.11) Bienestar social (6310.12) Nivel de vida
(6310.13) Terrorismo (6310.14) Desempleo
(6310.99) Otras (especificar)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 8,882

1. Semantic Annotation of Mobility Data using Social Media
Recent developments in sensors, GPS and smart phones have provided us with a large amount of mobility data. At the same time, large-scale crowd-generated social media data, such as geo-tagged tweets, provide rich semantic informa-tion about locations and events. Combining the mobility data and surrounding social media data enables us to se-mantically understand why a person travels to a location at a particular time (e.g., attending a local event or visiting a point of interest). Previous research on mobility data min-ing has been mainly focused on mining patterns using only the mobility data. In this paper, we study the problem...

2. Conjugal violence - Simona Mihaiu; Simona Mihaiu
Scientific knowledge of different aspects related to conjugal violence is highly important for people directly involved, such as researchers, practitioners and the entire society. In this respect, globally, specialised studies continue to advance, offer correct definitions, clear descriptions, convincing assessments to certain issues, encouraging thus long-term research, since some specialists have managed to overcome restrictive or ideological methods and explanations. Moreover, in practice, debates reach almost all social, political and legal dimensions regarding appropriate and efficient forms of preventing conjugal violence. Unfortunately, in Romania there are fewer research and prevention approaches of this social problem. In general, attention is directed...

3. AExtracting City Traffic Events from Social Streams - Pramod Anantharam; Payam Barnaghi
Cities are composed of complex systems with physical, cyber, and social components. Current works on ex-tracting and understanding city events mainly rely on technology enabled infrastructure to observe and record events. In this work, we propose an approach to leverage citizen observations of various city systems and services such as traffic, public transport, water supply, weather, sewage, and public safety as a source of city events. We investigate the feasibility of using such textual streams for extracting city events from annotated text. We formalize the problem of annotating social streams such as microblogs as a sequence labeling problem. We present...

4. An Insider Threat Neutralisation Mitigation model predicated on Cognitive Dissonance (ITNMCD) - Keshnee Padayachee
The insider threat concern is a complex issue, as the problem domain intersects the social, technical and socio-technical dimensions. Consequently, counteracting the insider threat involves influencing the insider’s perceptions and behaviour in order to ensure compliance. When an individual’s actions and beliefs are incongruent, this induces a phenomenon known as cognitive dissonance. In order to reduce this dissonance, individuals are self-motivated either to change their behaviours or beliefs, or to rationalize their behaviour. Neutralisation is a technique used by criminals to rationalize maleficence. In terms of the insider threat, it has been proposed that if the rationalisations for committing an...

5. Movementrelevant Theory: Rethinking Social Movement Scholarship and Activism - Douglas Bevington; Chris Dixon
ABSTRACT The dominant American social movement scholarship has become detached from the concerns of actual social movements. But the dramatic growth of social movement activity in recent years, especially the global justice movement, is creating the conditions for an emerging new direction in social movement scholarship which prioritizes the relevance of such work to the movements themselves. A problem in the current social movement literature is that the different schools of thought tend to overemphasize particular variables and pit them against one another. Rather than simply seeking to emphasize a different variable in the lifecycle of a social movement, a...

6. Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real: Anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race - Audrey Smedley; Brian D. Smedley
Racialized science seeks to explain human population dif-ferences in health, intelligence, education, and wealth as the consequence of immutable, biologically based differ-ences between “racial ” groups. Recent advances in the sequencing of the human genome and in an understanding of biological correlates of behavior have fueled racialized science, despite evidence that racial groups are not genet-ically discrete, reliably measured, or scientifically mean-ingful. Yet even these counterarguments often fail to take into account the origin and history of the idea of race. This article reviews the origins of the concept of race, placing the contemporary discussion of racial differences in an...

7. El Coste de Cuidar desde una Perspectiva de Género: Proceso Emocional de Personas Cuidadoras de Familiares Dependientes. - Brea Ruiz, María Teresa
El cuidado, ha sido asumido tradicionalmente y en la mayoría de las culturas como un rol ligado a las mujeres. Pero, a pesar de la importancia para la humanidad, el androcentrismo de nuestras sociedades ha contribuido a la invisibilidad y desvalorización del cuidado prestado por las mujeres. Hoy en día, en nuestro medio, el cuidado se empieza a valorar y las instituciones empiezan a ser conscientes de su importancia. Sería imposible para un estado, y más en época de crisis económica, el asumir los cuidados de poblaciones envejecidas como la europea. Las personas cuidadoras de familiares dependientes, soportan una gran carga...

8. Underweight, overweight and obesity among a Piedmont (Northern Italy) children sample - M. Micheletti Cremasco; A. Lorè; F. Zanon; E. Fubini
The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M.) [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in chilhood, is an emergent social problem that can produce adverse health effects in adulthood. It...

9. <><£O<><S><><<><><i*£><><X><>C><><><^^ Cultural LITERATURE
X unusually rich in books of overt Jewish interest1 and concern. The scope of these books was remarkably broad, ranging from philosophy to Jewish cookery. By and large, writers seemed during this period to deal with the Jew as a historical and cultural phenomenon rather than as a social or political problem, as a unique being rather than as the archetype of the victims of persecution or prejudice. The tone of the period was, in general, more contemplative than polemical. Nevertheless, easy stereotypes of the Jew continued to furnish a substitute for creative interpretation to less gifted novelists who utilized...

10. Medo e vergonha como barreiras para superar a violência doméstica de gênero - Terra, Maria Fernanda; d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Schraiber, Lilia Blima
The objective is to understand – by means of the vulnerability concept – how the feelings of fear and shame associated with violent situations have an impact on the possibilities of women overcoming gender-based domestic violence. Although these feelings are considered a problem and are expressed according to each woman’s personal viewpoint, this article argues that the relationship between them and gender-based domestic violence is not an individual problem; rather it is a social and cultural violation of human rights. Based on sixteen interviews with women with a history of domestic violence, the vulnerability concept was used to analyse the...

11. El Principio Socioantrópico: La conexión libertad-determinismo y una nueva estructura explicativa para las ciencias sociales - Gibert Galassi, Jorge
My purpose is to postulate a principle, which I call “socioantropic”, that can connect in a proper way two historically antithetical notions: free will and determinism in the social word. The main consequence of this is the establishment of a new kind of explanatory structure more in keeping with the special nature of the social sciences. To this end, I shall reconstruct the conventional structure of deductive-nomological explanations, exposing its shortcomings in relation to the social sciences, and hence I shall formulate a proposal for the theoretical resolution of the problem of explanation in the social world.

12. Necesidades sociales, políticas, educativas: una visión desde el contexto universitario en Venezuela - Pinto, Nora; Girón, Gladys; Mac-Lellan Villegas, Wilmarys
The research aimed to analyze from conception or vision of Venezuelan university context the social, political and educational. Methodologically, the study was based on a desk research was used for data analysis and deductive critical-reflective, methods for data collection techniques from the literature review, the signing and the underscore, as instruments addressed bibliographic records collection. We conclude that today in the XXI Century, a proposed University covering educational, economic and social needs should be based on the formation of university graduates to meet the demands of the productive sector to the collective welfare. It is for this reason that the university in Venezuela has a laudable mission of...

13. Interview by author - George F R Ellis; Cape Town; South Africa
This paper explores the functional and structural context for the emergence of language. The purpose of it all is prediction and problem solving in the social and ecological context. Crucial features of language include its indexical nature, its modular hierarchical structure, and its embodiment of recursion. Its implementation is enabled by the combination of bottom-up and top-down causation in the brain, which affects the way language is produced, received, and learnt. Language arises through an evolutionary process of development of motivational modules (primary emotions) that then motivate language development and usage, plus intellectual development of symbolic capacities, constrained by essential...

14. Estrategias de afrontamiento y personalidad en la adaptación de jóvenes a su práctica deportiva. Diferencias de género - González Ravé, José María; Martínez Sandoval, J.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study is finding coping strategy signs in a young people sample, differentiating on gender, age, and regular physical activity. The sample is composed by young people (N=119) aged between 11 and 19, administering questionaires of personality measure (NEO-FFI) and coping (CSI). The results show that boys have a higher average in appropriate and inappropriate coping strategies. Also, they scored higher in self-criticism, social support, cognitive restructuring, problem avoidance and social withdrawal, while girls scored higher in problem solving, wishful thinking and emotional expression.

15. El serial televisivo catalán como propuesta discursiva de temas de interés social: El cor de la ciutat (Televisió de Catalunya, 2000-2009) - Gómez Puertas, Lorena
1. Antecedentes: Desde la perspectiva interpretativa, la ficción televisiva, como un estatuto de la realidad, superpuesto y en interacción con el mundo de la vida cotidiana, constituye el bardo moderno con el que domesticamos lo imprevisto. Su contribución al mantenimiento de la comunidad integra la promoción del cambio social cuando articula problemas vigentes en marcos de experiencia consolidados. Si bien es comúnmente aceptado que el repertorio de social issues introducidos por la ficción parte de su referencia en el contexto social y mediático (especialmente informativo), desde esta perspectiva, la tipificación de la naturaleza del problema es parte integral de su construcción....

16. La salud hacia el año 2000: un desafío para todos - Girón Sierra, José Antonio

17. INDIAN PEDIATRICS 469 VOLUME 52__JUNE 15, 2015 Undesirable Effects of Media on Children: Why Limitation is Necessary? - Aysu Turkmen Karaagac
Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance...

Este artículo presenta un estudio sobre el uso de exergames en prácticas estructuradas en clases de Educación Física con estudiantes que generalmente presentan señales de insatisfacción frente a las actividades deportivas propuestas en las clases regulares de la asignatura. Mientras los videojuegos han sido históricamente asociados a problemas como obesidad e introversión social, los exergames han traído una nueva perspectiva para esos artefactos culturales. Veinticuatro alumnos entre ocho y catorce años de edad han participado en este estudio, desarrollado en un laboratorio organizado en una escuela en el sur de Brasil. Los estudiantes fueron observados y sus profesores de Educación...

The problem of social exclusion is a central concern within the European Union, it is a key term in the policies of New Labour and, although less frequently used in North America, parallel discourses are present in the major arenas of social policy. It is a term which is flexible and somewhat amorphous in use, yet there are core features which separate it out from previous notions such as poverty or marginalisation. Firstly, it is multi-dimensional: social exclusion can involve economic, political, and spatial exclusion as well as lack of access to specific areas such as information, medical provision, housing,...

20. Women, Intangible Heritage and Development In the Arab World
INTRODUCTION: An overview of the Arab World as a cultural / social context for problem formulation “women, intangible heritage and development”

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